Physico-chemical and bacteriological study of water from a few sources in al hoceima region Morocco

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1 Available online at Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2015, 7 (9): ( ISSN USA CODEN: DPLEB4 Physico-chemical and bacteriological study of water from a few sources in al hoceima region Morocco A. Lamhamdi 1,2,*, M. Ghalit 1, E. Gharibi 1, A. Anaflous 3, K. Elyounsi 2, F. Essaki 2, E. Elyousfi 4, K. Azzaoui 1 and A. Zarrouk 5 1 Laboratoire de chimie de Solide Minéral et Analytique, Faculté des Sciences Oujda, Morocco. 2 Ecole national des sciences appliquées Al Hoceima, Morocco 3 Direction Régionale de l'agriculture de l'oriental, Oujda, Morocco 4 Institut Supérieur de Professions infirmières et Techniques de santé Oujda (ISPITS oujda), Morocco 5 LCAE-URAC18, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed Premier, Oujda, Morocco. ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to investigate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water from two natural sources located in the urban area of Al Hoceima and used in the supply of drinking water for large population of the region. Water hardness values from these two natural sources were found to range between and 135 PPM and therefore the water from these two studied sources could be categorized as "hard to very hard". Piper diagram established a chlorinated sodium and a calcium-magnesium sulphated chemical facies for these waters. High sodium and chloride concentrations are due to the proximity to the Mediterranean sea shore. Lead content (0.041 to PPM) exceeded the WHO standard (0.01 PPM) and high total solid residue content was observed. Bacteriological assessment of these waters highlighted a significant contamination by faecal germs. Keywords: Spring water, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality, Al Hoceima, Hydrochemistry. INTRODUCTION Natural spring water is an important part of the Moroccan hydraulic heritage. The Al Hoceima region in the north of Morocco on the northern edge of the Rif Mountains, and on the Mediterranean coast, has a large number of natural springs used for irrigation or as drinking water. However, these sources are confronted with various types of pollution. Due to cultural factors, natural spring water is perceived to taste better and therefore widely consumed by local population. The hydrochemical characterization can provide information about lithology of aquifers, also identifies the chemical facies of waters and consequently the type of use for which Ground waters may be used. Studies of the quality of spring water prove the crucial importance especially to the decision as to their use in drinking water. To be used, the water should have certain standards which vary according to the type of use. The groundwater chemistry depends on several factors such as the general geology, the degree of chemical weathering of various rock types, the quality of the refill water and the various power sources. Such factors and their interaction is the result of a complex groundwater quality [1-3]. The physico-chemical quality of groundwater is related to the lithology of the region. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical property (major components) has been studied by many researchers [4,5]. In this study, and to determine the influence of these factors we studied the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality of the selected natural spring waters. The spring waters are generally clean if they are not affected by waste water infiltration. The sampling was conducted during the spring of 195

2 2015. In this work we have set an objective analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of two natural springs water that are located in the province of Al Hoceima. Study area Geographic Location The city of Al Hoceima located in north-eastern Morocco, in the eastern part of the Rif mountains opens to the Mediterranean Sea. This area has specific features to Rif areas marked by a complex geomorphology very rough terrain, a variety of lithologic formations. Figure 1: geographical location of the two sources studied on the base of a satellite image The source of Sidi Mansour is located south of the city on the road leading to the common Izammouren its coordinates; (X = m) (Y = m) and (Z = 171 m), it is at the foot of a limestone cliff [6]. Source Tanote locate at the source of the northeast of the city downstream catchment Zraktoni, on the boulevard Zraktoni leading to the commercial port of Al Hoceima, its coordinates are (X = m); (Y = m) and (Z = 73 m). This improved source fountain called "Tanote" is perennial. The catchment that it houses composed of schist subbing terrains Silurian very tectonized and altered [6]. Geological Area Our study area is part of the internal domain of the Rif Belt related to the Alpine Orogeny. It is marked by the stacking of several structural units separated by anomalous contacts [7]. Among these units, there is the external dorsal limestone, which supports the form of tectonic klippe, the terrains of the internal dorsal limestone and those of the Palaeozoic Ghomarides nappes. These units overlay the terrains of the pre-dorsal zone (Tertiary sole). Together, these formations over thrust southwards. All these training rides south. At the outcrop, there is a dominance of rigid materials carbonate (limestone and dolomite flint) of the external dorsal limestone forming remarkable features: such as the summit of Boussekkour, Ras El Abed and Jbel Assaguasaguane, followed by the Ghomarides Palaeozoic terrains locally known as Al Hoceima s Klippe, this klippe extends from Al Hoceima to Boussekkour wadi in the west. Its stratigraphical series, which begins with black and satiny schists, is locally topped with Devonian limestones, making the highest morphological points such as the Sidi Mansor area, Tala Youssef and Al Hoceima port. The terrains of the internal dorsal limestone, known for their white colour, outcrop at Jbel Palemas and along the coast from Cala Bonita to Ispalmadero. These formations cover the entirety of Jbel Amekrane at Ajdir village. The formations of the Tertiary sole, characterized by yellowish gritty-marl facies, are tectonically squeezed between the limestone dorsal and the Tisirene flyschs [8-10] (Figure 2). 196

3 Figure 2: Geological map of the city of Al Hoceima [11]. The source of Sidi Mansour is at the foot of a calcareous cliff [6]. This is a Devonian limestone geological unit AL Hoceima. The source Tanout is perennial, it houses the slopes consists of a schist substratum of terrains Silurian very tectonized and altered [6]. Hydrogeological framework Geological formations in the study area consist essentially impermeable or low permeability facies. Only the limestone mountain, plains, river valleys and some small isolated basins, benefit from the infiltration of rainwater, but very limited knowledge of the geometry of the units constituting these facies make an accurate assessment of reserves water they contain is not possible with the current state, however, the elements likely to be a groundwater reservoirs in the area are limited, with the exception of the following hydrogeological units: back limestone and training quaternary dune. Chain dorsal limestone is one of the main chains of limestone Moroccan rif, characterized by porosity and cracks by a developed Karstification. It occupies much of the study area (Figure 2). The dune formations occupy the central part of the urban area of the city of AL Hoceima, the western part of the city to the corniche of Sabadia and new urban center Badis. They consist of consolidated dune sands; moderately compact granular soil. These sand dunes cover much of primary and secondary shale and limestone of the Ras-El-Abid. Almost all the buildings have been built on this training [6]. Climate Framework The climate of the Al Hoceima region is semi-arid with a succession of two periods, a dry and warm from April to October and wet from November to April, the average rainfall does not exceed 300 mm / year, and temperatures in the city of Al Hoceima had normal values, with a slight upward trend with latitude [13]. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling of water from the two sources is made in April 2015, in two bottles Polyethylene High Density (HDPE). The temperature, conductivity, turbidity and ph were measured in situ. After the water samples were immediately stored at 4 C using icebox bottles, analyzes were conducted quickly in a period of less than 24 hours after collection. 197

4 The analysis of major elements such as the hardness (TH), calcium levels (Ca 2+ ) and magnesium (Mg 2+ ) were measured by the volumetric method using EDTA. The oxidability was determined by hot oxidation in acidic medium. The complete alkalinity (TAC) was analyzed by volumetric titration with HCl 0.1N. The concentrations of chlorides (Cl - ) were measured by volumetric method under neutral conditions, using the techniques described by Rodier [13]. Nitrates (NO 3 - ) and sulphates (SO 4 2- ) were determined by colorimetric assay using a spectrophotometer (UV / Vis) [13]. The diagrams piper, Wilcox, scatter and the ionic balance are traced by the AquaChem 2011 Software [14]. Potassium and sodium are done by flame photometer Model 420, other analyzes such as DCO, and the bacteriological analysis was carried out with reference to the method (Rodier) [13]. Organic carbon, inorganic carbon and total carbon are performed by the analyzer multi N / C 2100S, also the analysis of trace elements (Zinc, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Nikel, Cobalt) were performed in the laboratory COSTE (Oriental Centre of Science and Technology of Water) at the Faculty of Sciences Oujda using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer AA-6300 model and Shimadzu ASC-6100 autosampler. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Following the protocol cited above we determined the bacteriological and physico-chemical composition water sources. Table 1. Results of physicochemical analysis of water sources studied. Characteristics Unit of measurement WHO [13] Sidi Mansore Tanote WHO Temperature C Acceptable Acceptable ph Conductivity µs/cm Turbidity NTU Sodium (Na + ) mg/l Potassium (K + ) mg/l Calcium (Ca 2+ ) mg/l Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) mg/l Chloride (Cl - ) mg/l Nitrate (NO 2-3 ) mg/l Bicarbonate (HCO - 3 ) mg/l (SO 2-4 ) mg/l (TDS) mg/l DCO mg d O2/l Oxydability mg/l Dissolved Oxygen (O 2) mg/l 5 O O 2 8 Organic Carbon (COT) mg/l inorganic Carbon (CI) mg/l Total Carbon (CT) mg/l Chromium (Cr) mg/l Lead (Pb) mg/l Zinc (Zn) mg/l Cooper (Cu) mg/l 2 ND ND 2 Cobalt (Co) mg/l ND ND Cadmium (Cd) mg/l ND ND Nikel (Ni) mg/l 0.07 ND ND 0.02 Table 2. Results of bacteriological analysis of water sources studied Organisms WHO [13] Sidi Mansore Tanote Unit of measurement Coliforms /100 ml E.Coli /100 ml intestinal enterococci /100 ml Physicochemical Discussions results The values of ph, temperature, conductivity and turbidity of two sources are examined within the normal range; values vary between 7.86 and 7.64 for the ph, between 21 and 21.5 C for the temperature, the very high conductivity 1660 and 2289 µs cm -1 for S1 and S2 respectively, so naturally our water is too mineralized. Turbidity varies between 0.38 and 0.19 NTU, which gives our water a clear mayeur. 198

5 The solid residues TDS obtained after evaporation of our water at 180 C varies from 1288 mg/l for S1 to 2231 mg/l for S2. Note that the mineralization of the source S1 is high (1000 <S1 <1500), the mineralization of the source S2 is very high (> 1500 mg/l). The analysis for the verification of the electroneutrality of the water from our source in the calculation of the ionic balance are consistent and meet the quality criteria for chemical analysis ( IB <5%) (Figure 3). Figure 3: The ionic balance (%) Values chlorides are high and vary between and mg/l. They do not exceed the guideline value (750 mg/l) by the World Health Organization on water intended for drinking water [15]. The levels of sodium are considered very high, resulting in their proximity to the sea and closed saline depressions. Despite this high variability, waters are one and the same family and are characterized by the chlorinated-sodic facies. There is also a good correlation between the electrical conductivity and the concentrations of chloride and sodium (Figure.5). Figure 4: Wilcox diagram of our water sources From the measured values of conductivity and Wilcox diagram plot, it is deduced that our sources have moderate to high salinity (Figure.4). The source of Sidi Mansore C3S2 is ranked in the area has a high salinity and risk of alkalization ranging from low to medium, the same for the other source of Tanote, it ranks in the C4S2 area has a salinity ranged from high to very high and an alkalization medium risk. This high salinity can be explained by the 199

6 vertical drainage of infill continental waters or the advanced sailor and by the influence of depressions, especially that our sources are not far from the sea. Figure 5: Scatter diagram of our water sources The total water hardness (TH) is connected primarily to the amount of calcium and magnesium in water, the hardness is between 135 mg/l CaCO 3 for S1 and mg/l CaCO 3 for S 2, therefore they are considered hard to very hard [13]. The complete alkalinity (TAC) in two water samples analyzed is essentially attributed to the presence of bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ). The TAC is in the range between mg/l for S1 and mg/l for S2, which results in a high concentration of bicarbonate ions. Sulphate rates are eligible for S1, by against for S2, it exceeds the standards set by WHO to 400 mg/l. A small amount of nitrate in the two sources that does not exceed the standards set by WHO to 50 mg/l. The analysis of inorganic carbon in our sample showed low levels to average organic carbon ranged from to mg/l, which shows that our water is not loaded with organic material [16]. For example trace elements lead it reached mg/l, both sources are conforming to the potability of the water except for lead that exceeds the norm fixed by WHO. Bacteriological The number of coliforms varies from one source to another, of 20 coliforms in 100 ml of sample from the source 2 and more than 60 coliforms in 100 ml of sample from the source 1. The number of coliforms in water analyzed confirms that springs water exceed the WHO standard (0 coliform in 100 ml of sample). The result of bacteriological analyzes show that the water from the source 1 contains fecal coliform type: Escherichia coli. This shows that the waters are subject to microbiological pollution of human origin. By against they are absent in the source 2. All waters analyzed in this study have coliform in very large quantity (total coliforms and faecal coliforms). According to the indicative values of the World Health Organization (WHO) a source of water must be free of fecal contamination, that is to say does not contain fecal coliform. The absence of intestinal enterococci in water S2, by against are presented in S1, the Intestinal Enterococci also fecal indicator bacteria of contamination are present, but much less abundant than coliforms. The presence of coliforms and intestinal enterococci is explained by faecal contamination. This results can be explained by an infiltration of wastewater sanitation networks in this highly urbanized area, corrosion of ancient canals in existing lead in soil in this region by water loaded with total dissolved solid highly corrosive. The area is known as an area of seismic activity and has in recent years of deep movements on both sides [17], which probably caused accidents sanitation pipelines levels, which were found deformed and damaged. 200

7 Chemical water facies of the two sources studied To represent the type of chemical facies, we used the Piper diagram is based on the ion current, tri-linear Piper diagram shows the relative concentrations of major cations and anions separated on two triangles with a central plot. Figure 6: Piper diagram of spring water (Sidi Mansore and Tanote) The waters sources studied consist of the major ions in a very important contents (Na +, Cl -, Ca 2+, SO 4 2- and Mg 2+, HCO 3 - ), among these, the most important are the Na + and Cl - ions. The hydrochemical classification of water from Piper triangular diagram shows that the water from two sources is mainly sodium Chloride calcium and magnesium sulphates (Figure 6). CONCLUSION With respect to our work, we can conclude that the two sources studied in the sampling period is average to poor, manifested by very important contents of sulfate, chloride, lead and fecal coliform. The chemistry of the two sources studied showed that the water is connected on one side to the geological nature that traverse these waters and on the other hand the exchange of these sources with the marine environment. The classification of our water shows that these waters, moderately to highly mineralized, a hardness and important salinity. Piper diagram shows a sodium chloride-water type facies and chemical calcium and magnesium sulphates. The nature of germs encountered and their quantities exceed the permitted standards for drinking water make the water from both sources considered unfit for human consumption. Similarly, the current water sources studied are generally not good in any physico-chemical and bacteriological levels according to WHO standards. The causes of this pollution are numerous, among which include non-permanent causes, poor sewage and permanent (landslides and lithology). The underground water is a major environmental parameter; the degradation of its quality is a topic of significant social and environmental concerns. REFERENCES [1] P. A. Domenico and F. W. Schwartz, Physical and chemical hydrogeology, John Wiley and Sons, New York., 1990, 824 pp. [2] C. Guler and G. D. Thyne, Hydrogeol. J. 2004, 285,

8 [3] E. Vazquez Sunne, X. Sanchez Vila, and J. Carrera, Hydrogeol. J. 2005, 13, [4] A. Salhi, Geophysics, hydrogeology and vulnerability mapping and the risk of pollution of the aquifer Ghis- Nekor (Al Hoceima, Morocco), Ph.D, [5] J. D. Hem, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, US Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper, [6] M. El Khattabi, A. Elgrouani and P. Plotto, The impact of urbanization on the evolution of landslides in the urban area of the city of AL Hoceima (north of Morocco). International Days of JIGE7 Environmental Geosciences 2013, 13 to 15 November 2013, Beni Mellal, Morocco. [7] M.M. Blumenthal Esbozo geológico del Rif en la región de Bokoya. Bol. Inst. Geol. Min. España, Madrid, 1937, 3e ser., 44, p [8] J.Andrieux, The structure of the central Rif, study of relationships between tectonic compression and sliding tables in a section of the Alps. - Notes and Mem. Serv. Geol. Morocco, 1971, n 235, 155 p. [9] T.Mourier, Geological and structural study of massive Bokoya. - Trav. Lab. Geol. of Africa, 6, Univ. Paris Sud [10] O.Azzouz, Lithostratigraphy and tectonics Paleozoic land ghomarides massif Bokoya (Internal Rif, Morocco) 3rd cycle thesis, Rabat, Morocco, 1992, 208 p. [11] J.F. MEGARD, Geological map of Morocco (1/50000), published in irregular cut. Publishing geological service of Morocco, Rabat [12] S. Niazi, M. Snoussi, A. Foutlane, Impact of climate hazards on water quality of a river system arranged in semi-arid area: Case of the Nekkor watershed (Morocco). Sechresse, 2005, 16(3), [13] J.RODIER, The analysis of the water. Natural waters, waste water, sea water. 9th p [14] Software AquaChem version of [15] WHO, Guidelines for drinking water quality. Fourth edition 2011, World Health Organization, Geneva. [16] W. Brian, L. Stephen and G. Bryan. Recovery of TOC in the Presence of High Levels of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon: TOC Methods for Ground/Drinking Water Analysis, teledynetekmar Mai [17] O. Azzouz, B.El Fellah, A.Chalouan, Sliding process in the Massif Bokoya (Internal Rif, Morocco): Example of Cala Bonita. Bulletin of the Scientific Institute of Rabat, Earth Sciences, 2002, 24,

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