# Liquefaction Fundamentals

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1 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 1 Liquefaction Fundamentals Homework Assignment Design Earthquake: All problems below is a M = 7.0 earthquake with pga of 0.63 g and a source distance Rrup = 4 km. 1. Use the SPT method for liquefaction assessment to perform a liquefaction analysis for the below SPT data by hand (i.e., show all calculations). Based on the results, what further investigations or analysis to you recommend. This SPT boring is taken from a pile foundation investigation at a bridge overpass crossing with a 8-m high embankment to be constructed in the area. Drilling methods and information: Hammer energy ratio = 78% (automatic-trip-hammer) borehole diameter = 4 inches sampling method = standard sampler with liners depth to groundwater = 6 feet 3 feet of rod stick-up above top of borehole Depth (ft) Soil Description SPT N Fines (%) Clay (%) Dry Unit Weight (pcf) 0 to 10 clayey silt to 15 silty sand to 20 silty sand to 25 silt Repeat problem 1, but instead of using CSRE = 0.65 (a max /g)(po/po )rd to calculate the earthquake-induced cyclic stress ratio, use the results from SHAKE analysis for the 600 South profile to calculate CSRE. For the analysis, use the Matahina Dam, New Zealand earthquake record provided by PEER scaled to a peak ground acceleration value of 0.63 g. Comment on the differences between the CRSE values obtained from the simplified procedure versus the CSRE results obtained from the SHAKE analysis. If the above site has a ground slope of 0.6 percent, estimate the amount of lateral spread displacement at the site. Use the approach of Tokimatsu and Seed Volumetric Strain Curves to estimate the amount of liquefaction settlement for the profile given in problem 1.

2 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 2 Definition of Liquefaction During strong earthquake shaking. loose. saturated cohesionless soil deposits may experience a sudden loss of strength and stiffness. sometimes resulting in loss of bearing capacity, large permanent lateral displacements, and/or seismic settlement of the ground. This phenomenon is called soil liquefaction. Pasted from < ~liquefaction/html/what/what2.html> Pasted from <

3 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 3 Definition of Liquefaction (continued) Definition of Liquefaction, r u = 1, where r u is the pore pressure ratio For field For laboratory R u = u / ' c ' c = effective confining stress in the triaxial cell (NRC, 1985)

4 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 4 Cyclic Behavior of Loose Sand Note the onset of large deformation noting liquefaction

5 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 5 Cyclic Behavior of Dense Sand

6 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 6 Field Pressure Generation

7 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 7 Liquefaction Damage - Sand Volcanoes Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

8 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 8 Liquefaction Damage - Ground Oscillation Marina District, San Francisco, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

9 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 9 Liquefaction Damage - Ground Settlement Port of Kobe, 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake 2010 Christchurch Earthquake Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

10 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 10 Liquefaction Damage - Bearing Capacity Failure 1964 Niigata, Japan Earthquake Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

11 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 11 Liquefaction Damage - Buoyancy Manhole Damaged by Liquefaction (Urayasu city, Chiba) From < Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

12 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 12 Liquefaction Damage - Flow Failure Sheffield Dam Pasted from < San Fernando Dam

13 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 13 Liquefaction Damage - Flow Failure (cont.) Valdez, 1964 Alaska Earthquake Seward, 1964 Alaska Earthquake

14 Steven F. Bartlett, 2017 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 14

15 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 15 Liquefaction Damage - Lateral Spread 1964 Niigata, Japan Earthquake Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

16 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 16 Liquefaction Damage - Lateral Spread (cont.) Thursday, March 30, 2017 Pasted from < ~liquefaction/selectpiclique/rivers/motagua.jpg> Pasted from < Steven F. Bartlett, 2017

17 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 17 Flow Failure versus Deformation Failure Flow Failure (large displacement) Deformation Failure - sometime called cyclic mobility (smaller displacement)

18 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 18 Flow Failure versus Deformation Failure Stable Slope Deformation Failure Flow Failure

19 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 19 Liquefaction Evaluations

20 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 20 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.)

21 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 21 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) Step 1 - Determine the cyclic shear stress as a function of depth in the soil column For the case where a ground response analysis has been done For the case where a ground response analysis has not been done

22 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 22 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) Step 2 - Correct the SPT N-values to N160 values for all saturated, granular soils Step 3 - Calculate the soil's resistance to liquefaction for all saturated, granular layers and adjust for earthquake magnitude and depth of overburden CRR M=7.5, sv'=1 comes from liquefaction, MSF is a magnitude scaling factor to adjust CRR for the effects of earthquake magnitude, Ks adjusts CRR for the effects of depths other than 1 tsf (1 atm). Step 4 - Adjust CRR for the effects of fines content Step 5 - Calculate the factor of safety against liquefaction for all saturated, granular layers FS = Capacity / Demand = CRR / CSR

23 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 23 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

24 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 24 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections or

25 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 25 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

26 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 26 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

27 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 27 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

28 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 28 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

29 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 29 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

30 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 30 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

31 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 31 Liquefaction Evaluations (cont.) - discussion of corrections

32 Liquefaction Fundamentals Page 32 Blank

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