CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN PYROCLASTIC SERIES

 Angel Daniels
 4 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 RI:NDlCONTl Socktd Iralla. ill Minno/ovlo It Pd, 31 (U: pp. U71tl Counlcadone pracnlata al Con 8DlP dl Cacn&rt ottobre CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN PYROCLASTIC SERIES NARA CoIlADOSSI, MARINO MARTINI htilll!o di Minertlogi., Petrografi. e Gcochiica dell'universidl, vi. La Pia 4, Fiff'lW'. Ccntro di studio per J. Mineraiogi. e I. Gcochiia dei Scdic:nd (CN.R.) ABsnACT.  The S1udy of pyroclaslic depo5.its hu bcc:n ainly bucd upon their lithoqial, granuloctric and staligaphic charactcn. It seeed possible that cheial peculiarities have been produced in response to the physialcheical conditions which gave rise to Ihe diffeff'nt eruptive processes, and a sludy of pyrodastic series was undert.ken to check whether the presenl distribution of specific eleents can provide soe addition.1 inforation. Saples representing the different types of pyroclastic deposits of Minoan eruption of Santorini and Popcian eruption of Vcwvius have been investigated, as well as Iavas fro the sae.res; 5Odiu, pot.&ssiu, iron, agnesiu, fluorine.nd chlorine have been deterined. The distribution of Na, K, F and Cl, along with the values for I«chablc Na,nd D,.ppears of, ettlllin interest. Since the sojubility of volatiles in aga sc=is to depend ainly on their cooccntalioos in alkalies, high lcvels of F and a in pyrodutk products can be justified by the K.nd N. values observed at Vesuvius; for Santorini this can apply to puiccs only, while a different explanation is needed for saples of surge atrix, because their low contents in alkali etals cannot account for the observed nol rqligible levels in a. Keeping also in ind the locuion (If the volcano an inflow (If sea water into the syste appcan the osl likely aong the natural echaniss which an produce.n enrichenl of D in the agatic producu, in spite of the lack of Jufficicnt conditions for ill solubility in the elt phase. The explosive processes which produced the base surge deposits at Sanlorini see then 10 be ascribed to the above entioned inflow, while for Vesuvius the cheical evidences point OUt to siilar role of phrcalic w.t. RussuHTO studio dei <kpositi piroclaslici si soprallutto buato sui 1010 aattcri Iitoqid, granuloctrici e staligafici.. scbato possibije cbe si sillllo prodolle pecu. liarilil chiiche in risposta.lie condizioni chiicofisiche che hanno dato luoge.i ditferenli processi erutcivi, cd e SIaIO inlraprcso uno studio di serie piroclastiche per verificare se I'.ttuale distribuzione di deenti specifici pub foire infonnuioni Jupp1centari. Sono stati considcrati depositi piroclastici den. eruzione Minoica di Santorino e di quclla Popciana del Vesuvio, e bve delle stessc aree, deterinando sodio, potassic, ferro, apcsio, dolo e ftuoro; qgiore inleresse e appresentato dai.i.a distribuzionc di N., K, F c a nelle foc't'e totali, e di N. e a nei Iisciviati delle stessc foc't'e. Poid,e la solubilili dei voladti ncl aga scbra dipen<lere $OpranullO d.1 suo oontenulo in atali, aid livclli di FeCI possono csscre giustificati dai valoci di Na e K osstrvali al Vesuvio; per Santorino db pub valere solo per le pornid, cd una dh'c:fsll spicgazionc necessaria per i eapioni di surpc'. cbe hanno basso contcnuto in.icali e v.loci signifialivi di a. Tcncndo conlo.nd1c dell'ubicazione del vubno, un.pporlo di acqu. arina al sistca appaff' il piu plausibile fra i proccssi narurali che possono prcxlurre un arricchienco in Cl dei prodotri agrn.tid, nonostante non esistano le condizioni per una sua aggioff' solubilitll ncl fuso. I proccssi esplosivi che h.nno prodono qucslo tipo di deposilo S.nlorino scbrano quindi d&.nribuirc a11'apporto suddello, cntff' per it Vesuvio le CINIneristichc chiichc indicano piullosto un ruolo siile di licque fretiche. The explosive volcanic eruptions and their products have been largely investigated during the last ten years, and considerable results have been obtained which besides their scientific eaning have a saj iportance in assessing volcanic hazards in populated areas (LIRER et al, 1973; WALKER, 1974,1977; BARBERI and GASPARINI, 1976; BoND and SPARKS, 1976; BARBERI et ai., 1977; :BooTH et al., 1977; BAKER, 1979; BooTH, 1979; DELlBRIAS et ai., 1979; SHEItIDAN, 1979; SHERIDAN et al., 1981). The guickline of these researches has consisted in a careful reconstruction of past eruptive events by eans of the study of pyrodastic forations, carried out following ainly Iithological, granuloetric and stratigraphic criteria. The cheical coposition of the products involved in explosive activity is norally not taken into consideration in the frae of the above entioned inve5ti
2 288 N. CORADOSSI, M. MARTINI SMHOR'N' N Q o,, Fig. I. Santorini. Locations of the studied saples fro gations, probably because in any instances secondary processes of alteration obliterated to a great extent the original characters. On the contrary, if the eplaceent setting allowed but a inor degree of secondary changes, it sees to us that soe additional inforation could arise fro the distribution of specific eleents. This condition can be fulfilled for pyroclastic foration of recent age, characterized by high depositional rates, considerable thickness and an early fored or conteporary ipereable cover. To carry on a pre1iinar essay of this kind of investigations, saples fro pyroclastic series of Popeian eruption of Ve suvius (79 A.D.) and Minoan eruption of Santorini (1470 b.c.) are here taken into consideration, with reference to their contents in soe ajor (Na, K, Fe, Mg) and volatile constituents (F and Cl). Experiental In figg. I and 2 are given the locations of the studied saples, described in table 1. The analyses of Na, K, Fe, Mg have been carried out by classical procedures using absorption spectrophotoetry; specific electrodes have been eployed in the deterination of F and Cl. The leachate solutions have been obtained by cold extraction on 1 g of saple with I. ',,, 0123Krn Oplontl Fig. 2. _ Locations of the studied saples fro Vesuvius area. 25 l of water, without stirring. The analytical results are shown in table 2. Di8CU!l8ion * Pornpel * The analytical data for the series here considered allow to verify that, besides the basic differences in cheical characters, at Vesuvius significant copositional variations can be found along the different deposits, while at Santorini a substantial siilarity is observed with inor exceptions. At Vesuvius the cheical coposition of cineritic and lithic coponents of flow deposits gradually approaches that of basal lavas of Soa; this fact has been considered as a cerrain degree of evidence in favour of a phreatic event which involved lavas of older age with respect to those produced in the first stages of Popeian eruption (MAR TINI, 1982). Following the sae logical path, the persistence of the ajor features in the
3 CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN PYROCLASTIC SERIES 289 TO TO n n n n n n n... no pp.,,, 0 P,,,. '12.., No pp. 'n pp.,.,,ps no.,.,,, TABLE 1 Description 01 the studied saples., 0 0 uooo,'oo UO, uo,. o'oo M'o'oo M'o'. o,oo 'oou 'oh '0'0<' 'on.,1<.,, , ()p'''''''..u.. _10. r., to.«b of,d, toll.<. of _ p' 0&.,.roe.u Hoo,.,0< <1 oo 00. '0<''''''0 fl f.ll. of,,. 0'. _ 1'10<'''''0 fl Loo. 010<'. 1'10<'''0 n.,.,.'0< 0 ow.00. Pf'oc flow foil f.'l _. 'u, <l. or b u '0u, '1<'.,. uo 0.'00,. lava b.<><'. '<><'''''0 ,,,,, f.u ,,,,, f. ''''' f. f. ''''' '.11 0.,.11 Pwol,,,'0<'''''0 flow Pwol. ''''0 fl.,oe, uo n.,.u. n., 'PS'U. 1 PT,., _, >t, _ 1 p, fy', o fl o _.' l 0<0 01 '_0.,11_, cheical picture should allow to infer for Santorini a true phreatoagatic episode, producing poorly differentiated aterials fro the sae aga chaber, If we extend the observation to the studied volatile constituents, however, a good unifority IS still present for fluorine distribution, but two strong peaks are shown by chlorine concentrations (fig. 3). The 'llbundance of volatile constituents In agas are norally liited by their solubility, which in turn sees to depend. on the alkali etals content (KOGARKO et al., 1968; KOGARKO, 1974). The substantial unifority of sodiu and TABLE 2 Analytical data 01 the studied saples 7, '3 7, 70 H.,,. u u n 7 rn H n T n n 7Ji.l P',v 0 pp,v. IV. lo',,, pr,v, '0 0,,.v,U n.,oo pr,. >t '.n,,..,.. ls,.. '.10 ' 0 '.,.,. ',0 '.J3,.,.11,, '.13,,. 00 l. 1, I. I.', I.tl '.12 1.,..n ','.,. I.' '. '.1,. '.11, '.0',,., '.1.,. ' 0.,,,,.,.,. 1.,. 1. '.11 S I.O!,..., '. S1, '.H 0.11 I U 0. l.ll D.n o',.,.,.,, I. 0. l.n,. '.10.. I.U IJ,., 'I 03 ' ' I..t. Il 11,.. o..ll.,.,.,,.i..,., S., '.'. '.., '.,.,. l. II,.,. '...,. '. 'll 00' 0<. 0.., 0. ṃ., 0,, _,I,,Ul,.,0 'HO 02.0, U. >SOS lioo.0 0' lslo 0. l'.,n.,. '00,,,, n '0,no   '1, I.., loll >J1O ll,.s tt,,,,.,.,,., 0.,.,.,,., IU.,. III,,,. It loo< '''0 '. 13' 10. ',,., 00. HO,., 0 0 '1\0,s'. '0, '0'0 0..,.,,.,0,.o '0' 00 >0'  .,,,,, 0, ṃ,,, ' '00,. Total iron is expressed as FeO'; Na. and Cl. represent the results of cold extraction. potassiu content tn the whole series of pyrodastic products at Santorini appears to infer that the variations observed for chlorine cannot depend on different conditions for its solubility in the aga. The results obtained by siple leaching show that significant quantities of extractable chlorine correspond to the «highs» in total concentration of this eleent. Sodiu IS another iportant constituent of the sae >t,.,,
4 290 N. CORADOSSI, M. MARTINI, 5 0 I,, 0,, 0 la 0,, 3,. Na.%o CI.%o Nal '*' K/O'lb Cl, F%. 2 SAII9LES,,,,,,,,,, ? \ so } l 83 t t Fig Chical variationin series 'ro Santorini.. surge atrix; puice; lava. Cl.,*, Na,o% K1O% 0 0' o, ] 4 5 6,. F, Cl,, o,,,, I I I ,.15l rrr \( (j r!\ j,. HO! ' I t \ t l Fig Cheical variations in the series fro Vesuvius a.  surge atrix or pyrodastic flow (size less than ); 0 pyroclastic flow (size between 050 and 0.71 ); puice. )
5 CHEMICAL VARIATIONS IN PYROCLASTIC SERIES 291 solutions, with a distribution siilar to that of chlorine, but its absolute quantities repnt only a sall fraction of the total sodiu content of the saples. For Vesuvius the situarion is quite dilierent, because in spite of the significant concentrations of chlorine in the rocks, very inor concentrations are observed in leachates (fig. 4). The extent of leachable chlorine ds not appear as depending on the pyroclastic nature of the rocks nor on the total content, and ust be accounted for by a different process aong the natural ones which substantially can be restricted to: 1) leaching of rocks by percolating waters, with accuulation in levels of slight penneability; 2) alteration by secondary fuaroles, with enrichent in volatiles; oreover, taking into account the sodiu chloride character of the solutions obtained by leaching, we can consider 3) pollution by seawater spray; 4) contribution of seawater to the eruptive echanis which deterined the eplaceent of the studied pyroclastics. The freshness of the saples, collected on the: front of quarries under exploitation, s to rule our any alteration by fuarolic activity, while odifications by percolating waters cannot be copletely excluded. The observed concentrations in leachates, however, result fro a very short and weak treatenr of saples with cold water, and we think that during the tie elapsed since their deposition even a reduced ratc of percolation through the studied forations would have ptoduced an alost copletc depletion in their leachable coponents; any extent of heavier alteration should have inrcoduced also odifications in the unifority of the cheical picture, expecially between levels of different granuloetry. Besides this, no significant concentrations in leachates are observed for saples collected at Athinios, which also should have been interested by a general process of secondary cheical changes. If we consider the possibility of seawater as providing the excess of chlorine, we think that any pollution by arine spray should have interested to a siilar extent all of the exposed forations; oreover, our investigation on deposits of the sae nature located on a cliff near the seaside in the island of Vulcano has deonstrated that a very inor quantity of sodiu chloride, if any, can be provided through a process of that kind. The contribution of seawater to eruptive ecl1anis has therefore, in our opinion, the: best probability aong the processes here considered, and the location of the volcanic syste of Santorini s to allow such an hypothesis (BoND and SPARKS, 1976). Significant concentrations of sodiu and chlorine in well defined levels in the studied series could be thus considered as witnesses of an inflow of seawater into the volcanic conduit, and should pertain to those deposits ore directly associated to phreatoagatic activity triggered by such contribution. As a atter of fact, the highest peaks in chlorine and sodiu occur in base surge deposits, which are thought to be produced by the above entioned type of eruption. Nothing siilar is observed at Vesuvius, for which an inflow of phreatic waters has been proposed (SHERIDAN et ai., 1981). At present, no further general explanation can be provided, keeping in ind the preliinary character of this research, but we think that the obtained results stress out that a deepening of the studies is needed in order to verify possibilities and liits of a cheical approach in the investigation on recent pyroclastic forations. AcJowledgertft.  We are gnlleful [0 P. MA I\ETTI and R. SAA'TAC.OC who provided the saples of Saorini and Vesuvius, t'cipectively.
6 292 N. CORAOOSSI, M. MARTINI BIBLIOGRAPHY BAKEI PE. (1979)  Gtolof,iclII IHptts 0/ uoltlno prtdictian. )1. Gcol. Soc. Looo., 136. }41J4'. BAlIEtI F. and GASPAIINI P. (1976) Voltlnk hl1u1rds. Bull. Int. A. En,!:. GeQ!., 14, BA18EIU F., MUIN ll.l G., ROSI M. and SANTA CIOCE R. (1977)  If rischio da Itlhar ntl Sotl Vtruvio, in I vulcani anivi del]'aa napolc:la' na,., Napoli. BoND A. and SPARKS R.S.). (1976)  Tbt Mino/In truption 0/ Santorini, Grttct. )\. Gee!. Soc. Lond., 1J2, BooTH B. (l9791. Asstssing 1I01ctlnic risk. JI. Gee\. Soc. Lond. 136, JJI 340. BooTH B., CIOASDALE R. and WALKER <.P.L. (1977)  A qu4ntililti stud)' 0/ ft tbousilnds )'ttlrs 0/ IX)/ctlnis on San Migutl, korts. Phi!. Trans. R. Soc., A 288, DELlBlIAS G. DI PAOU. M., Rosl M. and SAN TACIOCE R. (1979)  LJ storill trlluiv/l dtl copltuo vjdcllnico Soil Vtsuvio rkoslfuitll dll1lt sucussioni pirodilstkht' dtl Manu Sail. Rend. Soc. h. Min. Pets., 3', KOGAIKO LN., KRICMAN LD. and SHAlUDllO NoS. (1%8). Eptritnlal invtstigationj 0/ tht tltcl 0/ alkalinit)' 0/ silicaft' tlls on Iht Upration 0/ jluorint into IM gas phlht. Geekhiiya, n. 8, 948 9'6. KOCARKO L.N. (1974)  Rofe o/volatiles, in The alkaline roch,., «I SOren$en, Wilcy aoo Sons. New York. tau L., PESCATOIE T., BooTH B. and WALKU G.P.L. (1973) Two pliniiln puiu./ajl dtposits fro Soa Vtsuvius, Ilal,. Gcol. Soc. A. Bull., 84,7' MARTINI M. (1982). Tht Popdan tvtnt 0/ Vtsuvius: chtical tvidtnct 0/ truptivt' prousus, in Vesuvius,. (in press). SHf.RIDAN M,F. (1979) Epfocttnl 0/ p)'foclastic flows; 0 rtvitw. in Ash llow tuffs,., w. Chapin and ElslOn, Gool. Soc, A., Spe1:. Paper 180, 12'136. SHEIIDAN M.F., BARBEll F., ROSI M. and SANTA CROCE R. (1981)  A otitl /0' PJinian truplion 0/ Vtsuvius. Nature, 289, '. VITALlANQ C.J., FOIJT ).5. and VITALlASO D.B. (1978). PttrfXMicill sllld., 0/ tht' ltphrll St qutnu tpostd in tm Phi,iI quiij, TWa. 1ben and the An World, London. W'LKEI G.PL. (I974)  VoIcilnic haulrjs {lnd Iht' prtdicl;on 0/ voicilnic trup/ions. Gcol. Soc. Lond., Mise. Publ. n, 3. WAUEI G.P.L. (1977)  Mttodi gtologid ptr III vollltilz.iont dtl,ischio vu{cllnico, in I vulcani anivi dell'area napole!ana,., Napoli. WalCItT ).v., SMITH A.L. and SELf S. (1980) A Wf),king It,inology 0/ p)'rrxlastic deposits. Jour. Vole. Geolh. Res., 8, 3U3J6.
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME. PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
PYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES) MOLE CONCEPT, STOICIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS Learner Note: The ole concept is carried forward to calculations in the acid and base section, as well as in
More informationA DESIGN GUIDE OF DOUBLELAYER CELLULAR CLADDINGS FOR BLAST ALLEVIATION
International Journal of Aerospace and Lightweight Structures Vol. 3, No. 1 (2013) 109 133 c Research Publishing Services DOI: 10.3850/S201042862013000550 A DESIGN GUIDE OF DOUBLELAYER CELLULAR CLADDINGS
More information5.60 Thermodynamics & Kinetics Spring 2008
MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.it.edu 5.60 Therodynaics & Kinetics Spring 2008 For inforation about citing these aterials or our Ters of Use, visit: http://ocw.it.edu/ters. 1 Enzye Catalysis Readings: SAB,
More informationUNCERTAINTIES IN THE APPLICATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AND ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS AS RECOMMENDED IN IEC STANDARDS
Paper Published on the16th International Syposiu on High Voltage Engineering, Cape Town, South Africa, 2009 UNCERTAINTIES IN THE APPLICATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AND ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS AS RECOMMENDED IN IEC
More information2 Q 10. Likewise, in case of multiple particles, the corresponding density in 2 must be averaged over all
Lecture 6 Introduction to kinetic theory of plasa waves Introduction to kinetic theory So far we have been odeling plasa dynaics using fluid equations. The assuption has been that the pressure can be either
More informationSpine Fin Efficiency A Three Sided Pyramidal Fin of Equilateral Triangular CrossSectional Area
Proceedings of the 006 WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer, Miai, Florida, USA, January 180, 006 (pp1318) Spine Fin Efficiency A Three Sided Pyraidal Fin of Equilateral Triangular
More informationLecture #83 Oscillations, Simple Harmonic Motion
Lecture #83 Oscillations Siple Haronic Motion So far we have considered two basic types of otion: translation and rotation. But these are not the only two types of otion we can observe in every day life.
More informationFourvector, Dirac spinor representation and Lorentz Transformations
Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.co Advances in Applied Science Research, 2012, 3 (2):749756 Fourvector, Dirac spinor representation and Lorentz Transforations S. B. Khasare 1, J. N. Rateke
More informationDescription of the nonlinear viscoelastic and thixotropic properties of human blood by the modified model of MaxwellGurevichRabinovich
L. Hadjikov et al. / Series on Bioechanics, Vo.23, No., 27 Description of the nonlinear viscoelastic and thixotropic properties of huan blood by the odified odel of MaxwellurevichRabinovich L. Hadjikov,
More informationA L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W
A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N
More informationCONDUCTOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS ON OXALIC ACID IN 2PROPANOL + WATER MIXTURES AT , , AND K
CONDUCTOMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS ON OXALIC ACID IN PROPANOL + WATER MIXTURES AT 98.5, 0.5, 08.5 AND.5 K Shivakuar H R, Siju N Antony, Surekha M Prof & Head, Associate Professor, Departent of Cheistry KVG
More informationRationality Problems of the Principles of Equivalence and General Relativity
Rationality Probles of the Principles of Equivalence and General Relativity Mei Xiaochun (Departent of Physics, Fuzhou University, Eail: xc1@163.co Tel:865918761414) (N.7B, South Building, Zhongfu
More informationRandom Vibration Fatigue Analysis with LSDYNA
1 th International LSDYNA Users Conference Siulation() Rando Vibration Fatigue Analysis with LSDYNA Arnaud Ringeval 1, Yun Huang 1 CIMES, France 36 rue Marc Lefrancq, Les Ateliers Nuériques, 593 Valenciennes,
More informationPhysics 2107 Oscillations using Springs Experiment 2
PY07 Oscillations using Springs Experient Physics 07 Oscillations using Springs Experient Prelab Read the following bacground/setup and ensure you are failiar with the concepts and theory required for
More informationNumerical simulation of VOC Emissions from Dry Materials
Yang, X., Chen, Q., Zhang, J.S, Magee, R., Zeng, J. and Shaw,C.Y. 2001. Nuerical siulation of VOC eissions fro dry aterials, Building and Environent, 36(10), 10991107. Nuerical siulation of VOC Eissions
More informationDetermination of accurate theoretical values for thermodynamic properties in bulk metallic glasses
Adv. Manuf. (2013) 1:293 304 DOI 10.1007/s4043601300403 Deterination of accurate theoretical values for therodynaic properties in bulk etallic glasses PeiYou Li Gang Wang Ding Ding Jun Shen Received:
More informationOptical Properties of Plasmas of HighZ Elements
Forschungszentru Karlsruhe Techni und Uwelt Wissenschaftlishe Berichte FZK Optical Properties of Plasas of HighZ Eleents V.Tolach 1, G.Miloshevsy 1, H.Würz Project Kernfusion 1 Heat and Mass Transfer
More informationECE 4430 Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems
ECE 4430 Analog Integrated Circuits and Systes Prof. B. A. Minch s lecture notes in Cornell University on Septeber 21, 2001 1 MOS Transistor Models In this section, we shall develop largesignal odels
More informationKeywords: Estimator, Bias, Meansquared error, normality, generalized Pareto distribution
Testing approxiate norality of an estiator using the estiated MSE and bias with an application to the shape paraeter of the generalized Pareto distribution J. Martin van Zyl Abstract In this work the norality
More informationELEC NCERT. 1. Which cell will measure standard electrode potential of copper electrode? (g,0.1 bar) H + (aq.,1 M) Cu 2+ (aq.
I. Multiple Choice Questions (TypeI) 1. Which cell will easure standard electrode potential of copper electrode? Pt (s) H 2 (g,0.1 bar) H + (aq.,1 M) Cu 2+ (aq.,1m) Cu Pt(s) H 2 (g, 1 bar) H + (aq.,1
More informationU ms = U mf (gD c ) 0.5
Indian Journal of Cheical Technology Vol. 15, January 2008, pp.8589 Prediction of iniu slugging velocity, bubbling bed index and range of bubbling fluidization in cylindrical and noncylindrical gassolid
More informationMoment of Inertia. Terminology. Definitions Moment of inertia of a body with mass, m, about the x axis: Transfer Theorem  1. ( )dm. = y 2 + z 2.
Terinology Moent of Inertia ME 202 Moent of inertia (MOI) = second ass oent Instead of ultiplying ass by distance to the first power (which gives the first ass oent), we ultiply it by distance to the second
More information1 Proof of learning bounds
COS 511: Theoretical Machine Learning Lecturer: Rob Schapire Lecture #4 Scribe: Akshay Mittal February 13, 2013 1 Proof of learning bounds For intuition of the following theore, suppose there exists a
More informationTHE ROCKET EXPERIMENT 1. «Homogenous» gravitational field
THE OCKET EXPEIENT. «Hoogenous» gravitational field Let s assue, fig., that we have a body of ass Μ and radius. fig. As it is known, the gravitational field of ass Μ (both in ters of geoetry and dynaics)
More informationMolar mass, M, of the empirical formula C 4 H 9 : M 4M 9M g/mol g/mol g/mol
olar ass,, of the unknown gas: n 10.00 g 0.088037 ol 113.16057 g/ ol olar ass,, of the epirical forula C 4 H 9 : 4 9 C4H9 C H 4 12.01 g/ol 9 1.01 g/ol 57.13 g/ol Ratio of olar asses: 113.16057 g/ol 1.9807
More informationKinetic Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases
Lecture 3. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases Last Lecture. IGL is a purely epirical law  solely the consequence of experiental obserations Explains the behaior of gases oer a liited range of conditions.
More informationLECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types
GEOL 0820 Ramsey Natural Disasters Spring, 2018 LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types Date: 13 February 2018 I. Exam I grades are posted on the class website (link at the bottom
More informationThe proofs of Theorem 13 are along the lines of Wied and Galeano (2013).
A Appendix: Proofs The proofs of Theore 13 are along the lines of Wied and Galeano (2013) Proof of Theore 1 Let D[d 1, d 2 ] be the space of càdlàg functions on the interval [d 1, d 2 ] equipped with
More informationChapter 6: Economic Inequality
Chapter 6: Econoic Inequality We are interested in inequality ainly for two reasons: First, there are philosophical and ethical grounds for aversion to inequality per se. Second, even if we are not interested
More informationCHEM 481 Assignment 3 Answers
CHEM 481 Assignent Answers. In the standard notation of closestpacking of spheres, the letters A, B and C refer to closepacked layers. Which of the following sequences describe closestpacking in diensions,
More informationSimulation of Geomechanical Behavior during SAGD Process using COMSOL Multiphysics
Siulation of Geoechanical Behavior during SAGD Process using COMSOL Multiphysics X. Gong 1, R.Wan *2 Departent of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. *Corresponding author:
More informationGeneral Properties of Radiation Detectors Supplements
Phys. 649: Nuclear Techniques Physics Departent Yarouk University Chapter 4: General Properties of Radiation Detectors Suppleents Dr. Nidal M. Ershaidat Overview Phys. 649: Nuclear Techniques Physics Departent
More informationBlock designs and statistics
Bloc designs and statistics Notes for Math 447 May 3, 2011 The ain paraeters of a bloc design are nuber of varieties v, bloc size, nuber of blocs b. A design is built on a set of v eleents. Each eleent
More informationThe temperature dependences of electromechanical properties of PLZT ceramics
The headers will be insert by the Publisher The headers will be insert by the Publisher The headers will be insert by the Publisher The teperature dependences of electroechanical properties of PLZT ceraics
More informationSUR LE CALCUL DES PROBABILITÉS
MÉMOIRE SUR LE CALCUL DES PROBABILITÉS M. le MARQUIS DE CONDORCET Histoire de l Acadéie des Sciences des Paris, 783 Parts 4 & 5, pp. 539559 FOURTH PART Reflections on the ethod to deterine the Probability
More informationGLOBAL ANALYSIS OF NEUTRINO DATA
GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF NEUTRINO DATA Stony Brook & IFICValencia) Nobel Syposiu, August 4 Introduction: The Paraeters of the New Minial Standard Model Orthodox Global Fits Solar and Reactor Neutrinos Atospheric
More informationFundamentals of Image Compression
Fundaentals of Iage Copression Iage Copression reduce the size of iage data file while retaining necessary inforation Original uncopressed Iage Copression (encoding) 01101 Decopression (decoding) Copressed
More informationIDENTIFICATION OF STABILITY OF CONCRETE TUNNEL LINING USING COUPLED MODELING
IDENTIFICATION OF STABILITY OF CONCRETE TUNNEL LINING USING COUPLED MODELING Kaila Weiglová, Technical University in Brno, Institute of Geoechanics, Brno, Czech Republic Petr Procházka*, Czech Association
More informationHumidity parameters. Saturation (equilibrium) vapor pressure Condensation balances evaporation
uidity paraeters Saturation (equilibriu) vapor pressure Condensation balances evaporation Miing ratio & specific huidity Mass ratio of water vapor and air and water content and wet air. Dew point & frost
More informationDistillation. The Continuous Column. Learning Outcomes. Recap  VLE for Meth H 2 O. Gavin Duffy School of Electrical Engineering DIT Kevin Street
Distillation The Continuous Colun Gavin Duffy School of Electrical Engineering DIT Kevin Street Learning Outcoes After this lecture you should be able to.. Describe how continuous distillation works List
More informationma x = bv x + F rod.
Notes on Dynaical Systes Dynaics is the study of change. The priary ingredients of a dynaical syste are its state and its rule of change (also soeties called the dynaic). Dynaical systes can be continuous
More informationNew upper bound for the Bspline basis condition number II. K. Scherer. Institut fur Angewandte Mathematik, Universitat Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
New upper bound for the Bspline basis condition nuber II. A proof of de Boor's 2 conjecture K. Scherer Institut fur Angewandte Matheati, Universitat Bonn, 535 Bonn, Gerany and A. Yu. Shadrin Coputing
More informationSHAPE IDENTIFICATION USING DISTRIBUTED STRAIN DATA FROM EMBEDDED OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS
16 H INERNAIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSIE MAERIALS SHAPE IDENIFICAION USING DISRIBUED SRAIN DAA FROM EMBEDDED OPICAL FIBER SENSORS Mayuko Nishio*, adahito Mizutani*, Nobuo akeda* *he University of okyo Keywords:
More informationScattering and bound states
Chapter Scattering and bound states In this chapter we give a review of quantuechanical scattering theory. We focus on the relation between the scattering aplitude of a potential and its bound states
More informationPhysical Chemistry I for Biochemists Chem340. Lecture 26 (3/14/11)
Physical Cheistry I or Biocheists Che340 Lecture 26 (3/14/11) Yoshitaka Ishii Ch 7.2, 7.45, & 7.10 Announceent Exa 2 this Friday. Please be well prepared! HW average 8085. You will probably have one
More informationSOME HOMOTOPY GROUPS OF STIEFEL MANIFOLDS 1
SME HMTPY GRUPS F STIEFEL MAIFLDS 1 BY C. S. H AD M. E. MAHWALD Counicated by W. S. Massey, February 1, 1965 Paechter [7] ade soe putations of Tk p (Vk,) where Vk, is the Stiefel anifold of fraes in k
More informationThe Development of a Generalised Jet Mixing Model for the Derivation of Exclusion Zones in Hazardous Area Classification
The Developent of a Generalised Jet Mixing Model for the Derivation of Exclusion Zones in Hazardous Area Classification Katherine McCobe, Peter Tait, Jason Whitley LogiCas Ltd. 33 Boundary Street, Spring
More informationEVAPORATION EFFECT IN NONLINEAR PENETRATION OF HIGH ENERGY BEAM DRILLING
1 Journal of Marine Science and echnology, Vol. 17, No., pp. 117 (9) EVAPORAION EFFEC IN NONLINEAR PENERAION OF HIGH ENERGY BEAM DRILLING JeEe Ho* and ChenLung Yen** Key words: enthalpy ethod. ABSRAC
More informationSample collection was restricted to pumice from plinian fallout, from thin distal ignimbrite, and from
DATA REPOSITORY APPENDIX 1. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Sample collection was restricted to pumice from plinian fallout, from thin distal ignimbrite, and from proximal lithic breccias deposits (Fig. DR1 and
More informationLea and Burke Chapter 22 Even Solutions. S.M.Lea
/ Lea and Burke Chapter Even Solutions S.M.Lea. T efficiency of t Otto cycle is: Since we have only sig fig, we should give t answer as 50%..4 T efficiency of a Carnot engine is:,l, 560 K = T H.0 x 0 =
More informationBALLISTIC PENDULUM. EXPERIMENT: Measuring the Projectile Speed Consider a steel ball of mass
BALLISTIC PENDULUM INTRODUCTION: In this experient you will use the principles of conservation of oentu and energy to deterine the speed of a horizontally projected ball and use this speed to predict the
More information15 Newton s Laws #2: Kinds of Forces, Creating Free Body Diagrams
Chapter 15 ewton s Laws #2: inds of s, Creating ree Body Diagras 15 ewton s Laws #2: inds of s, Creating ree Body Diagras re is no force of otion acting on an object. Once you have the force or forces
More informationJournal of Modern Physics, 2011, 2, doi: /jmp Published Online November 2011 (http://www.scirp.
Journal of Modern Physics, 11,, 13311347 doi:1.436/jp.11.11165 Published Online Noveber 11 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jp) Transforation of the Angular Power Spectru of the Cosic Microwave Background
More informationSolvent Extraction Research and Development, Japan, Vol. 22, No 1, (2015)
Solvent Extraction Research and Developent, Japan, Vol. 22, No 1, 95 11 (215) Notes Separation of Nitrogen Heterocyclic Copounds fro Model Oils by an Eulsion Liquid Mebrane Hiroaki HABAKI, Yoshiyuki SHIMADA
More informationNonuniqueness of canonical ensemble theory. arising from microcanonical basis
onuniueness of canonical enseble theory arising fro icrocanonical basis arxiv:uantph/99097 v2 25 Oct 2000 Suiyoshi Abe and A. K. Rajagopal 2 College of Science and Technology, ihon University, Funabashi,
More informationOptimal Jamming Over Additive Noise: Vector SourceChannel Case
Fiftyfirst Annual Allerton Conference Allerton House, UIUC, Illinois, USA October 23, 2013 Optial Jaing Over Additive Noise: Vector SourceChannel Case Erah Akyol and Kenneth Rose Abstract This paper
More informationAn Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing InFlight Strain Measurements for Determining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles
An Inverse Interpolation Method Utilizing InFlight Strain Measureents for Deterining Loads and Structural Response of Aerospace Vehicles S. Shkarayev and R. Krashantisa University of Arizona, Tucson,
More informationMSEC MODELING OF DEGRADATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN AN OPTIMAL SOLUTION FOR MAINTENANCE AND PERFORMANCE
Proceeding of the ASME 9 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC9 October 47, 9, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA MSEC98466 MODELING OF DEGRADATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN AN OPTIMAL
More informationLecture 16: Scattering States and the Step Potential. 1 The Step Potential 1. 4 Wavepackets in the step potential 6
Lecture 16: Scattering States and the Step Potential B. Zwiebach April 19, 2016 Contents 1 The Step Potential 1 2 Step Potential with E>V 0 2 3 Step Potential with E
More informationNoteARific: Mechanical
NoteARific: Mechanical Kinetic You ve probably heard of inetic energy in previous courses using the following definition and forula Any object that is oving has inetic energy. E ½ v 2 E inetic energy
More informationReducing Vibration and Providing Robustness with MultiInput Shapers
29 Aerican Control Conference Hyatt Regency Riverfront, St. Louis, MO, USA June 2, 29 WeA6.4 Reducing Vibration and Providing Robustness with MultiInput Shapers Joshua Vaughan and Willia Singhose Abstract
More informationESTIMATING AND FORMING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR EXTREMA OF RANDOM POLYNOMIALS. A Thesis. Presented to. The Faculty of the Department of Mathematics
ESTIMATING AND FORMING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR EXTREMA OF RANDOM POLYNOMIALS A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the Departent of Matheatics San Jose State University In Partial Fulfillent of the Requireents
More informationXI PHYSICS M. AFFAN KHAN LECTURER PHYSICS, AKHSS, K. https://promotephysics.wordpress.com
XI PHYSICS M. AFFAN KHAN LECTURER PHYSICS, AKHSS, K affan_414@live.co https://prootephysics.wordpress.co [MOTION] CHAPTER NO. 3 In this chapter we are going to discuss otion in one diension in which we
More informationSPECTRUM sensing is a core concept of cognitive radio
World Acadey of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Electronics and Counication Engineering Vol:6, o:2, 202 Efficient Detection Using Sequential Probability Ratio Test in Mobile
More informationA probabilistic model to quantify the results of the research on the Turin Shroud
Abstract A probabilistic odel to quantify the results of the research on the Turin Shroud Giulio Fanti, Eanuela Marinelli + CSAS G. Colobo (nterdepartental Center Space Studies and Activities) Departent
More informationDoes the quark cluster model predict any isospin two dibaryon. resonance? (1) Grupo defsica Nuclear
FUSAL  4/95 Does the quark cluster odel predict any isospin two dibaryon resonance? A. Valcarce (1), H. Garcilazo (),F.Fernandez (1) and E. Moro (1) (1) Grupo defsica uclear Universidad de Salaanca, E37008
More informationModel Fitting. CURM Background Material, Fall 2014 Dr. Doreen De Leon
Model Fitting CURM Background Material, Fall 014 Dr. Doreen De Leon 1 Introduction Given a set of data points, we often want to fit a selected odel or type to the data (e.g., we suspect an exponential
More informationCHAPTER 16 KINETICS: RATES AND MECHANISMS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
CHAPTER 6 KINETICS: RATES AND MECHANISMS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS 6. Changes in concentrations of reactants (or products) as functions of tie are easured to deterine the reaction rate. 6. Rate is proportional
More informationThe Thermal Dependence and Urea Concentration Dependence of Rnase A Denaturant Transition
The Theral Dependence and Urea Concentration Dependence of Rnase A Denaturant Transition Bin LI Departent of Physics & Astronoy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, U.S.A Feb.20 th, 2001 Abstract:
More informationRecovering Data from Underdetermined Quadratic Measurements (CS 229a Project: Final Writeup)
Recovering Data fro Underdeterined Quadratic Measureents (CS 229a Project: Final Writeup) Mahdi Soltanolkotabi Deceber 16, 2011 1 Introduction Data that arises fro engineering applications often contains
More information6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table
6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table The Periodic Table was developed by scientists to organize elements in such a way as to make sense of the growing information about their properties. The
More informationParticle dynamics Physics 1A, UNSW
1 Particle dynaics Physics 1A, UNSW Newton's laws: S & J: Ch 5.1 5.9, 6.1 force, ass, acceleration also weight Physclips Chapter 5 Friction  coefficients of friction Physclips Chapter 6 Hooke's Law Dynaics
More informationMeasuring Temperature with a Silicon Diode
Measuring Teperature with a Silicon Diode Due to the high sensitivity, nearly linear response, and easy availability, we will use a 1N4148 diode for the teperature transducer in our easureents 10 Analysis
More informationFINITE ELEMENT BASED VIBRATION FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF A NEW TWO STROKE LINEAR GENERATOR ENGINE COMPONENT. M. M. Rahman, A. K. Ariffin, and S.
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol. (7), No. 1, 6374. FINITE ELEMENT BASED VIBRATION FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF A NEW TWO STROKE LINEAR GENERATOR ENGINE COMPONENT M.
More informationThe Effect of NonHomogenous Perforation Pattern on Sound Absorption Bandwidth of MicroPerforate Panel
7th International Conference on Physics and Its Applications 4 (ICOPIA 4) The Effect of NonHoogenous Perforation Pattern on Sound Absorption Bandwidth of MicroPerforate Panel Iwan Prasetiyo Engineering
More informationof daping test interfered by the noise of torsional vibration test syste was lager for low signaltonoise ratio. Therefore, only a test ethod studyin
Threshold shear strain for dynaic RabergOsgood odel in soils based on theroechanics Xiaoxia Guo,Xiang Sun The State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipent, Dalian University of
More informationSupervised Baysian SAR image Classification Using The Full Polarimetric Data
Supervised Baysian SAR iage Classification Using The Full Polarietric Data (1) () Ziad BELHADJ (1) SUPCOM, Route de Raoued 3.5 083 El Ghazala  TUNSA () ENT, BP. 37, 100 Tunis Belvedere, TUNSA Abstract
More informationSylvain Charbonnier. PASI Workshop About 60% of Indonesians live around 16 active volcanoes on the island of Java
Numerical modelling of pyroclastic flows: a case study from the recent activity of Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia Sylvain Charbonnier PASI Workshop 2011 Case study: Merapi Volcano! About 60% of
More informationCHAPTER 19: SingleLoop IMC Control
When I coplete this chapter, I want to be able to do the following. Recognize that other feedback algoriths are possible Understand the IMC structure and how it provides the essential control features
More informationTHE CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT
MISN0100 THE CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT laser bea window container to keep out air currents sall ass irror quartz fiber large ass THE CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT by P. Signell and V. Ross 1. Introduction..............................................
More informationOn The Mechanics of Tone Arms
On Dick Pierce Professional Audio Developent Wherein we explore soe of the basic physical echanics of tone ars. INTRODUCTION Mechanics is a branch of physics that explores the behavior and analysis of
More informationNewton's Laws. Lecture 2 Key Concepts. Newtonian mechanics and relation to Kepler's laws The Virial Theorem Tidal forces Collision physics
Lecture 2 Key Concepts Newtonian echanics and relation to Kepler's laws The Virial Theore Tidal forces Collision physics Newton's Laws 1) An object at rest will reain at rest and an object in otion will
More informationFall 2011 CHEM Test 4, Form A
Fall 2011 CHEM 1110.40413 Test 4, Form A Part I. Multiple Choice: Clearly circle the best answer. (60 pts) Name: 1. The common constituent in all acid solutions is A) H 2 SO 4 B) H 2 C) H + D) OH 2. Which
More informationCalculation of load limits by the method of Norton HoffFriaâ, behavior NORTON_HOFF
Titre : Calcul de charge liite par la éthode de NortonH[...] Date : 25/02/2014 Page : 1/12 Calculation of load liits by the ethod of Norton HoffFriaâ, behavior NORTON_HOFF Suary: The liiting analysis
More information'5E _  =:... !... L og...
F U T U R E O F E M B E D D I N G A N D F A N  O U T T E C H N O L O G I E S R a o T u m m a l a, P h. D ; V e n k y S u n d a r a m, P h. D ; P u l u g u r t h a M. R a j, P h. D ; V a n e s s a S m
More informationExecutive Committee and Officers ( )
Gifted and Talented International V o l u m e 2 4, N u m b e r 2, D e c e m b e r, 2 0 0 9. G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r, 2 0 0 9. 1 T h e W o r
More informationHeat Capacity: measures the ability of the substance to pick up heat
Calorietry: easures flow of heat across boundaries Heat Capacity: easures the ability of the substance to pick up heat Heat capacity under constant pressure, C p euals the aount of heat reuired to raise
More informationMade the FIRST periodic table
Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing
More informationAnalysis of Hu's Moment Invariants on Image Scaling and Rotation
Edith Cowan University Research Online ECU Publications Pre. 11 1 Analysis of Hu's Moent Invariants on Iage Scaling and Rotation Zhihu Huang Edith Cowan University Jinsong Leng Edith Cowan University 1.119/ICCET.1.548554
More informationPearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 12 Solutions
Concept Check (top) Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 12 Solutions Student Book page 583 Concept Check (botto) The northseeking needle of a copass is attracted to what is called
More informationThe Lagrangian Method vs. other methods (COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE)
The Lagrangian ethod vs. other ethods () This aterial written by Jozef HANC, jozef.hanc@tuke.sk Technical University, Kosice, Slovakia For Edwin Taylor s website http://www.eftaylor.co/ 6 January 003 The
More informationProblem Set 8 Solutions
Physics 57 Proble Set 8 Solutions Proble The decays in question will be given by soe Hadronic atric eleent: Γ i V f where i is the initial state, V is an interaction ter, f is the final state. The strong
More informationAssessing the Overall Sufficiency of Safety Arguments
University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCoons Departental Papers (CIS) Departent of Coputer & Inforation Science 2203 Assessing the Overall Sufficiency of Safety Arguents Anaheed Ayoub University of Pennsylvania,
More informationPractice Final Exam PY 205 Monday 2004 May 3
Practice Final Exa PY 05 Monday 004 May 3 Nae There are THREE forula pages. Read all probles carefully before attepting to solve the. Your work ust be legible, and the organization ust be clear. Correct
More informationMelting Temperature of Lithium, Sodium and Potassium at High Pressures
International Journal of Applied Science and Technology Vol. No. 4; April 1 Melting Teperature of Lithiu, Sodiu and Potassiu at High Pressures Chuanhui Nie Shangyong Huang Wei Huang School of Science,
More informationObject Oriented Programming for Partial Differential Equations
Procedia Coputer Science Volue 51, 2015, Pages 1013 1022 ICCS 2015 International Conference On Coputational Science Object Oriented Prograing for Partial Differential Equations E. Alberdi Celaya 1 and
More informationEstimation of the Population Mean Based on Extremes Ranked Set Sampling
Aerican Journal of Matheatics Statistics 05, 5(: 33 DOI: 0.593/j.ajs.05050.05 Estiation of the Population Mean Based on Extrees Ranked Set Sapling B. S. Biradar,*, Santosha C. D. Departent of Studies
More informationCharacteristics of LowTemperature Plasmas Under Nonthermal Conditions A Short Summary
1 1 Characteristics of LowTeperature Plasas Under Nontheral Conditions A Short Suary Alfred Rutscher 1.1 Introduction The concept of a plasa dates back to Languir (1928) and originates fro the fundaental
More informationGeology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT
1. What is the role of a geologist? Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 20162017 2. Earth is subdivided into three main layers based on what? 3. What features do you find at divergent boundaries? 4. Rock
More informationStatistical Logic Cell Delay Analysis Using a Currentbased Model
Statistical Logic Cell Delay Analysis Using a Currentbased Model Hanif Fatei Shahin Nazarian Massoud Pedra Dept. of EESystes, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 {fatei, shahin,
More information