Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018"

Transcription

1 Lecture Outline Wednesday - Friday February 14-16, 2018 Quiz 2 scheduled for Friday Feb 23 (Interlude B, Chapters 6,7) Questions? Chapter 6 Pages of the Past: Sedimentary Rocks Key Points for today Be able to identify the 3 categories of sedimentary rocks using texture and composition Be able to recognize the different types of sedimentary structures Understand how sediments are converted to sedimentary rocks Sedimentary Rocks Clastic (Detrital) Biochemical Chemical Where are the different types of sedimentary rock types found? Abundance by Sedimentary rock types Siltstone, mudstone, and shale 75% Sandstone and conglomerate 11% Carbonate rocks 14% What about chemical precipitants? ( ) Clastic/Detrital Sedimentary Rocks Composed of pieces of (clastic sediment). Classified by texture (, and arrangement of sediments.) Mudstone Sandstone Conglomerate or Breccia Texture is affected by transport process (Terms may be used to describe sediment or sedimentary rocks) Particle size, silt,, gravel (pebble, cobble, boulder) Shape Angular to Well Rounded

2 Sorting ( ) Well Sorted to Poorly Sorted Sorting are the particles about the same size? If yes well sorted. If no poorly sorted. How do grain size, shape and sorting change with increase in transport distance? The more the the transport. The more the the transport. With more transport the particles become and (similar in size). The size of the particles reflects the energy it takes to move them. Example: for a stream to move large particles like cobbles and boulders the moving water must be very fast high energy. However if the stream is only capable of moving fine particles like silt and clay then the water in the stream must be very slow low energy. Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Comprised of the remains of organisms (plants and animals). Classified by. Ex: Limestone Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Composed of (like salt from evaporating seawater). Looks crystalline (but crystals may be very small. Classified by composition (minerals). Ex: Rock Salt, Rock Gypsum Sedimentary Structures (be able to recognize or identify from slide or description) Parallel layers of sediments. Each layer is called a bed. Sets of bedded sediments at an angle to horizontal. Deposited by currents (wind or water). Ex: Dunes Cross-bedding indicates the direction of current. Beds progress from coarse grains at bottom to fine grains at top of bed. Indicates waning of current. Wavy lines formed on top of a bed of sand or silt by waves or currents. Smaller scale than larger cross-beds. Can be preserved in rocks. Common on shorelines. Ripples can be symmetrical or asymmetrical Polygonal pattern of cracks that develop in mud as it dries.

3 Ex: Mudflats (or other areas exposed to wet/dry cycles). Burrow marks left in sediments by animals. Footprints, etc. left in sediment by animals. Why are sedimentary structures so important? (earth history). The present is the key to the past Principal of Uniformiantarianism Sediments are transported and deposited by one of the agents of erosion - wind, water, ice, or gravity The depositional environment is the geographical area in which the sediment is deposited. Depositional Environments are characterized by a combination of: sedimentary rock types sedimentary textures sedimentary structures present Geologists observe these features in sedimentary rock to determine the ancient environment where the sediment was deposited. Diagenesis - the chemical and physical changes that transform sediment into rock As sediments accumulate, older layers become buried. Sediments become compacted and heated. Sedimentary rocks generally form up to about 10km deep (around 300 degrees C). Lithification - hardening of soft sediments into rock: pore space volume is reduced due to weight of overlying sediment, and/or chemically precipitated minerals in pore spaces (acts as a glue by binding the materials together) common cements -,, hematite Lecture Outline Friday February 16, 2018 Key Points for today Understand how water, wind, ice, and gravity affect the size of the sediment being moved Be able to recognize and name some common depositional environments Common Sedimentary Environments Continental (Clastic dominates) Streams (fluvial) Desert (minor chemical) Lake Glacial Shoreline (Clastic dominates) Deltaic (where rivers enter the ocean)

4 Tidal Flat (exposed at low tide) Beach Marine (Mostly Clastic with some Chemical and Biochemical) Continental Shelf Continental Margin Reefs Deep Sea Clastic Sedimentary Environment Agents of Transport Wind Most selective agent Results in sediments Sand, Silt or Dust (sand grains may be frosted) Example description: Very Well Sorted Quartz Sandstone Cross Bedding What environment is it? Water Selection and sorting vary. Depends of. Ex: Faster moving waves on a beach can move gravels, deeper, grain size decreases. Glacial ice Least selective Results in sediments Note: Lack of bedding or other structures. Gravity Results in poorly sorted sediments angular Examples of Clastic Sedimentary Wind transport be able to recognize from a slide) Dunes can form in or Water transport ( be able to recognize from slide) Fan Sandstone can form in all these locations. The particles that make-up the sandstone will vary depending on where they originated and were they were deposited. Ice transport Glacier Biochemical Sedimentary Environments Carbonate deposition Marine Setting

5 and dolostone Composed of carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite). Property?? Precipitated by organisms or inorganically Reefs are mound shaped organic structures composed of carbonate skeletons like coral. How Atolls are formed reefs formed around extinct volcanoes. The volcanoes erode and sink as the ocean plate subsides, but the reef continues to grow at a faster pace than subsidence. Floating organisms also secrete calcium and silica skeletons. When they die they settle to the ocean floor and creating limey and silica rich sediment which can be lithified into sedimentary rocks like limestone and chert. Where does coal come from? Where does the oil and gas that we use in cars and trucks come from? Chemical Sedimentary Environment (deserts and marine) Salts form as water from a shallow basin. Forms minerals like Halite and Gypsum. Modern Ex: Great Salt Lake, Ancient Ex:

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment From sediments to sedimentary rocks (transportation, deposition, preservation and lithification) Types of sedimentary rocks (clastic, chemical and organic) Sedimentary

More information

UNIT 4 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

UNIT 4 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS UNIT 4 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS WHAT ARE SEDIMENTS Sediments are loose Earth materials (unconsolidated materials) such as sand which are transported by the action of water, wind, glacial ice and gravity. These

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rocks Origin, Properties and Identification Geology Laboratory GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rock Origin and Identification Lab Pre-Lab Internet Link Resources 1) http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Physical Geology GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Physical Geology GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rocks Origin, Properties and Identification Physical Geology GEOL 101 Lab Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rock Origin and Identification Lab Pre-Lab Internet Link Resources 1) http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Physical Geology GEOL 100. Ray Rector - Instructor

Sedimentary Rocks. Origin, Properties and Identification. Physical Geology GEOL 100. Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rocks Origin, Properties and Identification Physical Geology GEOL 100 Ray Rector - Instructor Sedimentary Rock Origin and Identification Lab Pre-Lab Internet Link Resources 1) http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html

More information

13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p )

13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p ) 13. Sedimentary Rocks I (p. 194-208) Sediment Deposition Weathering results in rock being broken down into smaller fragments, called regolith. This regolith is then broken down to form soil. The regolith

More information

Sediment and Sedimentary rock

Sediment and Sedimentary rock Sediment and Sedimentary rock Sediment: An accumulation of loose mineral grains, such as boulders, pebbles, sand, silt or mud, which are not cemented together. Mechanical and chemical weathering produces

More information

Sediment. Weathering: mechanical and chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock and minerals at the surface

Sediment. Weathering: mechanical and chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock and minerals at the surface Sediment Some basic terminology Weathering: mechanical and chemical decomposition and disintegration of rock and minerals at the surface Erosion: removal of weathered rock and minerals from one place to

More information

Chapter 6 Pages of Earth s Past: Sedimentary Rocks

Chapter 6 Pages of Earth s Past: Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Pages of Earth s Past: Sedimentary Rocks Introduction! Drilling into the bottom of the North Sea, we encounter: " Soft mud and loose sand, silt, pebbles, and shells. Then: " Similar materials

More information

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks (Shaping Earth s Surface, Part 2) Science 330 Summer 2005 What is a sedimentary rock? Products of mechanical and chemical weathering Account for about 5 percent of Earth

More information

A Sedimentary Rock is..

A Sedimentary Rock is.. Sedimentary Rocks A Sedimentary Rock is.. rock formed from the lithification or crystallization of: 1. Minerals in solution 2. Organic remains 3. Materials produced by living things (biochemical) 4. Clastic

More information

A Sedimentary Rock is..

A Sedimentary Rock is.. Sedimentary Rocks A Sedimentary Rock is.. rock formed from the lithification or crystallization of: 1. Minerals in solution 2. Organic remains 3. Materials produced by living things (biochemical) 4. Clastic

More information

The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks

The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are composed of: Fragments of other rocks Chemical precipitates Organic matter or biochemically produced materials The Nature of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary

More information

Module 9 Sedimentary Rocks

Module 9 Sedimentary Rocks Module 9 Sedimentary Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Rocks formed from material derived from preexisting rocks by surfacial processes followed by diagenesis There are two main classes of sedimentary rocks Clastic

More information

Understanding Earth Fifth Edition

Understanding Earth Fifth Edition Understanding Earth Fifth Edition Grotzinger Jordan Press Siever Chapter 5: SEDIMENTATION: Rocks Formed by Surface Processes Lecturer: H Mohammadzadeh Assistant professors, Department of Geology, FUM Copyright

More information

NC Earth Science Essential Standards

NC Earth Science Essential Standards NC Earth Science Essential Standards EEn. 2.1 Explain how processes and forces affect the Lithosphere. EEn. 2.1.1 Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the Lithosphere.

More information

Lab 7: Sedimentary Structures

Lab 7: Sedimentary Structures Name: Lab 7: Sedimentary Structures Sedimentary rocks account for a negligibly small fraction of Earth s mass, yet they are commonly encountered because the processes that form them are ubiquitous in the

More information

Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8

Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8 Sedimentary Environments Chapter 8 Does not contain complete lecture notes. To be used to help organize lecture notes and home/test studies. What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of

More information

Sedimentary Rocks - are one of the three main rock types

Sedimentary Rocks - are one of the three main rock types Today s Objective: What Makes Sedimentary Rocks Special? Sedimentary Rocks - are one of the three main rock types A sedimentary rock can form one of three ways: 1. by the deposition of the weathered remains

More information

To get you thinking Explain how these different layers of rock formed? Why are these layers different colors? Sedimentary Rocks

To get you thinking Explain how these different layers of rock formed? Why are these layers different colors? Sedimentary Rocks To get you thinking Explain how these different layers of rock formed? Why are these layers different colors? Sedimentary Rocks Bryce Canyon, Utah Badlands, South Dakota Weathering Whenever rock is exposed

More information

EPS 50 Lab 4: Sedimentary Rocks

EPS 50 Lab 4: Sedimentary Rocks Name: EPS 50 Lab 4: Sedimentary Rocks Grotzinger and Jordan, Chapter 5 Introduction In this lab we will classify sedimentary rocks and investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and

More information

Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6

Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6 I. What is a sedimentary rock? A. Sedimentary rock 1) Rock made of detrital sediments (such as sand) or inorganic/organic chemical precipitates (such as calcite) 2) Detrital

More information

Chapter 6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rock

Chapter 6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rock Chapter 6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rock Weathering and Erosion Wherever rock is exposed at Earth s surface, it is continuously being broken down by weathering a set of physical and chemical processes

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Weathering. Mechanical & Chemical Weathering. Sediments. Lithification. Deposition. Transport. Erosion.

Sedimentary Rocks. Weathering. Mechanical & Chemical Weathering. Sediments. Lithification. Deposition. Transport. Erosion. Lithification Sedimentary Rocks Sediments Deposition Transport Erosion Weathering Weathering The sediments that make up sedimentary rocks are produced by: Mechanical & Chemical Weathering Mechanical Weathering

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Weathering. Mechanical & Chemical Weathering. Sediments. Lithification. Deposition. Transport. Erosion.

Sedimentary Rocks. Weathering. Mechanical & Chemical Weathering. Sediments. Lithification. Deposition. Transport. Erosion. Lithification Sedimentary Rocks Sediments Deposition Transport Erosion Weathering Weathering The sediments that make up sedimentary rocks are produced by: Mechanical & Chemical Weathering Mechanical Weathering

More information

The boundary between two formations (or any distinct layers) is called a contact. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of continents.

The boundary between two formations (or any distinct layers) is called a contact. Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of continents. Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks form at the Earth s surface through interactions of the hydrologic system and the crust. Fortunately, many of these processes are in operation today, and geologists

More information

Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs. LAB 2: Sedimentary rocks and processes

Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs. LAB 2: Sedimentary rocks and processes Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs LAB 2: Sedimentary rocks and processes Last week we covered the basic types of rocks and the rock cycle. This lab concentrates on sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks have special

More information

GLG Chapter 7 Sedimentary Environments & Rocks

GLG Chapter 7 Sedimentary Environments & Rocks GLG 101 - Chapter 7 Sedimentary Environments & Rocks Name Note, Oct 11: I ll be writing this study sheet over the next few days. Each day I will add questions until the entire chapter is done, hopefully

More information

ESC102. Sedimentary Rocks. Our keys to the past. Monday, February 11, 13

ESC102. Sedimentary Rocks. Our keys to the past. Monday, February 11, 13 ESC102 Sedimentary Rocks Our keys to the past Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are rocks that form through the accumulation of sediment and the process of lithification. Lithification occurs after deposition

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. All sedimentary rocks begin to form when existing rocks are broken down into sediments Sediments are mainly weathered debris

Sedimentary Rocks. All sedimentary rocks begin to form when existing rocks are broken down into sediments Sediments are mainly weathered debris Rocks! Objectives Describe the major processes involved in the formation of sedimentary rock Distinguish between clastic sedimentary rocks and chemical sedimentary rocks Identify the features that are

More information

Sand. Sand is any eroded material (igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary) that has a grain size from 1/16 th to 2 millimeters in size.

Sand. Sand is any eroded material (igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary) that has a grain size from 1/16 th to 2 millimeters in size. Sedimentology 001 What is sedimentology? Sedimentology...encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand [1], mud (silt) [2] andclay [3] and understanding the processes that deposit them.[4] It

More information

Sedimentary Rocks, our most Valuable Rocks. Or, what you will probably find when you are outdoors exploring.

Sedimentary Rocks, our most Valuable Rocks. Or, what you will probably find when you are outdoors exploring. Sedimentary Rocks, our most Valuable Rocks Or, what you will probably find when you are outdoors exploring. Sedimentary rocks give us evidence to earth s earlier history. We look at processes happening

More information

Lecture 7: Sedimentary Rocks

Lecture 7: Sedimentary Rocks Lecture 7: Sedimentary Rocks 1. Read: Chapter 8 2. Homework #7 due Thursday 12pm 3. Midterm #1 Thursday, September 24 iclicker assignments pick yours up 001 Abreu 003 Agena 004 Albert 006 Araki 091 Atiburcio

More information

Earth Materials Unit: Sedimen ntary Rocks and Processes Maybe One Day Text: Chapters Five and Six Lab: Laboratorry Six Name

Earth Materials Unit: Sedimen ntary Rocks and Processes Maybe One Day Text: Chapters Five and Six Lab: Laboratorry Six Name Earth Materi ials Unit: Sedimentary Rocks and Proces sses Maybe One Day Text: Chapters Fivee and Six Lab: Laboratory Six Name Page 1 Sedimentary Rocks and Processes Purpose: To classify sedimentary rocks

More information

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 5

GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 5 UNDERSTANDING EARTH, SIXTH EDITION GROTZINGER JORDAN GEOLOGY MEDIA SUITE Chapter 5 Sedimentation Rocks Formed by Surface Processes 2010 W.H. Freeman and Company Mineralogy of sandstones Key Figure 5.12

More information

Sedimentary Rocks Reading with Questions (Pg. 3-6) Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification Video (Mr. White s website) Questions (Pg.

Sedimentary Rocks Reading with Questions (Pg. 3-6) Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification Video (Mr. White s website) Questions (Pg. Do At Least 2 Must Do All NAME: Kick Off Activity Comparing Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks (Pg. 2) The Foundation Sedimentary Rocks Reading with Questions (Pg. 3-6) Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification

More information

What is a sedimentary rock?

What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary Rocks What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are products of mechanical and chemical weathering They account for only 5% of the top 10 miles of the outer crust, yet most of the earth

More information

Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Thanks to Rob Viens for slides

Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Thanks to Rob Viens for slides Sedimentology & Stratigraphy Thanks to Rob Viens for slides Sedimentology The study of the processes that erode, transport and deposit sediments Sedimentary Petrology The study of the characteristics and

More information

Earth Science 11: Earth Materials, Sedimentary Rocks

Earth Science 11: Earth Materials, Sedimentary Rocks Name: Date: Earth Science 11: Earth Materials, Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 1, pages 56 to 66 2.4: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rock Formation All sedimentary rocks form through compaction and cementation

More information

Sediments and. Sedimentary Rocks

Sediments and. Sedimentary Rocks Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Bottom Line Sedimentary rocks form from particles accumulated in sedimentary layers Sedimentary layers can be formed by clastic or detrital particles (e.g., sand grains,

More information

Objectives: Define Relative Age, Absolute Age

Objectives: Define Relative Age, Absolute Age S6E5. Students will investigate the scientific view of how the earth s surface is formed. c. Classify rocks by their process of formation. g. Describe how fossils show evidence of the changing surface

More information

Bowen s Chemical Stability Series

Bowen s Chemical Stability Series Lab 5 - Identification of Sedimentary Rocks Page - Introduction Sedimentary rocks are the second great rock group. Although they make up only a small percentage of the rocks in the earth s crust (~5%)

More information

4/4. K What I know about Sedimentary Rocks. W What I want to find out about Sedimentary Rocks Sunday, April 7, 13

4/4. K What I know about Sedimentary Rocks. W What I want to find out about Sedimentary Rocks Sunday, April 7, 13 Do Now (2 minutes) 4/4 K What I know about Sedimentary Rocks W What I want to find out about Sedimentary Rocks 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. The Rock Cycle What is the rock cycle and how do rocks interrelate? Rock

More information

Earth s crust is made mostly of Igneous rocks. There are 3 main types of Sedimentary Rocks: 1. Clastic 2. Chemical 3. Organic

Earth s crust is made mostly of Igneous rocks. There are 3 main types of Sedimentary Rocks: 1. Clastic 2. Chemical 3. Organic Sedimentary Rocks Earth s crust is made mostly of Igneous rocks. But, most rocks on Earth s s surface are Sedimentary Rocks.. (75%) Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks are rocks that are made of broken-down

More information

NC Earth Science Essential Standards

NC Earth Science Essential Standards NC Earth Science Essential Standards EEn. 2.1 Explain how processes and forces affect the Lithosphere. EEn. 2.1.1 Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the Lithosphere.

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals.

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle 1. The solid part of Earth is made up of material called a. glacial ice. b. lava. c. rock. d. wood. 2. Rock can be a collection of one

More information

As compaction and cementation of these sediments eventually occur, which area will become siltstone? A) A B) B C) C D) D

As compaction and cementation of these sediments eventually occur, which area will become siltstone? A) A B) B C) C D) D 1. A student obtains a cup of quartz sand from a beach. A saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate. The mineral residue from the saltwater solution cements the sand grains together,

More information

ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION

ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION Name: Miramar College Grade: GEOL 101 - Physical Geology Laboratory SEDIMENTARY ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION PRELAB SECTION To be completed before labs starts: I. Introduction & Purpose: The

More information

Tim Carr - West Virginia University

Tim Carr - West Virginia University Tim Carr - West Virginia University Exploration s Ultimate Goal is to Answer Four Questions: Where to Drill? What to Expect? How Certain? How Profitable? Location & Depth HC Volumes Chance of Success

More information

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Chapter 10 Rocks 1 Chapter 10 Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle 2 10.1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Magma is the parent material for all rocks. Once the magma cools and hardens, many changes can occur. Geology:

More information

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Processes, Environments, Structures and Rocks. Sedimentary Processes and Rocks

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Processes, Environments, Structures and Rocks. Sedimentary Processes and Rocks SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Processes, Environments, Structures and Rocks Sedimentary Processes and Rocks Origins of Sedimentary Rocks Sediment transport and texture Sedimentary structures Lithification Classifying

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth, but because most of them exist below the surface you might not have seen

More information

GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks

GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks GEOL.3250 Geology for Engineers Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks Name I. Introduction The bulk of the earth's crust is composed of relatively few minerals. These can be mixed together, however, to give

More information

Sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary Rocks are produced from weathered debris of older rocks. Sedimentary rocks are produced by the following steps:

Sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary Rocks are produced from weathered debris of older rocks. Sedimentary rocks are produced by the following steps: Sedimentary rocks Most figures contained here are fro m Understand ing Earth Fourth Edition by F rank P ress, Raymond Sieve r, John Grotzinge r, and Thomas H. Jor dan Sedimentary Rocks are produced from

More information

Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs. LAB 1: Introduction to Rocks and Sedimentary Processes

Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs. LAB 1: Introduction to Rocks and Sedimentary Processes Geo 302D: Age of Dinosaurs LAB 1: Introduction to Rocks and Sedimentary Processes We would not be able to address the interesting questions of dinosaurs and their place in the history of life without the

More information

Chapter 5. The Sedimentary Archives

Chapter 5. The Sedimentary Archives Chapter 5 The Sedimentary Archives Factors affecting Sedimentary Characteristics 1. Tectonic setting 2. Physical, chemical, and biological processes in the depositional environment 3. Method of sediment

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth, but because most of them exist below the surface you might not have seen

More information

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures CHAPTER 4 2 Igneous Rock SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture

More information

1/31/2013. Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes. Weathering Mechanisms. Wind abrasion forming Ventifacts

1/31/2013. Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes. Weathering Mechanisms. Wind abrasion forming Ventifacts Monument Valley, Utah. What weathering processes contributed to the development of these remarkable rock formations? Weathering Includes Physical, Chemical, Biological processes Weathering Mechanisms Physical

More information

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Lab Name Geology 100 Harbor Section Read the sedimentary rocks chapter before you start. Sedimentary rocks are usually identified in the field by their stratification or layering,

More information

Marine Sediments EPSS15 Spring 2017 Lab 4

Marine Sediments EPSS15 Spring 2017 Lab 4 Marine Sediments EPSS15 Spring 2017 Lab 4 Why Sediments? Record of Earth s history - Tectonic plate movement - Past changes in climate - Ancient ocean circulation currents - Cataclysmic events 1 Classification

More information

Sedimentary Rocks and Processes

Sedimentary Rocks and Processes Sedimentary Rocks and Processes Weathering Sedimentary Processes Breakdown of pre-existing rock by physical and chemical processes Transport Movement of sediments from environments of relatively high potential

More information

Engineering Geology ECIV 2204

Engineering Geology ECIV 2204 Engineering Geology ECIV 2204 Instructor : Dr. Jehad Hamad 2017-2016 Chapter (6) : Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6: Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6: Sedimentary Rocks Origin and nature of sedimentary rocks: Sedimentary

More information

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures

Mud Sand Gravel. Clastic Textures Sed Rocks Self-Instruction Lab Name Geology 100 Harbor Section Please see the questions online before you begin. Sedimentary rocks are usually identified in the field by their stratification or layering,

More information

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements.

Name Class Date. In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. CHAPTER 5 Igneous Rocks SECTION 5.1 What are igneous rocks? In your textbook, read about the nature of igneous rocks. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the following statements. basaltic

More information

Guided Notes Rocks & Minerals

Guided Notes Rocks & Minerals Guided Notes Rocks & Minerals is Mineral 1.What is a Mineral Tests 2.Mineral Properties Cycle 3.Rock Rocks 4.Igneous Rocks 5.Sedimentary Rocks 6. Metamorphic Rocks Reference Tables K. Coder 2015 12. What

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 1:25)

(Refer Slide Time: 1:25) Earth Sciences for Civil Engineering Professor Javed N Malik Department of Earth Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Module 2 Lecture No 10 Rock types and their Properties (Part-4) So welcome

More information

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface.

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The material that is chemically and mechanically weathered to yield sediment and soil. Regolith consisting

More information

Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Before You Read. Read to Learn

Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Before You Read. Read to Learn chapter 3 Rocks section 4 Sedimentary Rocks What You ll Learn how sedimentary rocks form how sedimentary rocks are classified Before You Read Imagine you are stacking slices of bread, one on top of the

More information

Paleo Lab #4 - Sedimentary Environments

Paleo Lab #4 - Sedimentary Environments Paleo Lab #4 - Sedimentary Environments page - 1. CHARACTERISTICS OF SEDIMENT Grain size and grain shape: The sizes and shapes of sedimentary particles (grains) are modified considerably during their transportation

More information

GEOL Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section)

GEOL Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) GEOL 333 - Lab 9 (Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks in Hand Sample and Thin Section) Sedimentary Rock Classification - As we learned last week, sedimentary rock, which forms by accumulation and lithification

More information

Section I: Multiple Choice Select the best answer to each question. Mark your final answer on the answer sheet. (1 pt each)

Section I: Multiple Choice Select the best answer to each question. Mark your final answer on the answer sheet. (1 pt each) Sedimentary Rocks & Surface Processes Quest Name: Earth Science 2013 Block: Date: Section I: Multiple Choice Select the best answer to each question. Mark your final answer on the answer sheet. (1 pt each)

More information

Figure 1 The map shows the top view of a meandering stream as it enters a lake. At which points along the stream are erosion and deposition dominant?

Figure 1 The map shows the top view of a meandering stream as it enters a lake. At which points along the stream are erosion and deposition dominant? 1. In which type of climate does chemical weathering usually occur most rapidly? 1. hot and dry 3. cold and dry 2. hot and wet 4. cold and wet 2. Figure 1 The map shows the top view of a meandering stream

More information

DOMINANT SEDIMENTS TYPE IN ROCK Loose fragments of rocks or minerals broken off of bedrock Mineral crystals that precipitate directly out of water

DOMINANT SEDIMENTS TYPE IN ROCK Loose fragments of rocks or minerals broken off of bedrock Mineral crystals that precipitate directly out of water LAST NAME (ALL IN CAPS): FIRST NAME: 7. SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES, ROCKS, AND ENVIRONMENTS Instructions: Refer to Laboratory 6 in your Lab Book on pages 153-186 to answer the questions in this work sheet.

More information

Your teacher will show you a sample or diagram of each, and show you a settling column. Draw these, and label your diagrams (8 pts) Ungraded:

Your teacher will show you a sample or diagram of each, and show you a settling column. Draw these, and label your diagrams (8 pts) Ungraded: From Sand to Stone: How do we recognize and interpret sedimentary rocks in the rock record? (Based closely on the University of Washington ESS 101 Lab 5: Sedimentary Rocks) Introduction: This lab consists

More information

Rocks are made from Minerals

Rocks are made from Minerals Rocks and Minerals Rocks are made from Minerals Rocks are nothing more than a mixture of different mineral crystals. ***All three minerals are combined in a Granite rock Granite Quartz + Biotite + Feldspar

More information

Geology of the Hawaiian Islands

Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Class 12 19 February 2004 A B C D F 97 94 92 91 88 87 86 85 85 84 82 77 73 73 mean 66 64 60 69 60 57 51 29 Exam Scores Mean = 71 Median = 82/77 Any Questions? Sedimentary

More information

EROSION, DEPOSITION AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Reading: Earth Science Tarbuck and Lutgens Chapter 5: pages Chapter 3: pages 52-54, 61-69

EROSION, DEPOSITION AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Reading: Earth Science Tarbuck and Lutgens Chapter 5: pages Chapter 3: pages 52-54, 61-69 EROSION, DEPOSITION AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Reading: Earth Science Tarbuck and Lutgens Chapter 5: pages 124-133 Chapter 3: pages 52-54, 61-69 Base Level Resistant bed Resistant bed creates a local base level

More information

Sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks form from pre existing rock. igneous, metamorphic or. sedimentary.

Sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks form from pre existing rock. igneous, metamorphic or. sedimentary. Sedimentary Rocks 1 Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks form from pre existing rock particles: igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary. 2 3 The parent rock undergoes: Sedimentary rocks WEATHERING TRANSPORTATION

More information

Depositional Environment

Depositional Environment Depositional Environment Sedimentary depositional environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment. Types

More information

Path of desire or path of least resistance?

Path of desire or path of least resistance? Path of desire or path of least resistance? Desire Path: A term in landscape architecture used to describe a path that isn t designed but rather is worn casually away by people finding the shortest distance

More information

Rocks Rock- A group of minerals, glass, mineroid bound together in some way.

Rocks Rock- A group of minerals, glass, mineroid bound together in some way. Rocks Rock- A group of minerals, glass, mineroid bound together in some way. All rocks fit into one of three categories: Igneous- formed by the cooling and hardening of hot molten rock Sedimentary- formed

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite.

1. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite. 1. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite. An arrangement of atoms such as the one shown in the diagram determines

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. GLS100-01 Quiz#7 chapters 5 and 6 Fall 2009 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock

More information

Clastic Textures. I. What is the sorting of sample numbers 60, 61, and 62? Answers on last page.

Clastic Textures. I. What is the sorting of sample numbers 60, 61, and 62? Answers on last page. Sed Rock s Sel f-instruction N ame Geology 100 Harbor Secti on Sedimentary rocks are usually identified in the field by their stratification or layering, which originates by the successive deposition of

More information

Weathering Cycle Teacher Notes

Weathering Cycle Teacher Notes The Weathering Cycle Stages of the Weathering Cycle: 1. Carbon Dioxide and Water In clouds, carbon dioxide reacts with water to form a weak acid. H 2 O + CO 2 --> H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3-2. Acid

More information

Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky

Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky Objectives of Today s Lecture Refresher on Sedimentary Depositional Systems and Rock Classifications Transgressive and Regressive Marine Environments Carbonate Depositional

More information

LAST NAME (ALL IN CAPS):

LAST NAME (ALL IN CAPS): LAST NAME (ALL IN CAPS): FIRST NAME: 7. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Instructions: Your work will be graded on the basis of its accuracy, completion, clarity, neatness, legibility, and correct spelling of scientific

More information

Rocks & Minerals. Lesson 1 Properties of Minerals. What is a mineral? What is a mineral?

Rocks & Minerals. Lesson 1 Properties of Minerals. What is a mineral? What is a mineral? Rocks & Minerals What is a mineral? A mineral must have 5 specific characteristics to be considered a mineral a. b. c. d. e. Naturally occurring - formed by natural processes. Solid - must have a definite

More information

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures CHAPTER 2 2 Igneous Rock SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture

More information

Name Date Class. As you read about sedimentary rocks, use the headings to complete the outline below. Sedimentary Rocks

Name Date Class. As you read about sedimentary rocks, use the headings to complete the outline below. Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks This section describes how sedimentary rocks form and how they are classified and used. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about sedimentary rocks, use the headings to complete the

More information

PDF HOW DO CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FORM EBOOK

PDF HOW DO CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FORM EBOOK 06 February, 2018 PDF HOW DO CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FORM EBOOK Document Filetype: PDF 457.68 KB 0 PDF HOW DO CLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FORM EBOOK The rock fragments that form clastic sedimentary rocks

More information

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Alessandro Grippo, Ph.D. Alternating sandstones and mudstones in Miocene turbidites Camaggiore di Firenzuola, Firenze, Italy Alessandro Grippo review Mechanical weathering creates

More information

Why is quartz one of the most weathering-resistant minerals?

Why is quartz one of the most weathering-resistant minerals? Why is it a poor idea to use limestone for tombstones in a wet hot area like the Amazon rainforest? A) Because limestone weathers at a very fast rate B) Because limestone weathers at a very low rate C)

More information

Laboratory 5. Sedimentary Rocks

Laboratory 5. Sedimentary Rocks Laboratory 5. Sedimentary Rocks The two primary types of sediment are chemical and detrital. Sediment becomes lithified into sedimentary rocks by cementation and compaction. Chemical sedimentconsists of

More information

Earth Science Chapter 6 Rocks

Earth Science Chapter 6 Rocks Earth Science Chapter 6 Rocks I. Rocks and the Rock Cycle * Material that makes up the solid part of the Earth. * Made of a variety of different combinations of minerals and organic matter. A. Three Major

More information

Metamorphic Rocks. Describe possible changes that result from metamorphism. Include: (i) texture (ii) volume change (iii) chemical change

Metamorphic Rocks. Describe possible changes that result from metamorphism. Include: (i) texture (ii) volume change (iii) chemical change Metamorphic Rocks Describe the process of metamorphism Describe possible changes that result from metamorphism. Include: (i) texture (ii) volume change (iii) chemical change Describe the result of selected

More information

Facies Cryptic description Depositional processes Depositional environments Very well sorted. Desert dunes. Migration of straight crested mega ripples

Facies Cryptic description Depositional processes Depositional environments Very well sorted. Desert dunes. Migration of straight crested mega ripples Very well sorted Travelled grate distance, effective sorting 5 medium-grained sandstone with well rounded grains; large scale high angle planar cross-beds. Migration of straight crested mega ripples Desert

More information