Developed in Consultation with Florida Educators

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1 Developed in Consultation with Florida Educators

2 Table of Contents Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7 Benchmarks Chapter 1 The Practice of Science Lesson 1 Scientific Investigation SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.1.3, Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 SC.6.N.1.5 Designing and Conducting an Experiment SC.6.N.1.1, SC.6.N.1.2, SC.6.N.1.4 Organizing and Analyzing Data SC.6.N.1.1 Scientific Knowledge SC.6.N.2.1, SC.6.N.2.2, SC.6.N.2.3 Scientific Theories and Laws SC.6.N.3.1, SC.6.N.3.2, SC.6.N.3.3 Lesson 6 Using Models in Science SC.6.N.3.4 Chapter 1 Review Chapter 2 Earth s Structures and Systems Lesson 7 Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition SC.6.E.6.1 Lesson 8 Florida s Landforms SC.6.E.6.2 Lesson 9 Heat Transfer through Earth s System SC.6.E.7.1, SC.6.E.7.4 Lesson 10 The Water Cycle, Weather, and Climate SC.6.E.7.2, SC.6.E.7.4, SC.6.E.7.5, SC.6.E.7.6 Lesson 11 Measuring Weather Conditions SC.6.E.7.3 Lesson 12 Winds SC.6.E.7.3, SC.6.E.7.4, SC.6.E.7.5 Lesson 13 Ocean Currents SC.6.E.7.3, SC.6.E.7.4 Lesson 14 Earth s Atmosphere SC.6.E.7.8, SC.6.E.7.9 Lesson 15 Natural Disasters SC.6.E.7.7, SC.6.E.7.8 Chapter 2 Review Chapter 3 Energy, Forces, and Motion Lesson 16 Potential and Kinetic Energy SC.6.P.11.1 Lesson 17 Measuring and Graphing Speed SC.6.P.12.1 Lesson 18 Forces SC.6.P.13.1 Lesson 19 Gravity SC.6.P.13.1, SC.6.P.13.2 Lesson 20 How Forces Change Motion SC.6.P.13.3 Chapter 3 Review

3 Benchmarks Chapter 4 Living Things Lesson 21 Cell Theory SC.6.L.14.2, SC.6.L.14.3 Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Comparing Plant and Animal Cells SC.6.L.14.4 The Organization of Living Things SC.6.L.14.1 Human Body Systems SC.6.L.14.5 Organisms That Infect the Human Body SC.6.L.14.6 Classifying Living Things SC.6.L.15.1 Chapter 4 Review Investigations Investigation 1 Modeling the Water Cycle Investigation 2 Examining Cells Glossary

4 Chapter 2 Lesson 8 Florida s Landforms Standard: SC.6.E.6.2 Key Words landform coastline wetland Getting the Idea You have probably learned about Florida s manatees, palm trees, and beaches. But you may not know that Florida has a variety of different landforms. In this lesson, you will learn about some of the landforms that can be found in your state. Landform Regions Remember that a landform is a feature of Earth s surface. Florida is a peninsula, a long area of land area almost surrounded by water. Florida may not have glaciers or mountains, but it does have many other landforms. Florida can be divided into four main landform regions: the coastal plains, the uplands, the Everglades, and the Florida Keys. Western Uplands Apalachicola River Suwannee River St. Johns River Apalachee Bay Coastal Coastal Florida Central Uplands Plains Cape Canaveral Gulf of Mexico N S 60 mi 60 km Plains Big Cypress Swamp Florida Bay The Everglades Florida Keys Lake Okeechobee 55

5 The Coastal Plains A wide, flat area of land is called a plain. One type of plain is a coastal plain, which is found along a coastline. A coastline, or shoreline, is the place where land meets a large body of water such as an ocean. A low area of land called the Atlantic Coastal Plain stretches all along the east coast of the United States, from Massachusetts to Florida. This landform region covers the entire eastern part of Florida. The Gulf Coastal Plain is on the west side of the Florida Peninsula, next to the Gulf of Mexico. A gulf is a large part of an ocean partly surrounded by land. Florida s coastal plains are low and level. There are no glaciers in Florida, but glaciers have helped shape Florida s coastal plains. Thousands of years ago, much of Earth s water was frozen in glaciers. The water level along Florida s coastline was more than 100 meters lower than it is today. The glaciers melted and froze many times. Each time the glaciers melted, the water rose and spread over the land. This flooding of the coastal plains changed the land. The land was smoothed by erosion and deposition caused by the moving water. Once the glaciers melted, the water stopped rising. Moving ocean water, wind, and rivers picked up and deposited sand along the coast. This created the coastline of Florida with its many beaches. Wind deposition has formed dunes along Florida s shores. Some other features along the shoreline include bays, capes, and islands. A bay is part of an ocean or lake that is partly surrounded by land. A cape is a section of land that extends out into a large body of water. There are several capes along Florida s coastal plains, including Cape Canaveral. Ocean waves can drop sediment near the shoreline to form islands. A barrier island is a long, narrow island along the coast. Barrier islands form when waves drop sand and it piles up, rising above the ocean surface. These islands act like a shield between the coast and the ocean. They protect the land behind them from erosion by storm waves. The Uplands The uplands region of Florida is an area of rolling hills. Shorter than a mountain, a hill is a high, rounded area of land. Uplands are found in northern Florida and extend south through the middle the Florida peninsula. The hills started out as a raised land area that was formed by movements of Earth s surface millions of years ago. Erosion by water and wind cut channels into the raised area, leaving hills and valleys. There are no mountains in Florida. The highest point in the state is Britton Hill, in the Florida panhandle. It is only 105 meters (345 feet) above sea level. 56 Chapter 2: Earth s Structures and Systems

6 Lesson 8: Florida s Landforms Once the channels formed, rivers began to form. Many of Florida s rivers begin in the hills and flow across the coastal plains. Some, like the Suwannee River and the Apalachicola River, begin in other states and flow into the Gulf of Mexico. The Apalachicola River forms a delta where it meets the Gulf of Mexico. Other rivers, such as the St. Johns River, begin in the middle of the state and flow to the Atlantic Ocean. The St. Johns River flows so slowly that it spreads over a wide area of land in many places. As these rivers flow, they cause both erosion and deposition along the way. There are many lakes throughout Florida, especially in the uplands. Lake Okeechobee is the largest lake in Florida. The Everglades The Everglades is a unique and very wet landform region. It contains many wetlands. A wetland is a low area of land that is covered with shallow water for all or part of the year. Wetlands are home to a variety of plants and animals. Wetlands cover much of southern Florida and include the Everglades National Park and Big Cypress Swamp. A swamp is a warm wetland in which trees grow. The Everglades contains thousands of tiny islands. Here the water flows very slowly and can be fresh, salty, or both. The Keys The Florida Keys are a chain of about 1,700 small islands off the southern tip of Florida. These islands were once living coral. As the glaciers grew and the ocean level dropped, the coral died. Over time, the remains of the coral formed the islands. Discussion Question Which landform region do you live in? What types of landforms are in your area? Lesson Review 1. The Florida keys are A. dunes. B. rivers. C. swamps. D. islands. 57

7 2. Which landform region in Florida is made up of rolling hills? A. the Everglades B. the coastal plains C. the uplands D. the Keys 3. Which would you not expect to find in a swamp? A. water B. dunes C. plants D. islands 4. Which best describes a plain? A. an area of land surrounded by water B. a high, rolling area of land C. a place where land meets an ocean D. a wide, flat area of land 58 Chapter 2: Earth s Structures and Systems

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