LAB 2 IDENTIFYING MATERIALS FOR MAKING SOILS: ROCK AND PARENT MATERIALS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LAB 2 IDENTIFYING MATERIALS FOR MAKING SOILS: ROCK AND PARENT MATERIALS"

Transcription

1 LAB 2 IDENTIFYING MATERIALS FOR MAKING SOILS: ROCK AND PARENT MATERIALS Learning outcomes The student is able to: 1. understand and identify rocks 2. understand and identify parent materials 3. recognize the difference between soil parent materials and geologic materials Introduction Soil formation is greatly the result of the interaction of five soil forming factors: parent material, topography, climate, biological activity, and time. The ability to identify the geologic material from which soils are formed and the possession of knowledge of the chemical composition of that geologic material is extremely important in describing soil and its properties. ROCKS The skeleton of the soil is inorganic material that comes from weathered fragments of rocks. The rocks from which these fragments are formed are composed of minerals and the minerals are composed of elements, some of which the plant uses in its metabolism (Table 2.1). Rocks ---- composed of ----> Minerals ---- composed of ----> Elements

2 Table 2.1. Mineral and elemental composition of granite, a rock common to the Main Range in Peninsula Malaysia. Rock Granite Component Minerals Elemental composition Plant essential elements Quartz Si, O - Orthoclase K, Al, Si, O K Muscovite K, Al, Si, O K Amphibole Fe, Mg, Ca, Si, O Fe, Mg, Ca Materials Rock samples Types of Rocks (Appendix) Activities 1. With the display of the common rocks, make note on their observable properties. 2. From each rock in the display, postulate the probable texture of the soil that are derived from each of them. 3. From each rock in the display, postulate the probable richness of plant nutrient derived from them. The plant nutrients are 17 in number

3 Appendix Some Basic Types of Rock A rock is an aggregate of minerals. Rocks are of three fundamental types depending on origin. These types are commonly identified by their textures (grain relations). Igneous rocks ("fire made") have crystallized from molten rock. If crystallization occurs deep below the surface (intrusive), a long and slow crystallization produces coarse-grained rocks, typified by granite; we observe such rocks after they have been exposed by erosion. If molten rock is erupted on the surface from a fissure or volcano (extrusive), rapid cooling and rapid crystallization produce fine-grained rocks typified by basalt. The individual grains are often microscopically small. Igneous rocks vary according to the chemical composition of the molten rock from which they crystallize. They vary from basic rocks rich in Fe, Mg, and other dark minerals to those containing free quartz as in granite. Feldspars are abundant (usually dominant) in almost all types of igneous rocks. Sedimentary rocks are formed by compaction and cementation of sediment. The sediment itself (gravel, sand, silt, clay) was derived from the breakdown of preexisting minerals during weathering of rocks at the earth's surface. After erosion and transportation (commonly by streams) sediment is deposited in layers, mainly on the shallow part of the ocean floor. Burial causes conversion of loose sediment to solid rock by squeezing the water from clay mud to form shale and by precipitating cement (SiO 2, CaCO 3, etc.) from water in the pore spaces of sand and gravel to form sandstone and conglomerate. Limestone is formed by the cementation of lime mud of fossil fragments. The outstanding feature of sedimentary rocks is stratification. Metamorphic rocks are rocks formed from pre-existing rocks by recrystallization. The causes are mainly high pressures and elevated temperatures resulting from very deep burial, crystal deformation, or the invasion of molten rock from below. Foliation, a leaf-like structure due to parallel growth of micas, etc. is characteristic of many metamorphic rocks (slate, schist, gneiss); quartzite and marble lack this.

4 Rock Identification Igneous For the purposes of this class we will limit the discussion of igneous rocks to granite and basalt. There are many more types of igneous rocks, but this should suffice as a very general introduction. Granitic rocks - True granite and texturally similar rocks containing predominantly light-colored materials; many different rock names are included in the heading, including quartz monzonite, grano-diorite, quartz diorite, syenite, and diorite - they differ in their proportions of orthoclase and plagioclase, and in the presence or absence of quartz. These are called sialic rocks because of the high concentration of Al and Si. Characteristics: coarse, interlocking grains, dominantly feldspar, often with about 20% quartz; some mica or hornblende. Basaltic rocks - The most abundant extrusive rocks, rich in Fe and Mg compared to granitic rocks; there are lighter colored extrusive rocks such as andesite and rhyolite which are similar in composition to the granitic rocks. These are called mafic rocks because of the high concentration of Mg and Fe. Characteristics: Fine-grained, dark color. Sedimentary Conglomerate - cemented rounded gravels, and pebbles (if angular granules: breccia). Sandstone - cemented sand, usually quartz sand. Shale - compacted mud, typically laminated or fissile (splits along bedding planes). Limestone - sandy to clayey textured rocks; limestone consists dominantly of calcite, which effervesces in acid.

5 Metamorphic Quartzite -recrystallized sandstone; breaks through grains, has glassy pinpoint luster on fresh breaks. Argillite - slightly recrystallized shale; chips tend to ring when balanced and tapped; does not split evenly as slate does. The classification of metamorphic rocks is not well established. We consider quartzite and argillite metamorphic rocks, though geologists look on argillite as hardened shale and not a metamorphic rock. Furthermore, geologists generally consider slate to be the metamorphic counterpart of shale. The type of rock that soils form from greatly influences soil characteristics including texture, ph, water holding capacity (WHC), percent coarse fragments, and level of fertility.

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 10 Rocks 1 Chapter 10 Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle 2 10.1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Magma is the parent material for all rocks. Once the magma cools and hardens, many changes can occur. Geology:

More information

RR#7 - Multiple Choice

RR#7 - Multiple Choice 1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? 1) hematite 2) fluorite 3) galena 4) talc 2. Which rock is composed of the mineral halite that formed when seawater evaporated? 1) limestone 2) dolostone

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks?

Page 1. Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks? Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks? 1663-1 - Page 1 5) The flowchart below illustrates the change from melted rock to basalt. 2) Which processes most likely

More information

Types of Minerals. Silicate Minerals. Other Mineral Classes - Sulfides. Silicate Minerals. Clicker question. Other Mineral Classes - Carbonates 2/1/17

Types of Minerals. Silicate Minerals. Other Mineral Classes - Sulfides. Silicate Minerals. Clicker question. Other Mineral Classes - Carbonates 2/1/17 Types of Minerals Minerals are classified by chemical composition and crystal structure Silicates - Most common in rocks and Earth (95% of Earth s crust); Contain silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) Silicate Minerals

More information

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures CHAPTER 4 2 Igneous Rock SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture

More information

THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS. Subtitle

THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS. Subtitle THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS Subtitle 3. Three rocks that do not have minerals or are composed of nonmineral matter. Coal Pumuce Obsidian THE ROCK CYCLE Why do scientists study rocks? Rocks contain clues about

More information

Which rock is shown? A) slate B) dunite C) gneiss D) quartzite

Which rock is shown? A) slate B) dunite C) gneiss D) quartzite 1. Which metamorphic rock will have visible mica crystals and a foliated texture? A) marble B) quartzite C) schist D) slate 2. The recrystallization of unmelted material under high temperature and pressure

More information

Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D

Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 1 Compared to felsic igneous rocks, mafic igneous rocks contain greater amounts of (1) white quartz (3) pink feldspar (2) aluminum (4) iron 2 The diagram below shows how a sample of the mineral mica breaks

More information

Version 1 Page 1 Barnard/George/Ward

Version 1 Page 1 Barnard/George/Ward The Great Mineral & Rock Test 1. Base your answer to the following question on the table below which provides information about the crystal sizes and the mineral compositions of four igneous rocks, A,

More information

Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions

Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions Alessandro Grippo, Ph.D. Gneiss (a metamorphic rock) from Catalina Island, California Alessandro Grippo review Rocks

More information

BRYCE CANYON NATIONAL PARK Earth s Dynamic Treasures Rocks & The Rock Cycle

BRYCE CANYON NATIONAL PARK Earth s Dynamic Treasures Rocks & The Rock Cycle Grade Level: 4th-8th grades Subject Area: Earth Science Objectives: Introduce students to the rock cycle. Students will have an opportunity to categorize rocks from the three rock types. Students investigate

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals.

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle 1. The solid part of Earth is made up of material called a. glacial ice. b. lava. c. rock. d. wood. 2. Rock can be a collection of one

More information

Name Regents Review #7 Date

Name Regents Review #7 Date Name Regents Review #7 Date Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the pictures of four rocks shown below. Magnified views of the rocks are shown in the circles. 5. The diagrams below show the crystal

More information

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment From sediments to sedimentary rocks (transportation, deposition, preservation and lithification) Types of sedimentary rocks (clastic, chemical and organic) Sedimentary

More information

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements.

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. CHAPTER 5 Igneous Rocks SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. basaltic

More information

Igneous Rock Processes and Identification

Igneous Rock Processes and Identification Igneous Rock Processes and Identification http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html http://earthsci.org/education/teacher/basicgeol/igneous/igneous.html#kindsofigneousrocks Major Concepts 1)

More information

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper Happy Tuesday Pull out a ½ sheet of paper 1. Physical properties of a mineral are predominantly related to 1. the external conditions of temperature, pressure, and amount of space available for growth.

More information

Rocks and The Rock Cycle

Rocks and The Rock Cycle Rocks and The Rock Cycle 3 Main Rock Types Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic 3 Main Rock Types Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous EXTRUSIVE Forms when lava cools quickly on the Earths surface Forms

More information

2-1 F. Objectives: Define rocks Describe the rock cycle and some changes that a rock could undergo.

2-1 F. Objectives: Define rocks Describe the rock cycle and some changes that a rock could undergo. 2-1 F Objectives: Define rocks Describe the rock cycle and some changes that a rock could undergo. Rocks are a mixture of minerals, glass, organic matter, and other natural materials. + + feldspar hornblende

More information

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks 1. Which characteristic of nonsedimentary rocks would provide the least evidence about the environment in which the rocks were formed? A) structure B) color C) crystal size D) mineral composition 2. Which

More information

2. What is sample 1B? a. chalcopyrite b. plagioclase feldspar c. muscovite d. copper e. magnetite f. galena g. pyrite

2. What is sample 1B? a. chalcopyrite b. plagioclase feldspar c. muscovite d. copper e. magnetite f. galena g. pyrite HSAG Mineral and Rock Exam 2014 Note: Most sample numbers do NOT match question numbers so be careful. Team: 1. What is sample 1A? a. magnetite b. galena c. pyrite d. chalcopyrite e. copper f. graphite

More information

Rocks Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3

Rocks Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3 Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3 I. Environmental significance II. Definition III. 3 major classes IV. The Rock Cycle V. Secondary classification VI. Additional sub-classes

More information

40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture

40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture Event: Judge: Rocks & Minerals Pierre couture 40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture 1-4 Minerals (50 points total) 5-7 Igneous Rocks (50 points total)

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Materials

Sedimentary Rocks. Materials Sedimentary Rocks Overview: Sedimentary rocks are broken into three different types: organic, chemical, and clastic. The Acid Test determines which rocks are clastic because they don t react with the acid.

More information

Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8

Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8 Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8 Does not contain complete lecture notes. To be used to help organize lecture notes and home/test studies. What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of

More information

Chapter Test C. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE

Chapter Test C. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE Assessment Chapter Test C Rocks: Mineral Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. Which rock was used to construct the pyramids at Giza? a. granite RCKs2 b. marble

More information

1/31/2013. Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes. Weathering Mechanisms. Wind abrasion forming Ventifacts

1/31/2013. Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes. Weathering Mechanisms. Wind abrasion forming Ventifacts Monument Valley, Utah. What weathering processes contributed to the development of these remarkable rock formations? Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes Weathering Mechanisms Physical

More information

WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing.

WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing. WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing. How do we classify Rocks? Formation (where and how the rock was formed)

More information

Laboratory 5 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks a.

Laboratory 5 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks a. Laboratory 5 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks a. LAB 5 provides samples of all three principal groupings of rocks including: 1) Igneous (plutonic and extrusive felsic, intermediate, and mafic varieties)

More information

Unit 2 Exam: Rocks & Minerals

Unit 2 Exam: Rocks & Minerals Name: Date: 1. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the 2001 edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables, the map and cross section below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The shaded

More information

1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc

1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc 1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc 2. Which material is made mostly of the mineral quartz? A) sulfuric acid B) pencil lead C) plaster of paris D)

More information

Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary. Chapter 5 & Chapter 6

Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary. Chapter 5 & Chapter 6 Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary Chapter 5 & Chapter 6 Section 5.1 What are Igneous Rocks? Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Describe the composition of magma Discuss the factors

More information

weathering and cooling and solidification compaction and cementation SEDIMENTARY ROCK

weathering and cooling and solidification compaction and cementation SEDIMENTARY ROCK OVERHEAD MASTER] The Rock Cycle Goal Use this overhead master to show the rock cycie diagram (included in the Teacher's Resource) to your class. cooling and solidification weathering and compaction and

More information

Solid Earth materials:

Solid Earth materials: Solid Earth materials: Elements minerals rocks Nonuniform distribution of matter Molten core Contains most heavy elements Iron, nickel Thin surface crust Mostly lighter elements 8 elements make up 98.6%

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rocks Origin, Properties and Identification Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rock Origin and Identification Lab Pre-Lab Internet Link Resources 1) http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html

More information

1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D)

1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D) 1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D) 2. Rhyolite is an example of a A) monomineralic igneous rock B) polymineralic igneous rock C) monomineralic

More information

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED HOW CHAPTER 5 ROCK WERE FORMED 1 I. Modern geology- 1795 A. James Hutton- 1. uniformitarianism- "the present is the key to the past" a. b. the geologic processes now at work were also active in the past

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth, but because most of them exist below the surface you might not have seen

More information

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks Rock Definition A naturally occurring consolidated mixture of one or more minerals e.g, marble, granite, sandstone, limestone Rock Definition Must naturally occur in nature,

More information

Minerals and Rocks. Rocks

Minerals and Rocks. Rocks Minerals and Rocks Rocks What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement or a D if you

More information

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED HOW CHAPTER 3 ROCK WERE FORMED 1 I. Modern geology- 1795 A. James Hutton- 1. uniformitarianism- "the present is the key to the past" a. b. the geologic processes now at work were also active in the past

More information

Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification

Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification Earth Materials Minerals Gemstones and other minerals, such as gold, have fascinated people for thousands of years and have been supposed

More information

Big Island Field Trip

Big Island Field Trip Big Island Field Trip Space Still Available Group Airline Tickets May be available if enough people sign on If interested send email to Greg Ravizza Planning Meeting Next Week Will

More information

ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks

ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks Objectives 1. Identify and explain characteristics of igneous rocks. This means that if I am given an igneous rock I: a. Can use grain size to identify a rock as intrusive, extrusive,

More information

Rocks. Basic definitions. Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks. Basic definitions. Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Rocks Basic definitions Rock: a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals or glass. Igneus Rocks: all rocks that form by cooling and/or crystalization of molten material within the crust or at the

More information

13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p )

13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p ) 13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p. 194-208) Sediment Deposition Weathering results in rock being broken down into smaller fragments, called regolith. This regolith is then broken down to form soil. The regolith

More information

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Lab Name Geology 100 Harbor Section Please see the questions online before you begin. Sedimentary rocks are usually identified in the field by their stratification or layering,

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Igneous Rocks What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. extrusive igneous rock intrusive

More information

Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018

Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018 Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018 Quiz 2 scheduled for Friday Feb 23 (Interlude B, Chapters 6,7) Questions? Chapter 6 Pages of the Past: Sedimentary Rocks Key Points for today Be

More information

The Cycling of Matter. Day 1

The Cycling of Matter. Day 1 The Cycling of Matter Day 1 Objective I will learn the rock cycle is the series of processes in which rock changes from one form to another. I will learn in the water cycle, water condenses, precipitates

More information

The Keepers of Michigan s Natural Resources- Rocks!

The Keepers of Michigan s Natural Resources- Rocks! The Keepers of Michigan s Natural Resources- Rocks! By Julie Jenkins- Milwood Magnet School: Center for Math, Science and Technology. Introduction: Often when most citizens look at rocks they see exactly

More information

Emily and Megan. Earth System Science. Elements of Earth by weight. Crust Elements, by weight. Minerals. Made of atoms Earth is mostly iron, by weight

Emily and Megan. Earth System Science. Elements of Earth by weight. Crust Elements, by weight. Minerals. Made of atoms Earth is mostly iron, by weight Emily and Megan Chapter 20 MINERALS AND ROCKS Earth System Science Interconnected Rocks and minerals Interior processes Erosion and deposition Water and air Elements of Earth by weight Made of atoms Earth

More information

Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks: Interpreting Ancient Environments of Painted Canyon (Lab 2)

Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks: Interpreting Ancient Environments of Painted Canyon (Lab 2) Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks: Interpreting Ancient Environments of Painted Canyon (Lab 2) Synopsis This week you will examine some common environments and the rocks formed in these environments. You

More information

"When Gregor Samsa woke up one morning from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed into a monstrous bug. Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka

When Gregor Samsa woke up one morning from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed into a monstrous bug. Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka Metamorphosis "When Gregor Samsa woke up one morning from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed into a monstrous bug. Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka Metamorphism The transformation of rock by temperature

More information

KS3 Chemistry. 8H The Rock Cycle. 8H The Rock Cycle. Sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks. The rock cycle. Summary activities

KS3 Chemistry. 8H The Rock Cycle. 8H The Rock Cycle. Sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks. The rock cycle. Summary activities KS3 Chemistry 1of 20 38 12of 20 38 Examples of sedimentary rocks How can you describe sandstone? limestone chalk Sandstone is sandstone sandstone an orangey-coloured rock which looks like lots of sand

More information

Examining Minerals and Rocks

Examining Minerals and Rocks Examining Minerals and Rocks What is a mineral? A mineral is homogenous, naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered

More information

PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS PLATE TECTONICS TO IGNEOUS ROCKS Internal Heat Seafloor Spreading/Plate Tectonics Volcanism Plate Boundary Intra-plate (hot spot) Divergent Convergent Igneous

More information

5. The table below indicates the presence of various minerals in different rock samples.

5. The table below indicates the presence of various minerals in different rock samples. 1. Which mineral is composed of Calcium and Fluorine? A) Amphiboles B) Calcite C) Hematite D) Fluorite 2. The photograph below shows a broken piece of the mineral calcite. The calcite breaks in smooth,

More information

Rocks and Minerals TEKS ADDRESSED: NATIONAL SCIENCE STANDARDS: SUBJECT: Science. GRADES: 6 th (TEKS met); age appropriate 4 th -8 th grades

Rocks and Minerals TEKS ADDRESSED: NATIONAL SCIENCE STANDARDS: SUBJECT: Science. GRADES: 6 th (TEKS met); age appropriate 4 th -8 th grades Rocks and Minerals SUBJECT: Science GRADES: 6 th (TEKS met); age appropriate 4 th -8 th grades ACTIVITY SUMMARY: Students will observe rock and mineral samples to learn about the basic properties of minerals

More information

Notes Sedimentary Rocks.notebook. May 10, magma / lava INTERLOCKING. crystal. fine. derived. land. banding. chemically. Foliated Nonfoliated

Notes Sedimentary Rocks.notebook. May 10, magma / lava INTERLOCKING. crystal. fine. derived. land. banding. chemically. Foliated Nonfoliated Sedimentary Rocks Quick Review: Igneous ( fire rock ) Solidification of INTERLOCKING crystals Vesicular Glassy magma / lava TEXTURE based on size fine crystal Non crystalline,, coarse, very coarse Quick

More information

ד"ר חנן גינת ד"ר ירון פינצי

דר חנן גינת דר ירון פינצי Geology The rock cycle Earth materials and their stories Experiments in the lab and working with rock kits (in school) Plate Tectonics The Dynamic Earth The story of fossils The Geological History of the

More information

The Rocky Road Game. Sedimentary Rock. Igneous Rock. Start. Metamorphic Rock. Finish. Zone of Transportation. Weathering Way.

The Rocky Road Game. Sedimentary Rock. Igneous Rock. Start. Metamorphic Rock. Finish. Zone of Transportation. Weathering Way. Sedimentary Rock Deposition Depot Zone of Transportation Transported: Advance 3 Weathering Way The Rocky Road Game Uplift: Advance 5 Lithification Lane Crystallization Crossway Submerge Detour take the

More information

Plate tectonics, rock cycle

Plate tectonics, rock cycle Dikes, Antarctica Rock Cycle Plate tectonics, rock cycle The Rock Cycle A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one

More information

GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks

GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks Name I. Introduction The bulk of the earth's crust is composed of relatively few minerals. These can be mixed together, however, to give

More information

Minerals By Patti Hutchison

Minerals By Patti Hutchison Minerals By Patti Hutchison 1 Minerals. They are all around us. We eat them, wear them, and build with them. What is a mineral? How are they identified? What can we do with them? 2 Earth's crust is made

More information

Q. How do we know about the Earth s history? A. The ROCKS tell us stories

Q. How do we know about the Earth s history? A. The ROCKS tell us stories Q. How do we know about the Earth s history? A. The ROCKS tell us stories Q. What happened here? Q. What happened here? Q. What happened here? Vocabulary word: Uniformitarianism the scientific rule that

More information

ESC102. Sedimentary Rocks. Our keys to the past. Monday, February 11, 13

ESC102. Sedimentary Rocks. Our keys to the past. Monday, February 11, 13 ESC102 Sedimentary Rocks Our keys to the past Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are rocks that form through the accumulation of sediment and the process of lithification. Lithification occurs after deposition

More information

Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics Continental Drift Sea-Floor Spreading Theory of Plate Tectonics Section 9.1 Continental Drift -- Section 9.1: Continental Drift -- Continental drift Hypothesis stating that the continents once formed a

More information

Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Thanks to Rob Viens for slides

Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Thanks to Rob Viens for slides Sedimentology & Stratigraphy Thanks to Rob Viens for slides Sedimentology The study of the processes that erode, transport and deposit sediments Sedimentary Petrology The study of the characteristics and

More information

A Study Guide for Learning. Rock Identification. Geology Department Green River Community College

A Study Guide for Learning. Rock Identification. Geology Department Green River Community College A Study Guide for Learning Rock Identification Geology Department Green River Community College FORMAT: This Lab Study Guide consists of the following parts: PART I PART II PART III PART IV PART V (A-F)

More information

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface.

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The material that is chemically and mechanically weathered to yield sediment and soil. Regolith consisting

More information

Chapter Introduction. Cycle Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction. Cycle Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Minerals Rocks The Rock Cycle Chapter Wrap-Up How are minerals and rocks formed, identified, classified, and used? What do you think? Before you begin, decide

More information

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form?

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form? Section 2 Igneous Rocks and the Geologic History of Your Community What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Goals Text Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Identify and classify

More information

Name. GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks

Name. GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks Name GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks I. Introduction The bulk of the earth's crust is composed of relatively few minerals. These can be mixed together, however, to give an endless variety

More information

Student Name: College: Grade:

Student Name: College: Grade: Student Name: College: Grade: Physical Geology Laboratory IGNEOUS MINERALS AND ROCKS IDENTIFICATION - INTRODUCTION & PURPOSE: In this lab you will learn to identify igneous rocks in hand samples from their

More information

ALLEGHENY COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY STUDENT HANDBOOK

ALLEGHENY COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY STUDENT HANDBOOK ALLEGHENY COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY STUDENT HANDBOOK This handbook is designed as a resource for all geology majors and minors. The material contained in the handbook includes foundation principles

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Igneous Rocks What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. extrusive igneous rock intrusive

More information

Continental crust (granitic) Rigid zone

Continental crust (granitic) Rigid zone MINERALS AND ROCKS 353 Lithosphere Sea level Oceanic crust (basaltic) Mohorovicic discontinuity Continental crust (granitic) Rigid zone Lithosphere Mantle Asthenosphere Mantle FIGURE 13.5 Earth has two

More information

GEOL Lab 11 (Metamorphic Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section)

GEOL Lab 11 (Metamorphic Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) GEOL 333 - Lab 11 (Metamorphic Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) Introduction - Metamorphic rock forms from any pre-existing rock that undergoes changes due to intense heat and pressure without melting.

More information

The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks

The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are composed of: Fragments of other rocks Chemical precipitates Organic matter or biochemically produced materials The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary

More information

Chapter 11 Review Book Earth Materials Minerals and Rocks

Chapter 11 Review Book Earth Materials Minerals and Rocks Chapter 11 Review Book Earth Materials Minerals and Rocks Define the Vocabulary 1. bioclastic sedimentary rocks 2. chemical sedimentary rocks 3. Clastic sedimentary rocks 4. cleavage 5. contact metamorphism

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE

WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE Weathering: The difference between mechanical & chemical weathering is: Sort terms as being mechanical/physical or chemical weathering: acid rain, root splitting

More information

Lab 5: Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. More sedimentary rocks Needed: Samples R18 R28 (Tubs 21 31), R33 (Tub 36) and S1 (Tub 94)

Lab 5: Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. More sedimentary rocks Needed: Samples R18 R28 (Tubs 21 31), R33 (Tub 36) and S1 (Tub 94) Geology 101 Name(s): Lab 5: Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks More sedimentary rocks Needed: Samples R18 R28 (Tubs 21 31), R33 (Tub 36) and S1 (Tub 94) 1. a. Sedimentary rocks are held together by cement,

More information

Sedimentary Rocks, Stratigraphy, and Geologic Time

Sedimentary Rocks, Stratigraphy, and Geologic Time Sedimentary Rocks, Stratigraphy, and Geologic Time A rock is any naturally formed, nonliving, coherent aggregate mass of solid matter that constitutes part of a planet, asteroid, moon, or other planetary

More information

t/f correct the false right beside the question Look at the pictures to get the answers.

t/f correct the false right beside the question Look at the pictures to get the answers. Chapter 1 name: t/f correct the false right beside the question 1. The lithosphere is rocks of earth. 2. The lithosphere includes the solid inner core. 3. All of earth s systems interact. 4. Each of us

More information

Study Guide for Test : Minerals, Rock Cycle & Mining

Study Guide for Test : Minerals, Rock Cycle & Mining Name: Date: Period: Study Guide for Test : Minerals, Rock Cycle & Mining Copy of Class Notes at http://feldmannscience.weebly.com Access website by computer or mobile device! Tutoring offered after school

More information

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through.

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through. A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one type of rocky material gets transformed into another The Rock Cycle Representation

More information

Introduction. Introduction. Chapter 7. Important Points: Metamorphism is driven by Earth s s internal heat

Introduction. Introduction. Chapter 7. Important Points: Metamorphism is driven by Earth s s internal heat Chapter 7 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Introduction Metamorphism - The transformation of rocks, usually beneath Earth's surface, as the result of heat, pressure, and/or fluid activity, produces metamorphic

More information

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nebe_brjaq&feature =youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- DSzlxeNCBk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nebe_brjaq&feature =youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- DSzlxeNCBk What is a mineral? H.E.3A.5 Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were

More information

Unit 3 Rocks, Minerals, Soil Twitter Review Questions

Unit 3 Rocks, Minerals, Soil Twitter Review Questions Unit 3 Rocks, Minerals, Soil Twitter Review Questions U3-1: Which type of rock is most representative of a slow cooling process of molten material? (Be specific) - Answer: Intrusive Igneous Rock U3-2:

More information

GEOL Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section)

GEOL Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) GEOL 333 - Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) Sedimentary Rock Classification - As we learned last week, sedimentary rock, which forms by accumulation and lithification

More information

A Sedimentary Rock is..

A Sedimentary Rock is.. Sedimentary Rocks A Sedimentary Rock is.. rock formed from the lithification or crystallization of: 1. Minerals in solution 2. Organic remains 3. Materials produced by living things (biochemical) 4. Clastic

More information

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks This page last updated on 25-Sep-2017 Definition of Metamorphism The word "Metamorphism"

More information

Mineral - a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition For the Love of God

Mineral - a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition For the Love of God Rocks & Minerals Mineral - a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition For the Love of God A platinum cast of a skull from an actual person

More information

Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6

Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 I. What is a sedimentary rock? A. Sedimentary rock 1) Rock made of detrital sediments (such as sand) or inorganic/organic chemical precipitates (such as calcite) 2) Detrital

More information

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga ENCE 3610L. Overview of Rock and Soil Formation Rock Quality Designation Test

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga ENCE 3610L. Overview of Rock and Soil Formation Rock Quality Designation Test University of Tennessee at Chattanooga ENCE 3610L Overview of Rock and Soil Formation Rock Quality Designation Test Soils and Rocks Definition of Rock and Soil Rock Naturally occurring material composed

More information

The Production of Sediment. Contents. Weathering. Chapters 1, 3

The Production of Sediment. Contents. Weathering. Chapters 1, 3 The Production of Sediment Chapters 1, 3 Contents Weathering Physical, chemical, biogeochemical processes Rates Products Carbon cycle and global change Erosion/Soils Sediment Texture Weathering General

More information

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Learning objectives Understand and be able to predict where and why magma will be forming at different tectonic settings Understand the factors controlling magma

More information

Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks

Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks 1 Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Magma 2 I. Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. A. Underground, they

More information

Chapter 4. Rocks and Minerals: Documents that Record Earth's History

Chapter 4. Rocks and Minerals: Documents that Record Earth's History Chapter 4 Rocks and Minerals: Documents that Record Earth's History What can Minerals Tell Us? 1. Minerals may contain radioactive elements that can be used for radiometric age dating. 2. Minerals that

More information