Chapter 4 8/27/2013. Igneous Rocks. and Intrusive Igneous Activity. Introduction. The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 4 8/27/2013. Igneous Rocks. and Intrusive Igneous Activity. Introduction. The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava"

Transcription

1 Introduction Chapter 4 Igneous rocks form by the cooling of magma (or lava). Large parts of the continents and all the oceanic crust are composed of. and Intrusive Igneous Activity The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Molten rock material below the Earth's surface is called magma. If the magma reaches the surface it is called lava. Magma is erupted as either Lava flows or Pyroclastic materials (ash, etc.) The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Composition of Magma Silica is the primary constituent of magmas Magmas are differentiated based on the relative proportions of silica, iron, and magnesium. Felsic silica rich, iron and magnesium poor Intermediate intermediate between felsic and mafic Mafic silica poor, iron and magnesium rich Ultramafic even richer in magnesium and iron Parent magma composition largely determines the composition of igneous rocks. The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Composition of Magma The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava How Hot Are Magma and Lava? Measured temperatures of lavas suggest that typical mafic magma is somewhat hotter than 1200ºC felsic magma is somewhat hotter than 900ºC. Table 4.1, p. 87 Fig. 4.2, p. 87 1

2 The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Viscosity Resistance to Flow The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Viscosity Resistance to Flow The viscosity of magma is controlled primarily by temperature and composition (silica and iron content). Other factors include loss of volatiles, crystallinity, bubble content, and shear stress during movement. Viscosity measures a substance s resistance to flow. High viscosity thick, stiff flow Examples: Tar, glacial ice, felsic magma Fig. 4.3 b, p. 88 The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava Viscosity Resistance to Flow Viscosity measures a substance s resistance to flow. Low viscosity flow - Examples: Water, syrup, mafic magmas Mafic magmas are hotter and have less silica. This makes them flow better. o Heat increases the movement of atoms, breaks bonds, and melts rocks to form magmas o Melting produces expanding magmas that are less dense than the parent rock o Less dense magmas are buoyant and rise through the lithosphere Fig. 4.3 a, p. 88 Magma accumulates in reservoirs in the lower crust or upper mantle in magma chambers o Some magmas originate at depths of 100 to 300 km. o Most magmas, however, form at shallower depths in the upper mantle or lower crust. o Shallow magmas often accumulate in magma chambers. o Magma chambers beneath spreading ridges may only be a few kilometers below the surface. o Magma chambers in convergent plate boundaries (subduction zones) are usually at depths of 10s of km. Molten rock is less dense than solid rock, and so it is buoyant and begins to rise thru the lithosphere. 2

3 Later the magma may stall out and crystallize at a level of neutral buoyancy. Originate Magma originates at depth due to partial melting. The most important factors are Temperature, Pressure and Water Content Stoping - A process where a large body of magma can push aside the overlying crust and assimilate blocks of crust on its way toward the surface. Fig. 4.9, p. 93 Originate Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagrams Originate Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagrams Different materials have different melting points at different temperatures and pressures. If either changes, then melting can occur. For example, an increase in temperature at the same pressure would initiate melting. P T Melting can also be initiated if the Pressure Decreases. A reduction in pressure at the same temperature moves the material from the solid to liquid side of the melting curve. Originate Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagrams Melting can also be initiated if the Water Content Increases. An increase in water content under the same pressure and temperature conditions will cause melting to occur. Therefore, materials with water melt more easily. describes the sequence of mineral crystallization in a cooling magma. There are two branches in the reaction series. Discontinuous series Continuous series 3

4 The discontinuous series produces ferromagnesian minerals. Given ideal cooling conditions, a mafic magma will yield a sequence of different minerals, each of which is stable within specific temperature ranges. As each mineral forms, it removes elements from the melt, leaving the remaining melt to form the next mineral in the sequence. The continuous series produces a variety of plagioclase feldspars Substitution occurs in the crystal structure of plagioclase feldspar. Calcium is replaced with sodium during cooling. These minerals react continuously with the magma to adjust their compositions during cooling.. Bowen s Reaction Series Zoning Zoned minerals indicate changing conditions during formation. predicts that olivine will form first at high temperatures and quartz (SiO 2 ) is the last mineral to crystallize from a cooling magma.. Rimmed Olivine Zoned Plagioclase Images from: And The reverse of Bowen s reaction series describes the melting of rock The first mineral to melt would be quartz. followed by muscovite followed by potassium feldspar followed by biotite and Na-rich plagioclase feldspar Processes That Bring About Compositional Changes in Magma 1. Crystal settling - the first formed ferromagnesian minerals can settle to the base of a magma chamber or body, withdrawing some of the iron and magnesium and enriching the remaining magma in other elements. During crystallization, the remaining melt becomes progressively more silicaenriched. Fig. 4.7a, p. 92 4

5 Originate Processes That Bring About Compositional Changes in Magma 2. Assimilation of country rock, sometimes by stoping, can change a magma's composition, but usually only to a limited extent. 3. Magma mixing can also result in compositional change. Two different magmas can blend together (mix) if their viscosities are very similar, or they can mingle without blending if their viscosities are very different. Fig. 4.8, p. 93 Igneous Rock Textures Minerals begin to crystallize from magma and lava after small crystal nuclei form and grow. Two broad groups based on texture are: volcanic (extrusive) rocks which have an aphanitic texture plutonic (intrusive) rocks which have a phaneritic texture. Rocks with more complex cooling histories are characterized by porphyritic textures. Igneous Rock Textures Rapid cooling typifies volcanic rock and produces aphanitic textures. Slow cooling of plutonic magmas produces phaneritic textures with mineral grains that are easily visible without magnification. Porphyritic textures are characteristic of rocks with complex cooling histories and contain mineral grains of different sizes. Other igneous rock textures include vesicular, glassy, and pyroclastic. Composition of Mg-Fe-rich magma is called mafic, Gabbros and basalts are products of mafic magmas Na, K, Al and H ² O rich magma is felsic. Granites and rhyolites are products of felsic magmas Most magma, like most minerals, consists of silicon and oxygen with lesser amounts of other elements, such as magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and aluminum (Al). Fig. 4.11, p. 95 Classifying Composition of Depending on whether magma erupts, it can produce Plutonic / Intrusive (deep-seated) or Volcanic / Extrusive (eruptive) rocks. It is best to learn the different kinds of igneous rocks as pairs of equivalent plutonic and volcanic compositions; that is, each plutonic rock has its volcanic compositional equivalent, and visa versa. For example, gabbro is chemically equivalent to basalt. Gabbro is a plutonic rock. Basalt is a volcanic rock.. After geologists identify a rock as plutonic or volcanic, the name it is given depends on the relative percentages of certain key minerals, such as quartz, orthoclase (K-Feldspar), plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene. Fig. 4.11, p. 95 5

6 Classifying Classifying Ultramafic Rocks Peridotite is an ultramafic rock, meaning that it contains more iron and magnesium than basalt and gabbro which are mafic. Its composition is close to that of the upper mantle. Key Mineral - Olivine Peridotite Gabbro/basalt, and granite/rhyolite are pairs of common rock types They represent two ends of the compositional range of most igneous rocks at Earth s surface. Gabbro/basalt are mafic Granite/rhyolite are felsic Figure 4.12, p. 95 Fig. 4.13, p. 96 Fig. 4.15, p. 97 Classifying Basalt-Gabbro Mafic composition Gabbro is chemically equivalent to basalt. Gabbro is a plutonic rock. Basalt is a volcanic rock. Key Minerals: Pyroxene and/or Ca-Plagioclase Classifying Rhyolite-Granite Felsic composition Granite is chemically equivalent to rhyolite. Granite is a plutonic rock. Rhyolite is a volcanic rock. Key Minerals: Quartz and/or K-Feldspar and/or Na- Plagioclase Fig. 4.13, p. 95 Fig. 4.15, p. 97 Classifying Classifying It is best to learn the different kinds of igneous rocks as pairs of equivalent plutonic and volcanic compositions Andesite-Diorite Intermediate composition Diorite is chemically equivalent to andesite. Diorite is a plutonic rock. Andesite is a volcanic rock. Key Minerals Amphibole, Plagioclase Rhyolite porphyry Andesite porphyry Basalt Fig. 4.14, p. 96 Granite Diorite Gabbro Fig. 4.13, p. 96 Fig. 4.14, p. 96 Fig. 4.15, p. 97 6

7 Classifying Classifying Other Pegmatite Pegmatite is a rock type closely related to granite that contains many minerals not ordinarily found in other igneous rocks. By definition, pegmatites contain crystals that measure at least 1 cm across. Typically they form from water-rich magmas Pegmatite 4.16, p. 98 Tuff Composed of volcanic ash. Obsidian Composed of volcanic glass. Pumice & Scoria Composed of volcanic glass Vesicular Plutons are bodies of igneous rock which have been intruded in country rock or have formed in place far beneath the surface. Plutons Aerial View of a Pluton Concordant plutons include sills and laccoliths. Discordant plutons include dikes, volcanic necks, batholiths and stocks. Each of these plutons is defined by volume and geometry. Fig. 4.19, p. 101 From Earth Science Slides by Skelton Dikes and Sills Dikes and sills are the most common sheet-like igneous intrusions. Dikes and Sills Intersecting Dikes and Veins, California Dikes are discordant features (meaning they cut across layering in the country rock) Sills are concordant (parallel to the rock layers). Fig. 4.20, p. 101 From Earth Science Slides by Skelton 7

8 Laccoliths, Volcanic pipes and necks Laccoliths are sill-like bodies with inflated cores. Laccoliths, Volcanic pipes and necks Volcanic pipes are magma-filled, cylindrical feeder channels beneath volcanoes. Pipes can become volcanic necks with deep erosion. Fig. 4-21,p. 102 Laccoliths, Volcanic pipes and necks Batholiths and Stocks Dikes, sills, and laccoliths radiate from many volcanic pipes and necks. Batholiths are plutons that have more than 100 km² in area of exposure. Stocks are somewhat smaller plutonic bodies. Fig. 4-21, p. 102 Fig. 4-22, p. 103 Western Batholiths Large Intrusive Complexes formed by multiple injections of magma. From: Earth Science Slides by Skelton And: 8

Igneous Rock. Magma Chamber Large pool of magma in the lithosphere

Igneous Rock. Magma Chamber Large pool of magma in the lithosphere Igneous Rock Magma Molten rock under the surface Temperature = 600 o 1400 o C Magma Chamber Large pool of magma in the lithosphere Magma chamber - most all magma consists of silicon and oxygen (silicate)

More information

Igneous and Metamorphic Rock Forming Minerals. Department of Geology Mr. Victor Tibane SGM 210_2013

Igneous and Metamorphic Rock Forming Minerals. Department of Geology Mr. Victor Tibane SGM 210_2013 Igneous and Metamorphic Rock Forming Minerals Department of Geology Mr. Victor Tibane 1 SGM 210_2013 Grotzinger Jordan Understanding Earth Sixth Edition Chapter 4: IGNEOUS ROCKS Solids from Melts 2011

More information

Plate tectonics, rock cycle

Plate tectonics, rock cycle Dikes, Antarctica Rock Cycle Plate tectonics, rock cycle The Rock Cycle A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one

More information

GLY 155 Introduction to Physical Geology, W. Altermann. Grotzinger Jordan. Understanding Earth. Sixth Edition

GLY 155 Introduction to Physical Geology, W. Altermann. Grotzinger Jordan. Understanding Earth. Sixth Edition Grotzinger Jordan Understanding Earth Sixth Edition Chapter 4: IGNEOUS ROCKS Solids from Melts 2011 by W. H. Freeman and Company Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks: Solids from Melts 1 About Igneous Rocks Igneous

More information

Block: Igneous Rocks. From this list, select the terms which answer the following questions.

Block: Igneous Rocks. From this list, select the terms which answer the following questions. Geology 12 Name: Mix and Match: Igneous Rocks Refer to the following list. Block: porphyritic volatiles mafic glassy magma mixing concordant discontinuous reaction series igneous vesicular partial melting

More information

Igneous Rocks. Definition of Igneous Rocks. Igneous rocks form from cooling and crystallization of molten rock- magma

Igneous Rocks. Definition of Igneous Rocks. Igneous rocks form from cooling and crystallization of molten rock- magma Igneous Rocks Definition of Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form from cooling and crystallization of molten rock- magma Magma molten rock within the Earth Lava molten rock on the Earth s s surface Igneous

More information

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through.

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through. A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one type of rocky material gets transformed into another The Rock Cycle Representation

More information

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks Rock Definition A naturally occurring consolidated mixture of one or more minerals e.g, marble, granite, sandstone, limestone Rock Definition Must naturally occur in nature,

More information

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED HOW CHAPTER 3 ROCK WERE FORMED 1 I. Modern geology- 1795 A. James Hutton- 1. uniformitarianism- "the present is the key to the past" a. b. the geologic processes now at work were also active in the past

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Igneous Rocks What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. extrusive igneous rock intrusive

More information

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED

CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED HOW CHAPTER 5 ROCK WERE FORMED 1 I. Modern geology- 1795 A. James Hutton- 1. uniformitarianism- "the present is the key to the past" a. b. the geologic processes now at work were also active in the past

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Igneous Rocks What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. extrusive igneous rock intrusive

More information

Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks and Plutons

Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks and Plutons Chapter 4: Igneous Rocks and Plutons Chapter Outline 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava 4.3 How Does Magma Originate and Change? 4.4 Igneous Rocks Their Characteristics

More information

The Nature of Igneous Rocks

The Nature of Igneous Rocks The Nature of Igneous Rocks Form from Magma Hot, partially molten mixture of solid liquid and gas Mineral crystals form in the magma making a crystal slush Gases - H 2 O, CO 2, etc. - are dissolved in

More information

Student Name: College: Grade:

Student Name: College: Grade: Student Name: College: Grade: Physical Geology Laboratory IGNEOUS MINERALS AND ROCKS IDENTIFICATION - INTRODUCTION & PURPOSE: In this lab you will learn to identify igneous rocks in hand samples from their

More information

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Learning objectives Understand and be able to predict where and why magma will be forming at different tectonic settings Understand the factors controlling magma

More information

Igneous Rocks and Intrusive Activity

Igneous Rocks and Intrusive Activity Summary IGNEOUS ROCKS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS DERIVED FROM IGNEOUS parents make up about 95 percent of Earth s crust. Furthermore, the mantle, which accounts for more than 82 percent of Earth s volume, is

More information

Igneous Rocks. Igneous Rocks. Genetic Classification of

Igneous Rocks. Igneous Rocks. Genetic Classification of Igneous Rocks Fig. 5.1 Genetic Classification of Igneous Rocks Intrusive: crystallized from slowly cooling magma intruded within the Earth s crust; e.g. granite, gabbro 1 Fig. 5.2 Genetic Classification

More information

Earth Science 11: Earth Materials: Rock Cycle

Earth Science 11: Earth Materials: Rock Cycle Name: Date: Earth Science 11: Earth Materials: Rock Cycle Chapter 2, pages 44 to 46 2.1: Rock Cycle What is a Rock? A solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet

More information

PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS PLATE TECTONICS, VOLCANISM AND IGNEOUS ROCKS PLATE TECTONICS TO IGNEOUS ROCKS Internal Heat Seafloor Spreading/Plate Tectonics Volcanism Plate Boundary Intra-plate (hot spot) Divergent Convergent Igneous

More information

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form?

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form? Section 2 Igneous Rocks and the Geologic History of Your Community What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Goals Text Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Identify and classify

More information

7.1 Magma and Magma Formation

7.1 Magma and Magma Formation Physical Geology, 2nd Adapted Edition by Karla Panchuk is used under a CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license. Chapter 7. Igneous Rocks Introduction Learning Objectives After carefully reading this chapter,

More information

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members:

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Igneous Rocks Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Types of Magma Basaltic, Basic or Mafic very hot (900-1200 C) very fluid

More information

10/20/2015. How is magma different from lava? Magma is molten rock below the Earth s surface. Lava is magma that flows out onto Earth s surface.

10/20/2015. How is magma different from lava? Magma is molten rock below the Earth s surface. Lava is magma that flows out onto Earth s surface. Chapter 5 What are igneous rocks? How do they form? Igneous rocks are rocks that form when molten material cools and crystallizes. Molten material can be either magma or lava. How is magma different from

More information

Lab 3: Igneous Rocks

Lab 3: Igneous Rocks Lab 3: Igneous Rocks The Geology in YOUR life initiative Mount Shinmoedake erupts in Japan (Jan 26, 2010) Volcanic smoke rises from Mount Shinmoedake on 1 February, 2011. Smoke rises from Mount Shinmoedake

More information

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements.

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. CHAPTER 5 Igneous Rocks SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. basaltic

More information

Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT

Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 1. What is the role of a geologist? Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 2016-2017 2. Earth is subdivided into three main layers based on what? 3. What features do you find at divergent boundaries? 4. Rock

More information

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity Aka Volcano Under the City 18.1 Magma Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Temperature and pressure increase

More information

Igneous Processes I: Igneous Rock Formation, Compositions, and Textures

Igneous Processes I: Igneous Rock Formation, Compositions, and Textures Igneous Processes I: Igneous Rock Formation, Compositions, and Textures Crustal Abundances of Rock Types Igneous Rocks Form by the cooling and hardening (crystallization/glassification) of magma. There

More information

RR#7 - Multiple Choice

RR#7 - Multiple Choice 1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? 1) hematite 2) fluorite 3) galena 4) talc 2. Which rock is composed of the mineral halite that formed when seawater evaporated? 1) limestone 2) dolostone

More information

CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY OF ROCKS

CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY OF ROCKS CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY OF ROCKS INTRODUCTION Rock is defined as a mixtures formed of aggregates of one or more minerals (aggregate of minerals). Rocks can be formed by many different processes such as: (1)

More information

Minerals Give Clues To Their Environment Of Formation. Also. Rocks: Mixtures of Minerals

Minerals Give Clues To Their Environment Of Formation. Also. Rocks: Mixtures of Minerals Minerals Give Clues To Their Environment Of Formation!!Can be a unique set of conditions to form a particular mineral or rock!!temperature and pressure determine conditions to form diamond or graphite

More information

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 10 Rocks 1 Chapter 10 Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle 2 10.1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Magma is the parent material for all rocks. Once the magma cools and hardens, many changes can occur. Geology:

More information

THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS. Subtitle

THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS. Subtitle THE ROCK CYCLE & ROCKS Subtitle 3. Three rocks that do not have minerals or are composed of nonmineral matter. Coal Pumuce Obsidian THE ROCK CYCLE Why do scientists study rocks? Rocks contain clues about

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks?

Page 1. Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks? Name: 1) Which diagram best shows the grain size of some common sedimentary rocks? 1663-1 - Page 1 5) The flowchart below illustrates the change from melted rock to basalt. 2) Which processes most likely

More information

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)

More information

Name. GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks

Name. GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks Name GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Igneous Rocks I. Introduction The bulk of the earth's crust is composed of relatively few minerals. These can be mixed together, however, to give an endless variety

More information

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper Happy Tuesday Pull out a ½ sheet of paper 1. Physical properties of a mineral are predominantly related to 1. the external conditions of temperature, pressure, and amount of space available for growth.

More information

Version 1 Page 1 Barnard/George/Ward

Version 1 Page 1 Barnard/George/Ward The Great Mineral & Rock Test 1. Base your answer to the following question on the table below which provides information about the crystal sizes and the mineral compositions of four igneous rocks, A,

More information

1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D)

1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D) 1. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? A) B) C) D) 2. Rhyolite is an example of a A) monomineralic igneous rock B) polymineralic igneous rock C) monomineralic

More information

Unit 2 Exam: Rocks & Minerals

Unit 2 Exam: Rocks & Minerals Name: Date: 1. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the 2001 edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables, the map and cross section below, and your knowledge of Earth science. The shaded

More information

1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc

1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc 1. Which mineral is mined for its iron content? A) hematite B) fluorite C) galena D) talc 2. Which material is made mostly of the mineral quartz? A) sulfuric acid B) pencil lead C) plaster of paris D)

More information

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Fires Within: Igneous Activity Foundations, 6e - Chapter 7 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College The nature of volcanic eruptions Characteristics

More information

Igneous Rock Notes. Page #:

Igneous Rock Notes. Page #: Page #: Igneous Rock Notes Magma and lava form very different types of igneous rocks. Igneous rocks form from molten rock, but where does molten rock come from? The temperature inside Earth with depth.

More information

Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification

Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification Wk. 8 Minerals and Rocks: Formation, identification and classification Earth Materials Minerals Gemstones and other minerals, such as gold, have fascinated people for thousands of years and have been supposed

More information

Rocks. Basic definitions. Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks. Basic definitions. Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Rocks Basic definitions Rock: a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals or glass. Igneus Rocks: all rocks that form by cooling and/or crystalization of molten material within the crust or at the

More information

1. In the diagram below, letters A and B represent locations near the edge of a continent.

1. In the diagram below, letters A and B represent locations near the edge of a continent. 1. In the diagram below, letters A and B represent locations near the edge of a continent. A geologist who compares nonsedimentary rock samples from locations A and B would probably find that the samples

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions:

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions: Geology 101 Origin of Magma From our discussions of the structure of the interior of the Earth, it is clear that the upper parts of the Earth (crust and mantle) are mostly solid because s-waves penetrate

More information

Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics. Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics Continental Drift Sea-Floor Spreading Theory of Plate Tectonics Section 9.1 Continental Drift -- Section 9.1: Continental Drift -- Continental drift Hypothesis stating that the continents once formed a

More information

Igneous Rock Processes and Identification

Igneous Rock Processes and Identification Igneous Rock Processes and Identification http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html http://earthsci.org/education/teacher/basicgeol/igneous/igneous.html#kindsofigneousrocks Major Concepts 1)

More information

Name Regents Review #7 Date

Name Regents Review #7 Date Name Regents Review #7 Date Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the pictures of four rocks shown below. Magnified views of the rocks are shown in the circles. 5. The diagrams below show the crystal

More information

Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary. Chapter 5 & Chapter 6

Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary. Chapter 5 & Chapter 6 Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary Chapter 5 & Chapter 6 Section 5.1 What are Igneous Rocks? Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Describe the composition of magma Discuss the factors

More information

Theme 5. Igneous rocks

Theme 5. Igneous rocks Theme 5. Igneous rocks 5.1. Igneous rocks and plate tectonics 5.2. Igneous structures and forms 5.3. Classification of igneous rocks 5.1. Igneous rocks and plate tectonics Remember! Source: Understanding

More information

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions:

Most mafic magmas come from the upper mantle and lower crust. This handout will address five questions: IDS 102 Origin of Magma From our discussions of the structure of the interior of the Earth, it is clear that the upper parts of the Earth (crust and mantle) are mostly solid because s-waves penetrate those

More information

ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks

ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks ES Chap 5 & 6: Rocks Objectives 1. Identify and explain characteristics of igneous rocks. This means that if I am given an igneous rock I: a. Can use grain size to identify a rock as intrusive, extrusive,

More information

Magma Formation and Behavior

Magma Formation and Behavior Magma Formation and Behavior Questions What causes mantle rock to melt, resulting in magma formation? Why is magma formation restricted to specific plate tectonic settings? Why are mafic (basaltic) magmas

More information

WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing.

WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing. WHAT ARE ROCKS? ROCKS are a naturally occurring SOLID MIXTURE of one or more minerals and organic matter. Rocks are ALWAYS changing. How do we classify Rocks? Formation (where and how the rock was formed)

More information

When magma is ejected by a volcano or other vent, the material is called lava. Magma that has cooled into a solid is called igneous rock.

When magma is ejected by a volcano or other vent, the material is called lava. Magma that has cooled into a solid is called igneous rock. This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 4) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry magma For the

More information

Rocks Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3

Rocks Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3 Reading this week: Ch. 2 and App. C Reading for next week: Ch. 3 I. Environmental significance II. Definition III. 3 major classes IV. The Rock Cycle V. Secondary classification VI. Additional sub-classes

More information

Recognising Igneous Rocks Teacher Notes

Recognising Igneous Rocks Teacher Notes Minerals are the building blocks of rocks Minerals are inorganic crystals with constant structure and composition Classification of igneous rocks Igneous (Latin ig = fire, neous = born) rocks are formed

More information

Non-metallic Resources: Diamonds

Non-metallic Resources: Diamonds Non-metallic Resources: Diamonds Rock cycle and plate boundaries One or more minerals held together by a matrix Rock types: Igneous Form from the solidification and crystallization of -magma (molten rock

More information

Some notes on igneous rock by Vince Cronin

Some notes on igneous rock by Vince Cronin Some notes on igneous rock by Vince Cronin Principle of uniformitarianism: The physical and chemical laws that govern the physical/chemical world are the same now as in the past. (That is, during virtually

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics 1. Some volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than a(n) a. hand grenade. b. earthquake. c. geyser. d. atomic bomb. 2. The cause

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals.

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle 1. The solid part of Earth is made up of material called a. glacial ice. b. lava. c. rock. d. wood. 2. Rock can be a collection of one

More information

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes Volcanology The study of volcanoes Magma forms wherever temperature and pressure are high enough to melt rock. Some magma forms at the aesthenosphere Magma also forms at plate boundaries, where intense

More information

9/24/2017. ES Ch 5 & 6 Rocks 1. Objectives -Igneous. Chapters 5 and 6. Objectives - Sedimentary. Objectives Metamorphic. Objectives Rock Cycle

9/24/2017. ES Ch 5 & 6 Rocks 1. Objectives -Igneous. Chapters 5 and 6. Objectives - Sedimentary. Objectives Metamorphic. Objectives Rock Cycle Chapters 5 and 6 Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks.. Objectives -Igneous 1. Identify and explain characteristics of igneous rocks. This means that if I am given an igneous rock I a. Can use grain

More information

Constitution of Magmas. Magmas. Gas Law. Composition. Atomic Structure of Magma. Structural Model. PV = nrt H 2 O + O -2 = 2(OH) -

Constitution of Magmas. Magmas. Gas Law. Composition. Atomic Structure of Magma. Structural Model. PV = nrt H 2 O + O -2 = 2(OH) - Constitution of Magmas Magmas Best, Ch. 8 Hot molten rock T = 700-1200 degrees C Composed of ions or complexes Phase Homogeneous Separable part of the system With an interface Composition Most components

More information

Geology Lab: The Properties of Minerals & Igneous Rocks. Part 1: Minerals

Geology Lab: The Properties of Minerals & Igneous Rocks. Part 1: Minerals Geology 101, Lab Section (20 Points) Your First & Last Name: Geology Lab: The Properties of Minerals & Igneous Rocks Part 1: Minerals This section designed to introduce you to the most common minerals

More information

Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D

Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 1 Compared to felsic igneous rocks, mafic igneous rocks contain greater amounts of (1) white quartz (3) pink feldspar (2) aluminum (4) iron 2 The diagram below shows how a sample of the mineral mica breaks

More information

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8 th Grade Ring of Fire a major belt of es that rims the Pacific Ocean Volcanic belts form along the boundaries of Earth s plates as they

More information

Classification of Igneous Rocks

Classification of Igneous Rocks Classification of Igneous Rocks Textures: Glassy- no crystals formed Aphanitic- crystals too small to see by eye Phaneritic- can see the constituent minerals Fine grained- < 1 mm diameter Medium grained-

More information

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types GEOL 0820 Ramsey Natural Disasters Spring, 2018 LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types Date: 13 February 2018 I. Exam I grades are posted on the class website (link at the bottom

More information

Igneous Rocks. By: Abboud Suliman Ahmed. With Some Graphics from Press et al., Understanding Earth, 4th Ed.

Igneous Rocks. By: Abboud Suliman Ahmed. With Some Graphics from Press et al., Understanding Earth, 4th Ed. Igneous Rocks With Some Graphics from Press et al., Understanding Earth, 4th Ed. (Copyright 2004 by W. H. Freeman & Company) By: Abboud Suliman Ahmed Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form from molten rock (magma)

More information

Igneous Rocks Chapter 3. Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and crystallizes (solidifies) from either a magma or a lava

Igneous Rocks Chapter 3. Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and crystallizes (solidifies) from either a magma or a lava Igneous Rocks Chapter 3 Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and crystallizes (solidifies) from either a magma or a lava Formation of Igneous Rocks Magma: forms from partially melted rocks INSIDE the

More information

A R O U N D W E G O COLOR CODE THE PATHWAY TO IGNEOUS ROCKS!

A R O U N D W E G O COLOR CODE THE PATHWAY TO IGNEOUS ROCKS! COLOR CODE THE PATHWAY TO IGNEOUS ROCKS! A R O U N D W E G O VOCABULARY FOR IGNEOUS ROCKS IGNEOUS ORIGINS volcanoes active volcano dormant volcano magma plutonic rocks intrusives lava volcanic rocks extrusives

More information

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED Volcano Vocabulary VOLCANISM VENT CRATER CALDERA QUIET ERUPTION EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION PYROCLASTIC DEBRIS CINDER CONE SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO STRATO VOLCANO ACTIVE DORMANT EXTINCT INTRUSION DIKE SILL

More information

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards Session 5 Magma and Volcanism Lecturer: Dr. Patrick Asamoah Sakyi Department of Earth Science, UG Contact Information: pasakyi@ug.edu.gh College

More information

Topics. Magma Ascent and Emplacement. Magma Generation. Magma Rise. Energy Sources. Instabilities. How does magma ascend? How do dikes form?

Topics. Magma Ascent and Emplacement. Magma Generation. Magma Rise. Energy Sources. Instabilities. How does magma ascend? How do dikes form? Magma Ascent and Emplacement Reading: Encyclopedia of Volcanoes: Physical Properties of Magmas (pp. 171-190) Magma Chambers (pp. 191-206) Plumbing Systems (pp. 219-236) Magma ascent at shallow levels (pp.237-249)

More information

Solid Earth materials:

Solid Earth materials: Solid Earth materials: Elements minerals rocks Nonuniform distribution of matter Molten core Contains most heavy elements Iron, nickel Thin surface crust Mostly lighter elements 8 elements make up 98.6%

More information

Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions

Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions Rocks and the Rock Cycle notes from the textbook, integrated with original contributions Alessandro Grippo, Ph.D. Gneiss (a metamorphic rock) from Catalina Island, California Alessandro Grippo review Rocks

More information

Introduction & Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks

Introduction & Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 14 EENS-2120 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction & Textures & Structures of Igneous Rocks This document last updated on 08-Jan-2015 Petrology & Petrography Petrology - The branch of

More information

40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture

40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture Event: Judge: Rocks & Minerals Pierre couture 40-50 Minutes, 3 minutes per station, 13 Stations, samples provided by UWM and Pierre Couture 1-4 Minerals (50 points total) 5-7 Igneous Rocks (50 points total)

More information

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through Volcanoes A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt. Also, the landform that develops around this opening. Kinds of Eruptions Geologists classify volcanic

More information

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures CHAPTER 4 2 Igneous Rock SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture

More information

Earth s Interior and Geophysical Properties. Chapter 13

Earth s Interior and Geophysical Properties. Chapter 13 Earth s Interior and Geophysical Properties Chapter 13 Introduction Can we just go there? Deep interior of the Earth must be studied indirectly Direct access only to crustal rocks and upper mantle fragments

More information

Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms.

Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Chapter 10 Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Reading Strategy Previewing Before you read the section,

More information

2. What is sample 1B? a. chalcopyrite b. plagioclase feldspar c. muscovite d. copper e. magnetite f. galena g. pyrite

2. What is sample 1B? a. chalcopyrite b. plagioclase feldspar c. muscovite d. copper e. magnetite f. galena g. pyrite HSAG Mineral and Rock Exam 2014 Note: Most sample numbers do NOT match question numbers so be careful. Team: 1. What is sample 1A? a. magnetite b. galena c. pyrite d. chalcopyrite e. copper f. graphite

More information

Which rock is shown? A) slate B) dunite C) gneiss D) quartzite

Which rock is shown? A) slate B) dunite C) gneiss D) quartzite 1. Which metamorphic rock will have visible mica crystals and a foliated texture? A) marble B) quartzite C) schist D) slate 2. The recrystallization of unmelted material under high temperature and pressure

More information

Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2002 EXAM 1

Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2002 EXAM 1 Geol 101: Physical Geology Fall 2002 EXAM 1 Write your name out in full on the scantron form and fill in the corresponding ovals to spell out your name. Also fill in your student ID number in the space

More information

Framework Silicates & Building the Crust. JD Price

Framework Silicates & Building the Crust. JD Price Framework Silicates & Building the Crust JD Price Silicate Structure Silicate Structure (SiO2) Zeolites Zeolites have cage-like structures that store water (or other large molecules). Typically found in

More information

ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample _KEY DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM!

ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample _KEY DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM! ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample _KEY DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM! 1.1 Color in the shadowed side of Moon. This side is in shadow this side is lighted This diagram shows the moon in

More information

Station 2 2. Identify the type of each sample (i.e. rock type, mineral class) 3. Samples A and B have a very similar appearance. What key characterist

Station 2 2. Identify the type of each sample (i.e. rock type, mineral class) 3. Samples A and B have a very similar appearance. What key characterist Station 1 2. Identify the type of each sample (i.e. rock type, mineral class) 3. What is an important economic use of sample 1B? Station 2 2. Identify the type of each sample (i.e. rock type, mineral class)

More information

ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM! Lab 1

ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM! Lab 1 ES 104 Lab Quiz Name: _ Sample DO NOT WRITE ON THIS SHEET. USE THE SCANTRON FORM! Lab 1 1. Note the shadowed side of Moon. This diagram shows the moon in what phase? a) First quarter b) full c) third quarter

More information

Rocks. Chapter Outline. Chapter. Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Igneous Rock. Sedimentary Rock. Metamorphic Rock. Why It Matters

Rocks. Chapter Outline. Chapter. Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Igneous Rock. Sedimentary Rock. Metamorphic Rock. Why It Matters Chapter 6 Rocks Chapter Outline 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Three Major Types of Rock The Rock Cycle Properties of Rocks 2 Igneous Rock The Formation of Magma Textures of Igneous Rocks Composition of Igneous

More information

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb.

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Ch. 13 Volcanoes Volcanoes Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Many of these eruptions are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanism Volcanism-any activity

More information

MACRORYTHMIC GABBRO TO GRANITE CYCLES OF CLAM COVE VINALHAVEN INTRUSION, MAINE

MACRORYTHMIC GABBRO TO GRANITE CYCLES OF CLAM COVE VINALHAVEN INTRUSION, MAINE MACRORYTHMIC GABBRO TO GRANITE CYCLES OF CLAM COVE VINALHAVEN INTRUSION, MAINE NICK CUBA Amherst College Sponsor: Peter Crowley INTRODUCTION The rocks of the layered gabbro-diorite unit of the Silurian

More information

9. The table below shows some properties of four different minerals. Rocks and Minerals A B1

9. The table below shows some properties of four different minerals. Rocks and Minerals A B1 Rocks and Minerals A B1 1. Which element is most abundant in Earth s crust? (1) nitrogen (3) oxygen (2) hydrogen (4) silicon 2. Which group of elements is listed in increasing order based on the percent

More information

Composition of the earth, Geologic Time, and Plate Tectonics

Composition of the earth, Geologic Time, and Plate Tectonics Composition of the earth, Geologic Time, and Plate Tectonics Layers of the earth Chemical vs. Mechanical Chemical : Mechanical: 1) Core: Ni and Fe 2) Mantle: Mostly Peridotite 3) Crust: Many different

More information