Wednesday, November 15, 2017

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1 Wednesday, November 15, 2017 Northern Europe: Physical Geography Objective: Locate and describe the various traditional regions of Western Europe. Outline how the physical geography varies from region to region. Objective: complete Warm-Up, write outline notes and view Geography Now: Denmark. Do Now: How many credits do you need to graduate? What career endorsement are you following? Fjord a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs, as in Norway and Iceland, typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley. Arctic Circle- one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.(66 N)

2 Physical Geography of Northern Europe Landforms Glaciation has been the primary process by which the landforms of Northern Europe came to be as they are today. During the last ice age, the process of glaciation scoured the land and shaped the landforms. Ice filled the valleys and carved out long, narrow, steep-sided fjords (fee AWRDS) that are now filled with seawater. The ice that covered Northern Europe during the last ice age was over one mile thicc. It was so heavy that it pressed the land down into the Earth s mantle. Over time, as the ice melted and lessened the weight on the land beneath, the land began to rise in a process called continental rebound.

3 Interactive #1

4 Physical Geography of Northern Europe Landforms Pt. 2 Northern Europe is made up of five countries: Norway and Sweden on the Scandinavian Peninsula, Denmark on the Jutland Peninsula, Finland in the eastern part of the region, and the island country of Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean. Most of Norway and northern Sweden are mountainous, but in southern Sweden lowlands slope gently to the Baltic Sea. Glaciers from the last ice age left behind thousands of sparkling lakes in these two countries as well as in Finland. Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean that constitutes the northernmost part of Norway. The landforms of Svalbard were created through repeated ice ages and the folding and faulting due to continental drift and plate tectonics.

5 Physical Geography of Northern Europe Landforms Pt. 3 Although considered to be a European country, Iceland sits partly on ocean crust shared with the North American continent, as it straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates. The tectonic activity caused by these plates separating is the source of the abundant geothermal energy in the region. Glaciers cover roughly 11 percent of the island. The largest, Vatnajökull, is nearly 1,300 feet (400 m) thicc and covers about 8 percent of the island. It is by far the largest glacier in Europe. The word geyser is derived from a geyser in Iceland named Geysir.

6 Physical Geography of Northern Europe Water Systems Glaciation left hundreds of thousands of lakes in Northern Europe. Iceland s rivers consist of glacial debris, making them cloudy. Many of the rivers of the Scandinavian Peninsula are short and do NOT provide easy connections between cities. These rivers mostly flow toward the southeast with many falls and rapids, eventually emptying into the Gulf of Bothnia or the Baltic Sea. The countries of Northern Europe harness the power of these falls and rapids to run hydroelectric power plants.

7 Physical Geography of Northern Europe Climate Regions and Biomes The climate patterns and biomes of Northern Europe are affected by latitude, landforms, wind patterns, ocean currents, and distance from water. In Iceland, the Gulf Stream creates a mild climate even though the country is located in higher latitudes. Due to dry conditions, poor soil quality, extremely cold temperatures, and frozen ground, vegetation in this climate is limited. Arctic tundra plants must adapt to the short, cold growing seasons. The frozen ground prevents plants with deep roots, like trees, from growing. Animals in the alpine zone migrate to lower elevations in the winter to escape the cold and find food.

8 Physical Geography of Northern Europe LEGO Land Finland s peat deposits cover nearly one-third of the country. Peat is vegetable matter found in swamps. It is dug up, chopped into blocks, and dried so it can be burned. Norway is one of the world s leading producers of hydroelectric power. Norway is also Europe s largest oil producer and the world s second-largest natural gas exporter. Other European countries rely on Norway as an important supplier of both sources of fuel. Denmark also has oil and natural gas, but renewable wind energy is its most important energy source. Denmark ranks number one in the world for electricity generated from renewable sources. The world famous LEGOS are made in Denmark.

9 Anomalies and Other Stuff Aurora Borealis The Northern Lights (also called Aurora Borealis) stem from when large numbers of electrons stream in towards the Earth along its magnetic field and collide with air particles. The air then lights up rather like what happens in a fluorescent light tube. The resulting colors of the Northern Lights reflect gases we find up there. The charged particles originate from the sun, and the weather conditions on the sun decide whether or not we will see the aurora. The Northern Lights can be viewed from other northern locations as well, but the northern half of Norway and Sweden, as well as all of Iceland, are famous for having "the best seats" for viewing the Aurora Borealis.

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