Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

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1 Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education * * ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 0680/23 Paper 2 October/November hour 45 minutes Candidates answer on the Question Paper. Additional Materials: Ruler READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs. Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES. Answer both questions. Electronic calculators may be used. You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. This document consists of 16 printed pages. DC (SJF/SW) 91033/4 [Turn over

2 2 1 (a) Look at the diagram of the water cycle. wind Key direction of water movement evaporation ocean On the diagram add the letters A, B, C, D and E to show where the following processes occur: A precipitation B transpiration C infiltration D surface run-off E groundwater flow [4]

3 3 (b) (i) Complete the graph, showing the annual change in forest area by continent for the period 2000 to 2005 using the figures in the table. Africa and Asia have been completed for you. continent annual loss of forest area / km 2 annual gain of forest area / km 2 Africa Asia Europe 8000 North and Central America 3000 Oceania 3000 South America annual change in forest area / km Africa Asia Europe North and Central America Oceania South America [2] [Turn over

4 4 (ii) Calculate the total change in the amount of forest area.... km 2 [2] (iii) Suggest two reasons why the land area covered by forest is increasing in some continents....[2] (c) Look at the maps, which show the reduction in forest area in south east Asia from 1970 to N Myanmar Myanmar Laos Laos Thailand Thailand Indian Ocean Cambodia Vietnam Indian Ocean Cambodia Vietnam South China Sea Key primary forest South China Sea Malaysia Malaysia km (i) Name the country with the lowest percentage of forest cover in [1] (ii) Name the country where the least amount of deforestation took place between 1970 and [1]

5 5 (iii) Give two reasons why deforestation takes place....[2] (d) Look at the diagram below, which shows changes in a valley as a result of deforestation. before deforestation after deforestation more run-off more sediment transport more infiltration less infiltration river sediment deposit from soil (i) Using the diagram, explain why more sediment is washed into the river after deforestation than before deforestation....[3] [Turn over

6 6 (ii) Using the diagram, explain why the river is more likely to flood after deforestation....[3] (iii) Give one reason why a farmer, who has cleared the forest for farming, would want to stop the loss of soil into the river....[1] (iv) Describe how a farmer, who has cleared the forest for farming, could reduce the amount of soil being washed into the river....[3]

7 7 (e) Look at the fact sheet below. Many farmers use fertilisers to increase their crop yields. Some of these fertilisers can get into nearby rivers. Untreated sewage often enters rivers from human settlements. Fertilisers and sewage contain compounds rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. These compounds are essential for plant growth. However, water quality is affected when they are present in large amounts. Plants, especially algae and plankton, grow quickly. Algae can cover the surface, reducing the sunlight entering the water. This is called an algal bloom. When these plants die and decay, bacteria use the oxygen dissolved in the water so the level of oxygen is reduced. Often the water is no longer clear, but green in colour. This process is called eutrophication. healthy river river showing eutrophication sunlight low nutrient input high nutrient input sunlight healthy aquatic plants normal algae growth algal bloom reduced aquatic plants algae die-off normal oxygen bacterial decomposition of algae low oxygen (i) Describe how fertilisers can get into rivers....[2] (ii) Explain why an algal bloom causes aquatic plants in the river to die....[2] [Turn over

8 8 (iii) Explain why eutrophication of a river can cause fish to die....[2] (iv) Suggest ways in which farmers and people living in settlements could reduce the risk of eutrophication described in the fact sheet. farmers... people......[4] (f) How far do you agree with the following statement? We need to clear more forests for farmland to feed the increasing world population. Give reasons for your answer [6] [Total: 40]

9 2 (a) Look at the map, showing volcanic eruptions during one week in September Tropic of Cancer North America Atlantic Ocean Europe Africa Asia Pacific Ocean Equator Tropic of Capricorn South America Indian Ocean Oceania Key volcanic eruption Describe the distribution of volcanic eruptions shown on the map [4] [Turn over

10 10 (b) Look at the table below, which lists the 10 volcanic eruptions that caused the largest loss of life during the 20th century. volcano country year deaths major cause of deaths Soufriere St. Vincent ash flows Mount Pelée Martinique ash flows Taal Philippines ash flows Kelut Indonesia mud flows Lamington Papua New Guinea ash flows Hibok-Hibok Philippines ash flows Agung Indonesia ash flows El Chichon Mexico ash flows Ruiz Colombia mud flows Pinatubo Philippines disease (i) Using the table, name the volcano which caused the most deaths....[1] (ii) Name the country listed in the table which had the most eruptions....[1] (iii) Using the table, put the major causes of death in order, starting with the highest. highest lowest... [1] (c) Suggest why lava flows are not a major cause of deaths during volcanic eruptions [2]

11 (d) Look at the map of the southern part of the island of Montserrat in February Montserrat is a tropical island in the Caribbean, with white beaches and tropical rainforest. The lava, ash and mud flows result from the eruptions of the Soufriere Hills volcano. The volcano has erupted vast amounts of ash, which is several metres thick in much of the southern part of Montserrat. The volcano has been erupting since Plymouth used to be the capital city. Harris was a farming village. The airport for Montserrat was located at Trant s Bay. Nearly all the land shown on the map is now an exclusion zone, where entry is not allowed. Montserrat, area shown on the map N Trant s Bay Harris Caribbean Sea Plymouth Soufriere Hills volcano farmland partly covered in ash 0 1 km Key tropical rainforest ash, mud flows bare rock and lava farmland Altantic Ocean [Turn over

12 12 (i) Suggest why people are no longer allowed into the southern part of Montserrat....[2] (ii) Describe the effects of the continuing eruptions on the people and economy of Montserrat....[5]

13 13 (iii) On the grid below, draw a line graph to show the changes in the population of Montserrat from 1991 to year population [4] (iv) Calculate the percentage decrease in the population of Montserrat between 1996 and % [2] [Turn over

14 14 (v) Suggest how the volcanic eruption affected the natural vegetation and wildlife of the southern part of Montserrat and the surrounding seas....[4] (e) After natural disasters people often become ill and may die due to water-borne diseases such as cholera. Look at the bar graph, which shows the number of reported cases of cholera by continent from 2001 to number of cases year Key Africa Asia Americas (i) Complete the bar for 2011 using the following figures: Africa Asia Americas [2]

15 15 (ii) State the continent where cholera was reported every year....[1] (iii) Describe how cholera is spread and explain why it is much more likely after a natural disaster such as flooding or an earthquake....[5] [Turn over

16 16 (f) Malaria is a water-bred disease, which kills many people every year. (i) Explain why malaria is a water-bred disease....[2] (ii) Suggest the best ways to control the spread of malaria. Give reasons for your answer....[4] [Total: 40] Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity. Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

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