CHAPTER ROCK WERE FORMED

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1 HOW CHAPTER 3 ROCK WERE FORMED 1

2 I. Modern geology A. James Hutton- 1. uniformitarianism- "the present is the key to the past" a. b. the geologic processes now at work were also active in the past the present physical features of earth were formed by these same processes, at work over long periods of time. 2

3 B. 3 Groups of Rocks 1. rock-defined as a group of minerals bound together in some way. 3

4 2. 3 groups based on how rocks have been observed to form a. b. c. igneous rocks- are formed by the cooling and hardening of hot molten rock (magma) from inside earth. sedimentary rocks- are formed by the hardening and cementing of layers of sediments. The sediments may consist of rock fragments, plant and animal remains or chemicals that form on lake and ocean bottoms. metamorphic rocks- are formed when rocks that already exist are changed by heat and pressure into new kinds of rocks. 4

5 C. Recognizing Igneous Rocks 1. plutonic or intrusive - rocks that form underground from cooled magma. These contain distinct mineral grains. 5

6 2. volcanic or extrusive- rocks that form when lava cools, (lava is the term that describes magma that reaches the surface of the earth) they also may form out of volcanic dust and ash. These lack distinct mineral grains. 6

7 D. Characteristics 1. Magma a. 2 types are the most common 1) 2) both are hot solutions of magma differ in chemical composition 7

8 a) felsic magma- -has a high percentage of silica -does not have much calcium, iron, or magnesium -thick and slow flowing. -light colored -granite is a common example -most plutonic rocks are felsic 8

9 b) mafic magma- - has a lower percentage of silica -higher percentage of calcium, iron and magnesium -hotter, thinner and more fluid -dark-colored -basalt is a common example -most volcanic rocks are mafic 9

10 2. Textures of an Igneous Rock a. texture-describes the size, shape and arrangement of the mineral crystals. Description ranges from glassy to coarse-grained. 1) crystal size- most important factor a) size depends on; how fast the crystal develop (time in cooling) how much gas is dissolved in the magma 10

11 2) Descriptions range from glassy to coarse-grained. a) b) c) d) e) f) Phaneritic- coarse grained, crystal grain visible with the naked eye. Aphanitic- fine grained, difficult to see individual grains. Glassy- looks like glass, mineral grains did not have time to grow, cooled very quickly. Pegmatite- extremely large crystal grains. Frothy- volcanic foam that cooled quickly. Vesicles-larger air bubbles formed in lava 11

12 Phaneritic 12

13 Aphanitic 13

14 Glassy 14

15 Pegmatite 15

16 Frothy 16

17 Vesicles 17

18 b. Porphyritic Texture 1) porphyry-rocks which have 2 distinctly different textures a) b) ground mass- the majority of the rock material, usually smaller crystal size. phenocryst- the larger crystals in the porphyry. 18

19 19

20 20

21 Phorphyritic Ground mass phenocryst 21

22 E. Families of Igneous Rocks There are 3 Families of Igneous Rock Granite family- Diorite family- Gabbro family- 22

23 E. Families of Igneous Rocks 1. granite family- a. b. c. d. -felsic -orthoclase feldspar and quartz -light in color -different textures 23

24 1) large grain texture a) granites 24

25 2) fine grain texture a) felsites (rhyolite) 25

26 3) glassy texture a) b) obsidian pumice 26

27 2. gabbro family a. b. c. d. e. mafic -plagioclase feldspar and augite -dark in color -more dense that granite family -different textures 27

28 1) large grain texture a) gabbro 28

29 2) fine grain texture a) basalt 29

30 3) glassy texture with large vesicles a) scoria 30

31 3. diorite family a. -composition and color between granite and gabbro 31

32 A. Different textures 1) large grain texture a) diorites 32

33 2) fine grain texture a) andesites 33

34 Family: Granite Diorite Gabbro Composition: Felsic Intermediate Mafic Distinct (large) Granites Diorites Gabbros Textures Distinct and indistinct Indistinct Glassy Porphyry Rhyolites Obsidian Porphyry Andesites Porphyry Basalts Porous Pumice Scoria Scoria 34

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