4. The map below shows a meandering stream. Points A, B, C, and D represent locations along the stream bottom.

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1 1. Sediment is deposited as a river enters a lake because the A) velocity of the river decreases B) force of gravity decreases C) volume of water increases D) slope of the river increases 2. Which diagram best represents a cross section of a valley which was glaciated and then eroded by a stream? A) B) 4. The map below shows a meandering stream. Points A, B, C, and D represent locations along the stream bottom. C) D) 3. The diagram below shows a laboratory stream table. A mixture of sediment was placed on the stream table. A short time after the faucet was turned on, a deposit of sediment began forming at location X at the lower end of the stream table. At which location is the greatest amount of sediment most likely being deposited? A) A B) B C) C D) D 5. The cross section below shows a profile of a sediment deposit. What is the name of the stream feature forming at location X? A) V-shaped valley B) meander C) delta D) floodplain The pattern of sediment size shown indicates that these sediments were most likely deposited within a A) landslide B) drumlin C) moraine D) delta 6. Where is the most deposition likely to occur? A) on the side of a sand dune facing the wind B) at the mouth of a river, where it enters an ocean C) at a site where glacial ice scrapes bedrock D) at the top of a steep slope in a streambed 7. In which location is erosion usually greater than deposition? A) in a stream channel that is being deepened B) along a coast where a sandbar is being enlarged C) at a point where a stream enters a lake D) at the base of a cliff where a pile of rock fragments is accumulating

2 8. The landscape diagram below shows a fan-shaped pattern of sediment deposits. Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the diagram below, which shows a meandering stream. Letters A, B, C, and D indicate locations on the streambed. The fan-shaped pattern of these sediments is most likely the result of deposition by A) glacial ice B) ocean waves C) running water D) prevailing winds 9. The map below shows a meandering river. Points A and B are locations on the banks of the river. 10. At which two locations is the rate of erosion greater than the rate of deposition? A) A and B B) B and C C) C and D D) D and A 11. At which point is the amount of deposition more than the amount of erosion? A) A B) B C) C D) D 12. The satellite photograph below shows a geologic feature composed of silt, sand, and clay. What are the dominant processes occurring at locations A and B? A) deposition at location A; erosion at location B B) erosion at location A; deposition at location B C) deposition at both locations A and B D) erosion at both locations A and B The geologic feature shown in the photograph was primarily deposited by which agent of erosion? A) glaciers B) wind C) wave action D) running water

3 13. The map below shows the top view of a meandering stream as it enters a lake. 15. The diagrams below show the stages, A through D, in the formation of an oxbow lake over a period of time. [The arrows indicate the direction of streamflow.] At which points along the stream are erosion and deposition dominant? A) Erosion is dominant at A and D, and deposition is dominant at B and C. B) Erosion is dominant at B and C, and deposition is dominant at A and D. C) Erosion is dominant at A and C, and deposition is dominant at B and D. D) Erosion is dominant at B and D, and deposition is dominant at A and C. 14. A stream is entering the calm waters of a large lake. Which diagram best illustrates the pattern of sediments being deposited in the lake from the stream flow? A) B) C) D) Oxbow lakes are generally formed by A) erosion, resulting in a sudden increase in the stream's gradient B) deposition, resulting in a sudden increase in the stream's gradient C) erosion along the outside banks of the curve in a meandering stream D) deposition along the outside banks of the curve in a meandering stream

4 16. Two landscape regions are shown below. 18. The diagram below shows a stream profile before and after an earthquake. Points A and B are locations along the streambed. The evidence shown indicates that currently each landscape region is being modified primarily by A) weathering and erosion B) lithospheric plate movement C) folding and faulting D) metamorphism 17. The map below shows a stream flowing into a lake. Locations A, B, and C are at the water's edge, and location D is on the lake bottom. Which statement best describes erosion and deposition in this stream area A) Erosion is dominant at A and C; deposition is dominant at B and D. B) Erosion is dominant at B and C; deposition is dominant at A and D. C) Erosion is dominant at A and D; deposition is dominant at B and C. D) Erosion is dominant at B and D; deposition is dominant at A and C. What is the probable relationship between erosion and deposition at points A and B after the earthquake? A) There is more deposition at point A and more erosion at point B. B) There is more erosion at point A and more deposition at point B. C) There is more deposition than erosion at points A and B. D) There is more erosion than deposition at points A and B. 19. The cross section below shows a stream flowing downhill. Points A through D are locations in the stream. At which point would most deposition occur? A) A B) B C) C D) D

5 20. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows a model used to investigate the erosional-depositional system of a stream. The model was tilted to create a gentle slope, and a hose supplied water to form the meandering stream shown. Which diagram best represents where erosion, E, and deposition, D, are most likely occurring along the curves of the meandering stream? A) B) C) D) 21. The diagrams below show gradual stages 1, 2, and 3 in the development of a river delta where a river enters an ocean. Which statement best explains why the river delta is developing at this site? A) The rate of deposition is less than the rate of erosion. B) The rate of deposition is greater than the rate of erosion. C) Sea level is slowly falling. D) Sea level is slowly rising.

6 22. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows a portion of a stream that flows southward. Letters A through E represent locations in the stream. Line XY is the location of a cross section. At which two locations in this stream is deposition normally dominant over erosion? A) A and D B) B and E C) C and E D) D and C 23. A sedimentary deposit produced by wind erosion is most likely composed of A) sorted fine-grained particles in cross-bedded layers B) a range of particle sizes from 1.0 to 10.0 cm in diameter in thick layers C) flat, angular boulders in unsorted piles D) shells of varying size, shape, and composition in isolated mounds 24. Outwash plains are formed as a result of deposition by A) landslides B) ocean waves C) winds from hurricanes D) meltwater from glaciers

7 25. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below showing the underlying bedrock of New York and New Jersey along the Hudson River. Identify two processes that led directly to the development of the Great Unconformity beneath the Newark series. 26. The cross sections below show a three-stage sequence in the development of a glacial feature. 27. The diagram below shows a glacial landscape feature forming over time from a melting block of ice. Which glacial feature has formed by the end of stage 3? A) kettle lake B) finger lake C) drumlin D) parallel scratches This glacial landscape feature is best identified as A) a kettle lake B) an outwash plain C) a finger lake D) a moraine

8 28. The diagram below shows a portion of a stream. The sand bars formed as a direct result of A) erosion due to a decrease in stream velocity B) erosion due to an increase in stream velocity C) deposition due to a decrease in stream velocity D) deposition due to an increase in stream velocity 29. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below. The arrows show the direction in which sediment is being transported along the shoreline. A barrier beach has formed, creating a lagoon (a shallow body of water in which sediments are being deposited). The eroded headlands are composed of diorite bedrock. A groin has recently been constructed. Groins are wall-like structures built into the water perpendicular to the shoreline to trap beach sand. The sediments that have been deposited by streams flowing into the lagoon are most likely A) sorted and layered B) sorted and not layered C) unsorted and layered D) unsorted and not layered

9 30. The cross section below represents the transport of sediments by a glacier. At which location is deposition most likely the dominant process? A) A B) B C) C D) D 31. The map below represents a river as it enters a lake. At which locations is the amount of deposition greater than the amount of erosion? A) A, C, and E B) B, C, and F C) B, D, and F D) A, D, and E

10 32. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows a portion of the continent of North America and outlines the Mississippi River watershed. Points A, B, C, D, and E represent locations on Earth's surface. Sediments deposited by the river at location B are best described as A) sorted and layered B) sorted and not layered C) unsorted and layered D) unsorted and not layered 33. The map below represents a river as it enters a lake. At which locations is the amount of deposition greater than the amount of erosion? A) A, C, and E B) B, C, and F C) B, D, and F D) A, D, and E

11 34. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram which represents a profile of a mountain glacier in the northern United States. If the climate warms, causing the glacier to melt away, the region that the glacier formerly occupied will be a A) U-shaped valley with polished bedrock B) V-shaped valley with jagged bedrock C) flat plain with bedrock that has been metamorphosed D) deep ocean trench with bedrock that has been melted and cooled Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the map below. 35. Toward which direction is sand being transported along the shoreline within the zone of breaking waves? A) northeast B) south C) southeast D) west

12 36. Students compared recent photographs of the beaches with photographs taken three years ago and discovered that parts of the shoreline have changed. Which characteristic of the shoreline probably has changed most? A) composition of the beach sand B) size of the beaches C) positions of the jetties D) length of the peninsula 37. Which cross section best represents the pattern of sediments deposited on the bottom of a lake as the velocity of the stream entering the lake steadily decreased? A) B) C) D) 38. The block diagram below shows a part of the eastern coastline of North America. Points A, B, and C are reference points along the coast. Which list best represents the primary processes occurring along the coastline at points A, B, and C? A) A folding; B subduction; C crosscutting B) A weathering; B erosion; C deposition C) A faulting; B conduction; C mass movement D) A precipitation; B infiltration; C evaporation 39. When the velocity of a stream suddenly decreases, the sediment being transported undergoes an increase in A) particle density B) erosion C) deposition D) mass movement

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