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1 Raw Score: Rank: School: Team Number: Names: Boyceville Invitational, December 2, 2017 Dynamic Planet Plate Tectonics and Geographical Impacts Do NOT open the test until instructed to do so Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

2 Stages from a supercontinent cycle are shown. Match them with the six ocean stages below: 1. Embryonic 2. Young 3. Mature 4. Declining 5. Terminal 6. Suturing The following geological features are good examples of the stages above. Match the letter with the feature: 7. Atlantic Ocean 8. Great East African Rift Valley 9. India Plate & the Himalayas 10. Mediterranean & Black Seas 11. Pacific Ocean 12. Red Sea Historical Event & Scientist Matching Letter Scientist 13. Originated the supercontinent cycle discussed above A. Harry Hess 14. Proposed continental drift B. James Hutton 15. Created a detailed bathymetric map of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge C. Marie Tharp 16. Advanced the theory of sea-floor spreading D. Frederick Vine & Drummond Mathews 17. Confirmed sea-floor spreading by analyzing magnetic anomalies E. Alfred Wegener 18. Advanced uniformitarianism; the father of modern geology F. John Wilson

3 X & Y represent oceanic crust; W & Z represent continental crust. 19. How many tectonic plates are represented here? 20. Which crusts (W-Z) would you expect to be mafic or basaltic? 21. Which crusts (W-Z) would you expect to be more felsic or granitic? A-G represent different locations. Match the geographical features with the letter (A-G) that is the closest. 22. Tectonic boundary where crust would be destroyed? 23. Tectonic boundary where crust would be created? 24. Continental volcanic arc? 25. Andesitic composite volcano? 26. Normal faults? 27. Strike-slip faults? 28. Megathrust faults? 29. Marine trench? 30. Mid-ocean ridge? 31. Passive continental margin? 32. Appalachian Mountains? 33. Retro-arc foreland basin?

4 Match the letter (A I) with the type of region, and the number (#1-13) of the best possible region: Type of Region Letter Number 34. Continental divergent plate boundary 35. Continental hot spot 36. Continent-continent convergent plate boundary 37. Ocean-continent convergent plate boundary 38. Ocean-ocean convergent plate boundary 39. Oceanic divergent plate boundary 40. Oceanic nematath (hot spot track) 41. Oceanic ridge transform fault 42. Transform plate boundary

5 43. Put letters (A E, I, J, K, & M) AND the unconformities (U1 & U2) in order from oldest to youngest. 44. What type of unconformity is U1? 45. What type of unconformity is U2? 46. If M occurred before the tilting of layers A-E, what type of fault is it? 47. If M occurred after the tilting of layers A-E, what type of fault is it? 48. The observation that the past history of Earth can be explained by present-day processes is (circle letter): A. the principle of cross-cutting relations B. the principle of uniformitarianism C. the principle of original horizontality D. the principle of superposition E. All of the above

6 49. Which of the two main ocean ridges on Earth is separating the fastest? 50. New York City will be one meter farther from the west coast of Africa in how many years (circle)? a) 4 b) 40 c) 400 d) 4,000 e) 40,000 f) 400,000 g) 4,000, Which belt (circle: Circum-Pacific or Alpine-Himalayan) accounts for ~80% of major earthquakes? 52. Which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic) has the highest melting temperature? 53. Which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic) most likely produces pyroclastic flow and tephra? 54. Shield volcanoes are usually composed of which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 55. Cinder cone volcanoes are usually composed of which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 56. Composite volcanoes are usually which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 57. Ninety percent of Earth s lava is (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 58. Name one of the largest flood basalt events, which may have caused the Great Dying. The diagram shows various locations where partial melting occurs. 59. Circle the type of melting AND the type of magma produced. A? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) B? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) C? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) 60. In partial melting, the magma is (circle: less felsic, more felsic, or the same composition) compared to the rock. 61. What is the name of the supervolcano in the U.S.? 62. In what state of the U.S. has a volcano erupted in the last few years? 63. What is the world s largest volcano that makes contact with the atmosphere? 64. What was the most destructive volcanic eruption in U.S. history (1980)?

7 Match the fault below with the best letter (A-F): 65. Normal 66. Reverse 67. Thrust 68. Megathrust 69. Right-lateral strike slip 70. Left-lateral strike slip Match the volcanoes below with the best letter (G-M): 71. Cinder Cone 72. Composite 73. Fissure Eruption 74. Flank Eruption 75. Flood Basalt Province 76. Pyroclastic Eruption 77. Shield 78. Match the four largest earthquakes since 1960 with their locations. Year M Deaths Letter? Location ,000 A. Anchorage, Alaska, U.S ,000 B. Sumatra, Indonesia C. Tohoku, Japan ,000 D. Valdivia, Chile

8 79. Match the letters with the orogenesis type and specific mountain ranges below. Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Type Letter Specific Mountain Ranges Letter Alpine Type (Continental Suturing) Alleghenian Orogeny (Appalachians) Collision and Accretion Island Arc Low-angle Subduction Continental Volcanic Arc Coast Range Terranes in Alaska & Canada Japan & Philippines Laramide Orogeny (Rocky Mountains) Sierra Nevadan Orogeny Andes Trans-Hudson Orogeny (ca 2.0 Ga) Grenville Orogeny (Rodinia; ca 1.0 Ga) 80. What type of crustal deformation (elastic, ductile, or brittle) is: A? B? C?

9 81. Match the letter (A-F) from the drawing at right: Anticline Horst Monocline Graben Half-graben Syncline Match the letter (G-L) from the drawing below right: 82. Back-arc basin 83. Forearc basin 84. Pull-apart basin 85. Retroarc foreland basin 86. Rift basin 87. Trench basin Match the letter (G-L) with the best specific examples: 88. Central Valley (California) 89. Dead Sea (Israel) 90. Franciscan Assemblage (California) 91. Newark Basin (New Jersey) 92. Sea of Japan 93. Western Brazil

10

11 Total Points: 141 Raw Score: 1 st, 2 nd, & 3 rd Tie-breakers: #90, 89, & 88 Rank: School: Team Number: Names: Boyceville Invitational, December 2, 2017 Dynamic Planet Plate Tectonics and Geographical Impacts Do NOT open the test until instructed to do so Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

12 Stages from a supercontinent cycle are shown. Match them with the six ocean stages below: 1. Embryonic E 2. Young F 3. Mature A 4. Declining B 5. Terminal D 6. Suturing C The following geological features are good examples of the stages above. Match the letter with the feature: 7. Atlantic Ocean A 8. Great East African Rift Valley E 9. India Plate & the Himalayas C 10. Mediterranean & Black Seas D 11. Pacific Ocean B 12. Red Sea F 18 Points Historical Event & Scientist Matching Letter Scientist 13. Originated the supercontinent cycle discussed above F A. Harry Hess 14. Proposed continental drift E B. James Hutton 15. Created a detailed bathymetric map of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge C C. Marie Tharp 16. Advanced the theory of sea-floor spreading A D. Frederick Vine & Drummond Mathews 17. Confirmed sea-floor spreading by analyzing magnetic anomalies D E. Alfred Wegener 18. Advanced uniformitarianism; the father of modern geology B F. John Wilson

13 X & Y represent oceanic crust; W & Z represent continental crust. 19. How many tectonic plates are represented here? Which crusts (W-Z) would you expect to be mafic or basaltic? X & Y (2 points) 21. Which crusts (W-Z) would you expect to be more felsic or granitic? W & Z (2 points) A-G represent different locations. Match the geographical features with the letter (A-G) that is the closest. 22. Tectonic boundary where crust would be destroyed? E 23. Tectonic boundary where crust would be created? D 24. Continental volcanic arc? F 25. Andesitic composite volcano? F 26. Normal faults? D 27. Strike-slip faults? C 28. Megathrust faults? E 29. Marine trench? E 30. Mid-ocean ridge? D 31. Passive continental margin? B 32. Appalachian Mountains? A 33. Retro-arc foreland basin? G 17 Points

14 Match the letter (A I) with the type of region, and the number (#1-13) of the best possible region: Type of Region Letter Number 34. Continental divergent plate boundary C Continental hot spot G Continent-continent convergent plate boundary H Ocean-continent convergent plate boundary I Ocean-ocean convergent plate boundary D Oceanic divergent plate boundary A Oceanic nematath (hot spot track) F Oceanic ridge transform fault B Transform plate boundary E Points

15 43. Put letters (A E, I, J, K, & M) AND the unconformities (U1 & U2) in order from oldest to youngest. A, B, K, U1, C, D, E, M, U2, I, J (11 points) 44. What type of unconformity is U1? Disconformity 45. What type of unconformity is U2? Angular unconformity 46. If M occurred before the tilting of layers A-E, what type of fault is it? Normal 47. If M occurred after the tilting of layers A-E, what type of fault is it? Reverse 48. The observation that the past history of Earth can be explained by present-day processes is (circle letter): A. the principle of cross-cutting relations B. the principle of uniformitarianism C. the principle of original horizontality D. the principle of superposition E. All of the above 16 Points

16 49. Which of the two main ocean ridges on Earth is separating the fastest? East Pacific Rise (or Ridge) 50. New York City will be one meter farther from the west coast of Africa in how many years (circle)? a) 4 b) 40 c) 400 d) 4,000 e) 40,000 f) 400,000 g) 4,000, Which belt (circle: Circum-Pacific or Alpine-Himalayan) accounts for ~80% of major earthquakes? 52. Which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic) has the highest melting temperature? 53. Which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic) most likely produces pyroclastic flow and tephra? 54. Shield volcanoes are usually composed of which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 55. Cinder cone volcanoes are usually composed of which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 56. Composite volcanoes are usually which magma (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? (either) 57. Ninety percent of Earth s lava is (circle: basaltic, andesitic, or rhyolitic)? 58. Name one of the largest flood basalt events, which may have caused the Great Dying. Siberian Traps The diagram shows various locations where partial melting occurs. 59. Circle the type of melting AND the type of magma. A? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) B? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) C? (decompression, heat transfer, flux) (mafic or felsic) 60. In partial melting, the magma is (circle: less felsic, more felsic, or the same composition) compared to the rock. 61. What is the name of the supervolcano in the U.S.? Yellowstone 62. In what state of the U.S. has a volcano erupted in the last few years? Hawaii 63. What is the world s largest volcano that makes contact with the atmosphere? Muana Loa 64. What was the most destructive volcanic eruption in U.S. history (1980)? Mt. St. Helens 21 points

17 Match the fault below with the best letter (A-F): 65. Normal A 66. Reverse D 67. Thrust E 68. Megathrust C 69. Right-lateral strike slip B 70. Left-lateral strike slip F Match the volcanoes below with the best letter (G-M): 71. Cinder Cone M 72. Composite H 73. Fissure Eruption L 74. Flank Eruption K 75. Flood Basalt Province J 76. Pyroclastic Eruption G 77. Shield I 78. Match the four largest earthquakes since 1960 with their locations. Year M Deaths Letter? Location ,000 C A. Anchorage, Alaska, U.S ,000 B B. Sumatra, Indonesia A C. Tohoku, Japan ,000 D D. Valdivia, Chile 17 Points

18 79. Match the letters with the orogenesis type and specific mountain ranges below. Orogenesis (Mountain Building) Type Letter Specific Mountain Ranges Letter Alpine Type (Continental Suturing) C Alleghenian Orogeny (Appalachians) C Collision and Accretion E Coast Range Terranes in Alaska & Canada E Island Arc D Japan & Philippines D Low-angle Subduction A Laramide Orogeny (Rocky Mountains) A Continental Volcanic Arc B Sierra Nevadan Orogeny B or E Andes Trans-Hudson Orogeny (ca 2.0 Ga) Grenville Orogeny (Rodinia; ca 1.0 Ga) B C C 80. What type of crustal deformation (elastic, ductile, or brittle) is: A? Ductile B? Brittle C? Elastic 16 Points

19 81. Match the letter (A-F) from the drawing at right: Anticline B Horst E Monocline C Graben D Half-graben F Syncline A Match the letter (G-L) from the drawing below right: 82. Back-arc basin K 83. Forearc basin J 84. Pull-apart basin H 85. Retroarc foreland basin G 86. Rift basin L 87. Trench basin I Match the letter (G-L) with the best specific examples: 88. Central Valley (California) J 89. Dead Sea (Israel) H 90. Franciscan Assemblage (California) I 91. Newark Basin (New Jersey) L 92. Sea of Japan K 93. Western Brazil G 18 Points

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