CDF Checklist of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna

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1 Tirado-Sanchez, N., Chiriboga, A., Ruiz, D., Banks, S. (2014). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna - FCD Lista de especies de Fauna Intersticial Galápagos. In: Bungartz, F., Herrera, H., Jaramillo, P., Tirado, N., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Ruiz, D., Guézou, A. & Ziemmeck, F. (eds.). Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos: Last updated: 28 Sep 2014 CDF Checklist of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna Nathalia Tirado-Sanchez, Angel Chiriboga, Diego Ruiz, Stuart Banks Last updated: 28 Sep 2014 Abstract This Checklist of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna includes a total of all 191 taxa reported from the Galapagos Islands. For each name, detailed information is provided: its Galapagos distribution in islands groups or bioregions generated from the specimen records, comments about the taxonomy (especially synonyms), the origin (native and introduced), taxon status (accepted vs. rejected records) and relevant literature references. Introduction This publication lists all species of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna currently known. Interstitial fauna live in the empty spaces between sand grains and other substrate along beaches. Members of this fauna do not belong to a single taxonomic group and can include: nematodes, annelids, plathyhelminths, and crustaceans, as well as other taxa. Environmental conditions below the surface are semi-constant in relation to above-ground conditions, resulting in a low degree of geographic variation within the interstitial fauna (Barnes & Hughes, 1982). Movement within the interstitial fauna has been adapted to their specific type of substrate, as well as the unstable nature of shifting sand grains. Since they are an ecological group with a wide range of morphological adaptation and habitats, locomotion within the interstitial fauna is quite diverse: some fauna move with the use of cilia hairs (turbellarians, rotifers, gastrotrichs, archiannelids, polychaetes, medusa, etc.), or undulate their bodies (nematodes, some copepods), while others use a dynamic assortment of bristles, secretions, parapodia, or limbs for climbing and burrowing into substrate. Some taxa are capable of boring into hard substrates such as calcareous rock, hard timber, or clay using mechanical or chemical attack (Friedrich, 1965). Methods This checklist of all known Galapagos Interstitial Fauna is automatically generated using the online database of the Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist. All CDF Galapagos Species Checklists represent the synthesis of many different records: literature citations, data from previously unpublished reports (grey literature), specimen records of natural history collections located in Galapagos and all over the world. To the best of their knowledge authors of the individual checklists revised all available data. When new information becomes available, the taxonomy of a group changes or new species are discovered, the CDF online database and thus this publication becomes updated.

2 For many poorly known species groups the higher taxonomic classification still regularly changes according to how our knowledge about species being related changes. In many well known groups the phylogeny is somewhat stable, but to avoid confusion, in particular for groups where taxonomic changes are frequent, all checklists presented here are sorted alphabetical according to genus name and specific epithet. Please refer to the website for the currently accepted taxonomic hierarchy of each group. Please be aware that the distribution presented here is automatically generated from specimen records and does not always accurately reflect the known distribution for all species. For marine species, the distribution generally refers to the five main bioregions of the archipelago (Far Northern, Northern, Western, South Eastern and the Elisabeth Bay Bioregion). For the terrestrial species more than 120 islands, islets and small rocks have been aggregated into Islands Groups, thus, for example, the island group "Santa Cruz" includes smaller islands like Santa Fé, Plaza Norte, Plaza Sur, Baltra, Daphne Mayor, Daphne Minor, and others. IUCN red-list assessments presented here may deviate from the global IUCN list for the following reasons: for well known species groups like vascular plants or vertebrates updates proposed to the IUCN are shown instead of the outdated, but currently accepted status; for poorly known species groups (e.g., lichenized fungi) a general assessment is currently not possible and the list presented here is a regional red-list list for Galapagos archipelago. Numbers of the species included in this list are auto-generated. Adding up the number of species in each category will not always equal the total number indicated. Some species have insufficient data to be categorized while others (e.g., category eradicated) will not be included in the total. Results Names of taxa included in this checklist: 191 (170 accepted, 18 unidentified taxon, 2 doubtful, 1 problematic). Origin of the taxa included: 126 indigenous. 1. Acarochelopodia aduncispina Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. 2. Acarochelopodia cuneifera Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 3. Acaromantis armatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Isabela, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al.

3 (1991). 4. Acaromantis fastigatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991). 5. Acaromantis grandiculus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: San Cristóbal. 6. Acaromantis punctulus Bartsch, Acaromantis subasper Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 8. Actacarus hastatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Fé. 9. Actacarus mollis Bartsch, 1977

4 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 10. Actacarus uniscutatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Isabela, Santa Cruz. 11. Aeolosoma maritimum dubiosum Westheide & Schmidt, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz. References: Westheide, W. et al. (1974). 12. Afrolaophonte schmidti Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1982), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 13. Agauopsis denticulata Bartsch, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 14. Agauopsis ornata (Lohmann, 1893) Syn.: Agaue ornata Lohmann, 1893 (moved to genus Agauopsis), fide Appeltans et al. (2010) Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Genovesa, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et

5 15. Amphiscolops sp. References: Westheide, W. et 16. Anisonyches diakidius Pollock, 1975 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 17. Apodopsyllus arcuatus Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 18. Arenosetella germanica galapagoensis Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 19. Arhodeoporus bonairensis (Viets, 1936) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Viets, K. et al. (1936), Westheide, W. et 20. Arhodeoporus bucculentus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela, Santa Cruz. 21. Atelopsalis aliger Bartsch, 1977

6 22. Austrognatharia atraclava Ehlers & Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, B. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 23. Austrorhynchus galapagoensis Artois & Schockaert, 1999 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (1999). 24. Balucopsylla cf. triarticulata Wells & Rao, 1987 Taxon status: The identification of this taxon or its occurrence in Galapagos is doubtful. Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Genovesa, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 25. Belemnopontia dispinosa (Mielke, 1982) Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 26. Carenscoilia monostyla Ax & Ax, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 27. Carolinicola galapagoensis Mielke, 1997 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (1997). 28. Ceratonereis monronis Westheide, 1977 Holotype (P-13673) in ZMUH; Acc. name: Ceratonereis (Composetia) monronis (Westheide, 1977), fide Appeltans et al. (2010)

7 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 29. Ceratopera paragracilis Ehlers & Ax, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, U. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 30. Cletocamptus axi Mielke, 2000 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (2000). 31. Cletocamptus schmidti Mielke, 2000 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (2000). 32. Copidognathus bairdi bairdi Newell, 1947 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Weber, D. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 33. Copidognathus gibboides Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. 34. Copidognathus gracilis Viets, Copidognathus grandiculus Bartsch, 1977

8 36. Copidognathus guttatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Floreana, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 37. Copidognathus lepidus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. 38. Copidognathus lineatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 39. Copidognathus pauciporus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela, Santa Cruz. 40. Copidognathus peregrinus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Genovesa, Santa Cruz.

9 41. Copidognathus scitus Bartsch, Copidognathus sp. A References: Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Schatz, H. et 43. Copidognathus tenuirostris Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Isabela, Santa Cruz. 44. Copidognathus tuberipes Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela. 45. Corculognathia apennata Ehlers & Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, B. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 46. Crasiella pacifica Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 47. Cryptostiopera cornuta Ehlers & Ax, 1974

10 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, U. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 48. Darcythompsonia fairliensis (T. Scott, 1899) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1982), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 49. Dendrodasys pacificus Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 50. Diarthrodella galapagoensis Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Floreana, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 51. Diarthrodella neotropica Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 52. Diarthrodella parorbiculata pacifica Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 53. Dinophilus sp. References: Schmidt, P. et al. (1977). 54. Diurodrilus sp. References: Schmidt, P. et al. (1977).

11 55. Djeziraia incana Artois & Schockaert, 2001 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001). 56. Duplominona galapagoensis Ax & Ax, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 57. Duplominona karlingi Ax & Ax, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 58. Duplominona krameri Ax & Ax, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 59. Duplominona sieversi Ax & Ax, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 60. Echinoderes pacificus Schmidt, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Marchena, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Schmidt, P. et al. (1974). 61. Echinolaophonte tetracheir Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 62. Ectinosoma nonpectinatum Mielke, 1979

12 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 63. Ectinosoma pectinatum Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Isabela, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 64. Ectinosoma sp. 1 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 65. Ectinosoma sp. 2 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 66. Ectinosoma sp. 3 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 67. Ectinosoma sp. 4 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 68. Ectinosoma sp. 5 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 69. Emertonia regulexstans (Mielke, 1984) Syn.: Kliopsyllus regulexstans Mielke, 1984, fide Appeltans et al. (2010)

13 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010). 70. Emertonia similis (Mielke, 1984) Syn.: Kliopsyllus similis Mielke, 1984, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010). 71. Esola longicauda galapagoensis Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 72. Eunice sp. References: Westheide, W. et al. (1977). 73. Galapacanuella beckeri Mielke, 1979 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 74. Galapagoplana bituba Ax & Ax, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 75. Galapagorhynchus hoxholdi Artois & Schockaert, 1999 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (1999). 76. Galapalaophonte pacifica Mielke, 1981

14 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 77. Gnathostomula costata Ehlers & Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, B. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 78. Gyratrix hermaphroditus Ehrenberg, 1831 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001). 79. Hastigerella abbotti santacruzensis Mielke, 1979 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Weber, D. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 80. Heterolaophonte serratula Mielke, 1981 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 81. Isobactrus asper Bartsch, Isodiametra colorata (Ehlers & Dörjes, 1979) Syn.: Conaperta colorata Ehlers & Dörjes, 1979, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et

15 83. Kata galapagoensis Ax & Ax, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Isabela, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 84. Klieonychocamptoides itoi Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1982), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 85. Kliopsyllus spiniger spiniger Wells, Kunz & Rao, 1975 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 86. Kliopsyllus unguiseta Mielke, 1985 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 87. Laophonte galapagoensis Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Pinta, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 88. Leptastacus spatuliseta Mielke, 1982 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 89. Leptopontia breviarticulata Huys & Conroy-Dalton, 1996 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003).

16 90. Leptopsyllus platyspinosus Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 91. Leptopsyllus punctatus Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 92. Longipedia santacruzensis Mielke, 1979 Syn.: Longipedia helgolandica santacruzensis Mielke, 1979, fide Appeltans et al References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003). 93. Loureirophonte isabelensis Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 94. Lysidice ninetta Audouin & Milne-Edwards, 1833 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977). 95. Macrodasys pacificus Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 96. Macrorhynchus manusferrea Artois & Schockaert, 2001 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001). 97. Marphysa furcellata Crossland, 1903

17 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977). 98. Megadasys pacificus Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 99. Messoplana falcata valida Ehlers & Ax, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, U. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 100. Metis galapagoensis Mielke, 1989 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 101. Metis sp. References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Micropsammis galapagoensis Mielke, 1997 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (1997) Minona fernandinensis Ax & Ax, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 104. Monocelis galapagoensis Ax & Ax, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et

18 105. Monocelis oculifera Ax & Ax, 1977 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 106. Myobulla dunata Artois & Schockaert, 2000 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2000) Myobulla myobulla Artois & Schockaert, 2000 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2000) Myozona aerumnosa Sopott-Ehlers & Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Sopott-Ehlers, B. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 109. Myozona psila Sopott-Ehlers & Schmidt, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Genovesa, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Sopott-Ehlers, B. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 110. Myozonaria ascia Sopott-Ehlers & Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Sopott-Ehlers, B. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 111. Nematonereis hebes Verrill, 1900 Syn.: Nematonereis unicornis Schmarda, 1861, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Schmarda, L.K. et al. (1861), Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Nematoplana cf. nigrocapitula Ax, 1966 Taxon status: The identification of this taxon or its occurrence in Galapagos is doubtful.

19 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 113. Neoleptastacus trisetosus (Mielke, 1982) Syn.: Arenopontia trisetosa Mielke, 1982, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (1982), Westheide, W. et 114. Nitocra bisetosa Mielke, 1993 Taxon status: Taxonomic status unresolved or unrevised. Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Noodtiella frequentior Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 116. Noodtiella hoodensis Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Española, San Cristóbal. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 117. Oniscopsis robinsoni Chappuis & Delamare Deboutteville, 1956 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 118. Onychocamptus sp. References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003).

20 119. Onychognathia bractearotunda Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, B. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 120. Onychopontia peteraxi (Mielke, 1982) Syn.: Arenopontia peteraxi Mielke, 1982, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) Galapagos Distribution: Isabela, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Mielke, W. et al. (1982), Westheide, W. et 121. Ophryotrocha sp. References: Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Palolo siciliensis (Grube, 1840) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Parachrorhynchus jondelii Artois & Schockaert, 2001 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001) Paradasys pacificus Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 125. Paralaophonte galapagoensis Mielke, 1981 Syn.: Paralaophonte pacifica galapagoensis Mielke, 1981, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003).

21 126. Paralaophonte problematica Mielke, 1981 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 127. Paralaophontodes exopoditus Mielke, 1981 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1981), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 128. Paramesochra helgolandica galapagoensis Mielke, 1984 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 129. Paramesochra unaspina Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 130. Paramyozonaria riegeri Sopott-Ehlers & Schmidt, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Sopott-Ehlers, B. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 131. Parastygarctus sterreri Renaud-Mornant, 1970 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 132. Paraturbanella pallida Luporini Magagnini References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 133. Paromalostomum subflavum Sopott-Ehlers & Schmidt, 1974

22 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Sopott-Ehlers, B. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 134. Parotoplana turgida Ax & Ax, 1974 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 135. Paulodora asymmetrica (Artois & Schockaert, 2001) Syn.: Paulodora felis asymmetrica Artois & Schockaert, 2001, fide Appeltans et al. (2010) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001) Philosyrtis santacruzensis Ax & Ax, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 137. Phonorhynchoides haegheni Artois & Schockaert, 2001 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2001) Phyllopodopsyllus angolensis Kunz, 1984 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 139. Phyllopodopsyllus furciger Sars, 1907 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 140. Phyllopodopsyllus galapagoensis Mielke, 1989 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz.

23 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 141. Phyllopodopsyllus kunzi Mielke, 1989 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 142. Phyllopodopsyllus thiebaudi santacruzensis Mielke, 1989 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 143. Pisione galapagoensis Westheide, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 144. Pisione oerstedii pulla Westheide, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 145. Platydasys pacificus Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 146. Polystyliphora darwini Ax & Ax, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 147. Promesostoma sartagine Ax & Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et

24 148. Promesostoma tenebrosum Ax & Ehlers, 1973 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ax, P. et al. (1973), Westheide, W. et 149. Protodorvillea sp. References: Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Protodrilus pierantonii Aiyar & Alikuhni, 1944 Galapagos Distribution: Española. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Schmidt, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 151. Protodrilus sp. References: Schmidt, P. et al. (1977) Psammocamptus galapagoensis Mielke, 1997 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Pseudoleptomesochrella venezolana Mielke, 1995 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Floreana, Genovesa, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Pseudonereis gallapagensis Kinberg, 1865 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Kinberg, J.G.H. et al. (1866) Pseudonereis variegata (Grube, 1857)

25 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Pseudostygarctus triungulatus McKirdy, Schmidt & McGinty-Bayly, 1976 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 157. Pteropsyllus trisetosus Mielke, 1989 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 158. Ptychopera scutulifer Ehlers & Ax, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, U. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 159. Pygmorhynchus pygmaeus Artois & Schockaert, 1999 Galapagos Distribution: Unknown. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (1999) Rhips galapagensis Blome, 1985 References: Blome, D. et al. (1985), Westheide, W. et 161. Rhombognathus ellipticus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Isabela, Santa Cruz Rhombognathus heterosetosus Bartsch, 1977

26 163. Rhombognathus longiscutatus Bartsch, Rhombognathus robustus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz Rhombognathus semireticulatus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Isabela, Santa Cruz Rhombognathus similis Bartsch, Rhombognathus sp. References: Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et al. (1991).

27 168. Sabulirhynchus axi Artois & Schockaert, 2000 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Artois, T.J. et al. (2000) Saccocirrus sonomacus Martin, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Santa Cruz, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Schmidt, P. et al. (1977), Westheide, W. et 170. Saccocirrus sp. References: Schmidt, P. et al. (1977) Scaptognathides bicornis Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Marchena, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago Scaptognathus gibbosus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santiago Scaptognathus pauciporus Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Floreana, Genovesa, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Bartsch, I. et al. (1977), Bartsch, I. et al. (1978), Schatz, H. et al. (1991), Westheide, W. et 174. Schistomeringos pacifica Westheide, 1977 Holotype (P-13674) in ZMUH

28 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et al. (1977) Schizothrix ctenata (Mielke, 1982) Galapagos Distribution: Española, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Scottopsyllus langi Mielke, 1984 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 177. Sigmatidium kunzi Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Floreana, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 178. Sigmatidium sp. 1 References: Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Sigmatidium triarticulatum Mielke, 1979 Galapagos Distribution: Santa Cruz, Santa Fé. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (1979), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et 180. Simognathus disparilis Bartsch, 1977

29 181. Simognathus similis Bartsch, 1977 Galapagos Distribution: San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz Stenocopia limicola Willey, 1935 Galapagos Distribution: Fernandina, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Stenocopia sarsi Mielke, 1997 Galapagos Distribution: Genovesa, Santa Cruz. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Stygarctus abornatus McKirdy, Schmidt & McGinty-Bayly, 1976 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 185. Syrticola galapagoensis (Mielke, 1982) References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Tanarctus velatus McKirdy, Schmidt & McGinty-Bayly, 1976 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 187. Tetragoniceps galapagoensis Mielke, 1989 Galapagos Distribution: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago. References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003), Westheide, W. et

30 188. Tetragoniceps santacruzensis Mielke, 1997 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Mielke, W. et al. (2003) Tetranchyroderma pacificum Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et 190. Trigonostomum setigerum Schmidt, 1852 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Ehlers, U. et al. (1974), Westheide, W. et 191. Turbanella pacifica Schmidt, 1974 References: Appeltans, W. et al. (2010), Westheide, W. et Acknowledgements We are grateful for the financial report received for this project. Please refer to the website (www.darwinfoundation.org/ datazone/checklist/) for a detailed list of all our donors. This checklist would not be possible without adjunct and collaborating scientists, and volunteers of the Charles Darwin Foundation. The following scientists and volunteers have contributed to the CDF Checklist of Galapagos Interstitial Fauna: Nathalia Tirado-Sanchez. References 1. Appeltans, W., Bouchet, P., Boxshall, G.A., Fauchald, K., Gordon, D.P., Hoeksema, B.W., Poore, G.C.B., van Soest, R.W.M., Stöhr, S., Walter, T.C., Costello, M.J. (eds.) (2010) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). Available online at 2. Artois, T.J., Schockaert, E.R. (1999) Interstitial fauna of the Galapagos: Porrocystidinae (Platyhelminthes Polycystididae). Tropical Zoology 12: Artois, T.J., Schockaert, E.R. (2000) Interstitial fauna of the Galapagos: Typhlopolycystidinae (Platyhelminthes Polycystididae). Tropical Zoology 13(1): Artois, T.J., Schockaert, E.R. (2001) Interstitial fauna of the Galapagos: Duplacrorhynchinae, Macrorhynchinae, Polycystidinae, Gyratricinae (Platyhelminthes Polycystididae) Tropical Zoology 14(1):

31 Ax, P., Ehlers, U. (1973) Interstitielle Fauna von Galápagos III. Promesostominae (Turbellaria, Typhloplanoida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 23: Ax, P., Ax, R. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos VII. Nematoplanidae, Polystyliphoridae, Coelogynoporidae (Turbellaria, Proseriata). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 29: 1-28, 10 figs. 7. Ax, P., Ax, R. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos V. Otoplanidae (Turbellaria, Proseriata). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 27: 1-28, 11 figs. 8. Ax, P., Ax, R. (1977) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XIX. Monocelididae (Turbellaria, Proseriata). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 64: 1-44, 26 figs. 9. Bartsch, I. (1977) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XX. Halacaridae (Acari). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 65: Bartsch, I., Schmidt, P. (1978) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XXII. Zur Ökologie der Halacaridae (Acari). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 69: Blome, D. (1985) Interstitielle Fauna von Galápagos XXXV. Chromadoridae (Nematoda). Microfauna Marina 2: Ehlers, B., Ehlers, U. (1973) Interstitielle Fauna von Galápagos II. Gnathostomulida. Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 22: Ehlers, U., Ax, P. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galápagos VIII. Trigonostominae (Turbellaria, Typhloplanoida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 30: Kinberg, J.G.H. (1866) Annulata nova. Öfversigt af Königlich Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm, 23(4): Mielke, W. (1979) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos. XXV. Longipediidae, Canuellidae, Ectinosomatidae (Harpacticoida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 77: Mielke, W. (1981) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos. XXVIII. Laophontinae (Laophontidae), Ancorabolidae (Harpacticoida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 84: Mielke, W. (1982) Einige Laophontidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) Von Panama. Crustaceana 42(1-3): Mielke, W. (1982) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos. XXIX. Darcythompsoniidae, Cylindropsyllidae (Harpacticoida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 87: Mielke, W. (1982) Three variable Arenopontia species (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Panamá. Zoologica Scripta 11(3): Mielke, W. (1997) New findings of interstitial Copepoda from Punta Morales, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Microfauna Marina 11: Mielke, W. (2000) Two new species of Cletocamptus (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from Galápagos, closely related to the cosmopolitan C. deitersi. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 20(2):

32 22. Mielke, W. (2003) Meiobenthic copepods of Galápagos: species composition, distribution, colonization, speciation. Bull. of Marine Science 73(3): Schatz, H. (1991) Catalogue of known species of Acari from the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador, Pacific Ocean). International Journal of Acarology 17(3): Schmarda, L.K. (1861) Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde 1853 bis Erster Band (zweite Hälfte) Turbellarian, Rotatorien und Anneliden. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 164 pp. 25. Schmidt, P. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos X. Kinorhyncha. Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 43: Schmidt, P., Westheide, W. (1977) Intersitielle Fauna von Galapagos XVII. Polygordiidae, Saccocirridae, Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, Dinophilidae (Polychaeta). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 62: Sopott-Ehlers, B., Schmidt, P. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XII. Myozona Marcus (Turbellaria, Macrostomida). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 46: Sopott-Ehlers, B., Schmidt, P. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos IX: Dolichomacrostomidae (Turbellaria, Macrostomida): Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 34: Viets, K. (1936) Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise nach Bonaire, Curaçao und Aruba im Jahre No. 18. Halacariden aus Westindien. Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 67, Weber, D. (1973) Deux orchidacees nouvelles pour la flore des iles Galapagos. Extrait du Bull. Soc. Neuchateloise Scien. Nat. 96: Westheide, W., Schmidt, P. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos VI. Aelosoma maritimum dubiosum nov. ssp. (Annelida, Oligochaeta). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 28: Westheide, W. (1974) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XI. Pisionidae, Hesionidae, Pilargidae, Syllidae (Polychaeta). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 44: Westheide, W. (1977) Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos XVIII. Nereidae, Eunicidae, Dorvilleidae (Polychaeta). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 63: Westheide, W. (1991) The meiofauna of the Galápagos: a review. In: M.J. James (ed.): Galápagos marine invertebrates. Taxonomy, biogeography, and evolution in Darwin s islands. Plenum Press, New York and London, p Disclaimer The Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist is a continuously updated list of all species currently known from the Galapagos Islands and reflects up-to-date knowledge compiled by scientists of the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) in collaboration with experts from around the world. CDF shares this data publicly and invites comments, corrections and additions. Please do not hesitate to contact us; your input is very welcome. However, please understand that additions, changes, and corrections will be posted at periodic intervals after thorough cross-referencing of all new data. As an independent international scientific organization, the Charles Darwin Foundation relies on funding from donors who support our work. Please contact us at if you would like to support the Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist and help make knowledge of Galapagos biodiversity more widely available.

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