San Andreas Movie Can It Happen?

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1 San Andreas Movie Can It Happen?

2 Learning Objectives (LO) Lecture 14: Faults and Quakes Read: Chapter 10 and 11 Homework #12 due Thursday 12pm What we ll learn today:! 1. Compare strike-slip to dip-slip faults! 2. Describe the boundary of the North American and Pacific Plates! 3. Describe different earthquake hazards! 4. Define elastic rebound theory!

3 Stress can be: Tensional (stretching) Compressive (shortening) Shear (side-to-side)

4 Major Types of Faults Dip-Slip and Strike-Slip faults Dip- Slip Faults Strike- Slip Faults

5 Fault scarps are the surface expression of faults Thrust Fault Normal Fault Normal Fault

6 Major Types of Faults Dip-Slip and Strike-Slip faults Dip- Slip Faults Strike- Slip Faults

7 Fault scarps are the surface expression of faults Strike-Slip Faults

8 Right- vs. Left- Lateral Strike Slip Faults

9 iclicker Question What type of strike-slip fault is this? a. Right-lateral b. Left-lateral

10 iclicker Question What type of strike-slip fault is this? a. Right-lateral b. Left-lateral

11 iclicker Question What type of strike-slip fault is this? a. Right-lateral b. Left-lateral

12 iclicker Question What type of strike-slip fault is this? a. Right-lateral b. Left-lateral

13 (not-so-obvious) Evidence of faulting Fault breccia Fault gouge

14 How do geologists record the geologic structures that they observe in the field?

15 Measuring Fault Strike and Dip 30 o A tilted rock layer can be represented as a plane. The orientation of that plane in space is defined using Strike-and-Dip notation.

16 Measuring Fault Strike and Dip Dip: the angle below the horizontal (plane) of a geologic feature. Strike: a line representing the intersection of a feature with the horizontal plane

17 Measuring Fault Strike and Dip

18 Geologic maps are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional structures Geologic structures are mapped to interpret stress history. Strike-and-Dip Symbols indicate orientations Colors and symbols indicate age, rock type, structure.

19 fault plane breaks energy released SEISMIC ENERGY

20 What Are Earthquakes? Earthquakes result from slow buildup of elastic strain, and its sudden release like bending a ruler until it breaks. Elastic Rebound Theory

21

22 Focus or Hypocenter: location of earthquake Epicenter: point on surface directly above focus Fault trace: where fault cuts surface Three types of seismic waves: P, S, Surface

23 Earthquakes tend to occur in clusters. The largest quake in a cluster is the mainshock.

24 Divergent Seismicity Normal Faults Shallow earthquakes, mostly low magnitude

25 Transform Seismicity Strike Slip Faults Shallow Earthquakes, some can be very large

26 The San Andreas Fault

27 Convergent Seismicity Thrust faults at shallow depths Megathrust earthquakes are Earth s largest Seismicity extends to 670 km depth

28 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, ,000 20,000 deaths; moved Japan 8 ft east, tsunami 133 ft high

29 Global Earthquake Map Most earthquakes occur on plate boundaries, but intraplate seismicity is also common

30 Global Earthquake Map There are about 1.5 million earthquake every year! That is 4000 per day - most are small (magnitude 2-3)

31 Global Earthquake Map >380 major cities lie on or near unstable regions of Earth s crust (potential for devastation is high)

32 U.S. Geological Survey Map of Seismic Shaking Hazards

33 Earthquakes in Hawaii Most are due to movements of magma on the Big Island Earthquakes in Hawaii since 1868

34 Recent Hawaii Seismicity

35 Seismic Hazard in Hawaii

36 Action Items for Tuesday October Read Chapter 10, Complete homework assignment #12 What you should know from today:! 1. Compare strike-slip to dip-slip faults! 2. Describe the boundary of the North American and Pacific Plates! 3. Describe different earthquake hazards! 4. Define elastic rebound theory!

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