Weathering and Erosion

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Weathering and Erosion"

Transcription

1 Have you ever looked at the land around you and wondered how it was shaped? The geologic features that help define the world are still being shaped by the natural processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. These processes affect land differently, depending on the types of soil, rocks, and vegetation found in an ecoregion. These processes can also be affected by other natural features, such as climate and topography. Later in this companion, you will learn how human activities can also affect how weathering, erosion, and deposition shape the land. Weathering Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into sediments slowly over time. There are two major types of weathering: mechanical (or physical) and chemical. climate: a region s typical weather conditions over a long period of time topography: the surface features of a region, including how the land rises to form mountains and falls to form valleys Mechanical weathering breaks down rocks into smaller pieces called sediments through physical processes. Mechanical weathering changes the shape and size of a rock, but it doesn t change the rock s chemical composition. Wind and water are two of the main agents that cause mechanical weathering. Other agents include living things and changing temperatures. (An agent is something that causes something else.) For example, winds can pick up small particles and blast them against rock, slowly scraping away at the rock over time. Moving water can weather rocks in a similar way; water often carries larger particles that scrape away at the rock more quickly. Millions of years ago, the Colorado River flowed over relatively flat land in what would become the southwestern United States. Slowly, over time, the river carved away the rocks and carried the sediments downstream. This process created a depression in the flat land that gradually became a deep, wide canyon that we call the Grand Canyon today. Like many canyons, the Grand Canyon was created through mechanical weathering by water flowing in the Colorado River. 1

2 Water can also weather rocks by getting into cracks and freezing. When water freezes, it expands. When the water freezes in the cracks, it pushes the rocks apart. Plants growing in the cracks of a rock can also push apart the rock in a similar manner. Drastic changes in temperature, from fires or volcanic activity, can also cause rocks to crack and break down as they expand and contract from heating and cooling. Chemical weathering breaks down rocks through chemical processes that change the rocks chemical composition. For example, when carbon dioxide in air dissolves in rain water, carbonic acid is formed. This can dissolve some rocks, including limestone. Oxygen can also cause chemical reactions that weather rocks. Many rocks contain minerals that are composed of the element iron. Oxygen in the air or dissolved in water can cause the iron in these minerals to rust or oxidize. Rusting changes the iron (Fe) into iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), a different kind of chemical. Many caves are formed as a result of chemical weathering, when large areas of limestone are dissolved by acidic water. Some rocks are better able to withstand weathering agents than others. Rocks made of quartz, a very hard mineral, are highly resistant to mechanical weathering. Limestone, made of the mineral calcite, is the opposite of quartz. It is very easy to dissolve through chemical weathering. When a region contains many rock types, those that are more resistant to weathering will take longer to break down. This is called differential weathering. Differential weathering can shape the landscape by leaving peaks of highly resistant rocks and holes or depressions where less-resistant rocks have been broken down. Differential weathering can create unique landforms like the one shown above. Weathering by wind created this rock formation. The less resistant rock weathered away, while the more resistant rock remained. 2

3 Erosion Weathering breaks rocks down into sediments, and the process of erosion moves these sediments to other locations. Water liquid and frozen is an important agent for erosion. Flowing water can carry rocks, sediments, and soil downstream. The faster the water flows, the larger the particles it can carry. These particles may scrape against each other or nearby rocks, causing mechanical weathering at the same time as erosion. Glaciers large sheets of moving ice can also cause mechanical weathering, ripping chunks of rock out of the ground as they move across the land. The rocks and sediments caught up in a glacier are carried along the glacier s path, causing erosion. Wind is another agent of erosion. Compared to water, winds usually carry smaller sediments. As these sediments scrape against rock in the wind s path, they can cause mechanical weathering at the same time as erosion. Animals are agents of erosion as they burrow into the ground, moving sediments out of their way. Another erosional agent is gravity, which constantly pulls rocks downhill. Many rocks break as they erode downhill, causing additional mechanical weathering. Because weathering and erosion tend to occur at the same time, rocks that are carried long distances by erosion tend to be more weathered. These rocks tend to be broken into smaller pieces and become more rounded. Rocks that are carried shorter distances, particularly through gravity, tend to have larger pieces with more angular edges. Differential weathering also plays a role. For example, if many different types of rocks are carried downstream for the same amount of time, those that are more resistant to weathering tend to be larger and less rounded than those that are less resistant. As water laps against the shore, it erodes bits of rock. Blowing winds and the force of gravity also carry sediments into the sea. Many people confuse weathering and erosion or use the terms interchangeably. While weathering and erosion often happen at the same time, they are not the same processes. Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down. Erosion is the process by which rocks, sediments, or soil are moved or carried away. 3

4 Deposition Sediments, rocks, and soil cannot keep moving forever. Eventually, the particles stop moving and settle where the erosional agents have carried them. This process is called deposition. When sediments are eroded by wind, flowing water, ice or gravity, they are deposited in horizontal layers. The oldest layer of sediments is positioned at the bottom, and the more recently deposited layers are at the top. Depending on which agents caused the erosion, the sediments may be deposited in different ways. Sediments are deposited in horizontal layers. As a river flows into the ocean, sediments carried by the flowing water begin to pile up around the river s mouth. These sediments create rich deposits of land, called deltas. Deltas are excellent places to farm because their soil contains many nutrients picked up along the river s path to the sea. Can you think of some other landforms caused by weathering, erosion or deposition? Human Activities Weathering, erosion, and deposition are natural processes. However, human activities can affect how these processes shape the land. Humans can cause mechanical weathering and erosion by digging into the ground and moving rocks, sediments, and soil to other places during construction. The roots of trees and other plants help hold soil in place. When humans cut down trees, the soil loses its support and becomes more vulnerable to erosion. 4

5 Pollution from cars, factories, and other human activities can also put more chemicals in the air and water. This makes it easier for chemical weathering to occur. For example, pollution can mix with water vapor in the atmosphere and fall as acid rain. Acid rain can easily dissolve limestone, as you can see in the photograph to the right. Discover Science: Galveston Barrier Island System Galveston, Texas lies on a special type of island called a barrier island. A barrier island is a long, narrow island that stretches along a coastline. A typical barrier island is separated from the mainland by a small, shallow stretch of water such as a bay or lagoon. Barrier islands help protect the shoreline from weathering and erosion by waves and storms. Barrier islands are made of small, fine-grained sediments. Scientists are not entirely certain how barrier islands formed. One hypothesis is that barrier islands formed through erosion and deposition caused by flooding after the last Ice Age. Thousands of years ago, glaciers on land began to melt. As water from the melting glaciers flowed downhill to the sea, they weathered and eroded sediment. As the water flowed into the ocean, it Residents of Galveston, Texas, reenter the city two weeks after Hurricane Ike made landfall. slowed down, depositing larger, heavier sediment further inland, and smaller, fine-grained sediment further into the ocean. This process continued until the glaciers had finished retreating (leading to a rise in sea level) and the piles of sediment were high enough to rise above sea level, creating a barrier island. Today, many people have built homes and other structures on barrier islands. People enjoy living near the beach, so barrier islands are popular places for resorts and summer homes; however, this is not always safe. Barrier islands are exposed to ocean waves and erode easily. This is especially dangerous during violent storms like hurricanes, which cause powerful winds and waves that sweep sediments from the island into the ocean. This can damage or collapse buildings along the shoreline, as well as increase the risk of flooding as the ground is washed away. In 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall over Galveston, killing 17 people and causing billions of dollars worth of damage. 5

6 What Do You Know? Several processes can cause changes to the land. Read some characteristics of these processes in the box below. Then, study the photographs on the next page. Decide which characteristics in the box describe what you see in each photograph, and then write each characteristic in the appropriate space below. Some characteristics will describe more than one photograph. Characteristics of Processes Grains have been eroded a great distance Sediments deposited in horizontal layers Grains have been eroded a short distance Differential weathering Likely deposited after being eroded by flowing water Well-sorted sediment 6

7 Rounded Pebbles Angular Pebbles Grooves in a Cliff Layers of Different-Sized Grains Outcrop with Ridges 7

8 Exploring Rock Cycle Processes at Home First, review with your child the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition: Weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down through mechanical (physical) or chemical means. Erosion is the process by which rocks, sediments or soil particles are carried from one location to another. Deposition is the process by which rocks, sediments or soil particles settle in horizontal layers in a new location after being eroded. Take your child on a walk outside. Pick up some of the rocks you find along the way. Take a close look at the rocks. Discuss any observations your child makes about the rocks, paying particular attention to the textures, layers, grain sizes or other features. Have your child explain how each rock may have been affected by weathering and erosion. Your child should also explain the features of the rock that support this hypothesis. If there is a graveyard nearby, take a look at the older headstones. Many headstones are made of limestone or marble. These rocks are highly susceptible to chemical weathering. Pollution has resulted in acid rain in many areas, which makes limestone and marble dissolve more quickly. Have your child observe the differences between newer and older headstones. Ask whether the headstones show evidence of chemical weathering. Here are some questions to discuss with your child: How big are the grains in this rock? Are the grains all about the same size or are they many different sizes? Are the grains mostly rounded or mostly angular? Which agents of weathering and erosion do you think shaped the grains in this rock? How do you think this rock came to be deposited here? 8

Topic 6: Weathering, Erosion and Erosional-Deposition Systems (workbook p ) Workbook Chapter 4, 5 WEATHERING

Topic 6: Weathering, Erosion and Erosional-Deposition Systems (workbook p ) Workbook Chapter 4, 5 WEATHERING Topic 6: Weathering, Erosion and Erosional-Deposition Systems (workbook p. 95-125) Workbook Chapter 4, 5 THE BIG PICTURE: Weathering, erosion and deposition are processes that cause changes to rock material

More information

Weathering of Rocks. Weathering - Breakdown of rocks into pieces (sediment) 2 main types of weathering to rocks

Weathering of Rocks. Weathering - Breakdown of rocks into pieces (sediment) 2 main types of weathering to rocks Weathering of Rocks Weathering - Breakdown of rocks into pieces (sediment) 2 main types of weathering to rocks Mechanical weathering requires physical forces to break rocks into smaller pieces. Chemical

More information

Watch the next few slides. When the slides stop transitioning get with an elbow partner to discuss the events that caused the formation of the

Watch the next few slides. When the slides stop transitioning get with an elbow partner to discuss the events that caused the formation of the Watch the next few slides. When the slides stop transitioning get with an elbow partner to discuss the events that caused the formation of the beautiful features. Be as specific as possible. Discuss

More information

The Effect of Weather, Erosion, and Deposition in Texas Ecoregions

The Effect of Weather, Erosion, and Deposition in Texas Ecoregions The Effect of Weather, Erosion, and Deposition in Texas Ecoregions 7.8B: I can analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas Weathering The breakdown

More information

Erosion and Deposition

Erosion and Deposition Erosion and Deposition The Erosion-Deposition Process What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with

More information

Erosion and Deposition

Erosion and Deposition CHAPTER 3 LESSON 2 Erosion and Deposition Landforms Shaped by Water and Wind Key Concepts What are the stages of stream development? How do water erosion and deposition change Earth s surface? How do wind

More information

Earth processes are dynamic actions that occur both on

Earth processes are dynamic actions that occur both on 29 Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition R EA D I N G Earth processes are dynamic actions that occur both on the earth s surface and inside the earth. Any process that breaks down earth material, such as

More information

Weathering/ Erosion/ Deposition in the Texas Ecoregions

Weathering/ Erosion/ Deposition in the Texas Ecoregions Practice Test Study these answers Weathering/ Erosion/ Deposition in the Texas Ecoregions 1. In the Texas Panhandle, physical weathering by abrasion is usually caused by wind, water and gravity 2. Two

More information

2nd Grade Changing of Earth

2nd Grade Changing of Earth Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Weather Cycles The Rock Cycle Defined Events Gradual

More information

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, and Landscape Development

Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, and Landscape Development Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, and Landscape Development I. Weathering - the breakdown of rocks into smaller particles, also called sediments, by natural processes. Weathering is further divided into

More information

2nd Grade. Earth and Moon Cycles. Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133. Slide 3 / 133. Slide 4 / 133. Slide 5 / 133. Slide 6 / 133.

2nd Grade. Earth and Moon Cycles. Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133. Slide 3 / 133. Slide 4 / 133. Slide 5 / 133. Slide 6 / 133. Slide 1 / 133 Slide 2 / 133 2nd Grade Changing of Earth 2015-11-23 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 133 Slide 4 / 133 Table of Contents: Changing of Earth Earth and Moon Cycles Click on the topic to go to that

More information

How does Rock become Exposed to the Surface?

How does Rock become Exposed to the Surface? Weathering How does Rock become Exposed to the Surface? Most rocks, like granite, form under earth s surface. The rocks uplift and eventually make their way to earth s surface. Conditions on the surface

More information

Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition

Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition E Q : H O W I S T H E E A R T H A F F E C T E D B Y C O N S T R U C T I V E A N D D E S T R U C T I V E F O R C E S? http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidassetid=6b1e329e-5a77-4b36-bfa9-1d307f75441c&blnfromsearch=1&productcode=us

More information

THE SCIENCE OF MAPS. ATL Skill: Critical thinking - Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues

THE SCIENCE OF MAPS. ATL Skill: Critical thinking - Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues THE SCIENCE OF MAPS 8.9C interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering ATL Skill: Critical thinking

More information

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion Key Terms Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere Plate Tectonics

More information

Constructive and Destructive Forces. Processes That Act Upon Earth s Surface Features

Constructive and Destructive Forces. Processes That Act Upon Earth s Surface Features Constructive and Destructive Forces Processes That Act Upon Earth s Surface Features What are Constructive and Destructive Forces? Constructive Force A constructive force is a process that raises or builds

More information

Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book Suppose your city wants to build a new housing development on a steep slope outside town. Design a model to test whether the land is safe from the types of landslides you read about in this

More information

Section 1: The Geosphere

Section 1: The Geosphere Section 1: The Geosphere Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives The Earth as a System Discovering Earth s Interior The Composition of the Earth The Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Section 1: The

More information

6.E E Rock Cycle/Weathering/Soil

6.E E Rock Cycle/Weathering/Soil Name: Date: 1. A lake is surrounded by hills covered with trees and shrubs. Which statement correctly describes how a change to the plants in this area will affect this environment? A. Adding plants to

More information

sort examples of weathering into categories of biological, chemical, and physical;

sort examples of weathering into categories of biological, chemical, and physical; Key Question How are rocks and minerals weathered? Learning Goals sort examples of weathering into categories of biological, chemical, and physical; observe and describe physical and chemical changes in

More information

The Dynamic Earth Section 1. Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1

The Dynamic Earth Section 1. Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 Chapter 3 The Dynamic Earth Section 1: The Geosphere DAY 1 The Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each other.

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which property would best distinguish sediment deposited by a river from sediment deposited by a glacier? thickness of sediment layers age of fossils found in the sediment mineral composition

More information

EROSION AND DEPOSITION

EROSION AND DEPOSITION CHAPTER 8 EROSION AND DEPOSITION SECTION 8 1 Changing Earth s Surface (pages 252-255) This section explains how sediment is carried away and deposited elsewhere to wear down and build up Earth s surface.

More information

Constructive & Destructive Forces

Constructive & Destructive Forces Monster Wrangler Mike Presents Constructive & Destructive Forces Includes: anchor charts note-taking sheets reading passages with textdependent questions 12-color card sort activity 24 vocabulary word

More information

Royal International School. Revision Booklet FINAL EXAMINATION. 2nd Semester Science - Grade 3A. Name: Prepared by: Ms.

Royal International School. Revision Booklet FINAL EXAMINATION. 2nd Semester Science - Grade 3A. Name: Prepared by: Ms. Royal International School Revision Booklet FINAL EXAMINATION 2nd Semester 2016-2017 Science - Grade 3A Name: Prepared by: Ms. Marvy 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPIC Page How Does Earth s Surface Change Slowly?

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 40 TEK 8.9C: Topographic Maps & Erosional Landforms

STAAR Science Tutorial 40 TEK 8.9C: Topographic Maps & Erosional Landforms Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 40 TEK 8.9C: Topographic Maps & Erosional Landforms TEK 8.9C: Interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and

More information

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks. Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Rocks made of bits & pieces of other rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common rocks on Earth, but because most of them exist below the surface you might not have seen

More information

LANDFORMS CREATED AND CHANGED?

LANDFORMS CREATED AND CHANGED? HOW ARE LANDFORMS CREATED AND CHANGED? Landforms are created by different natural forces. Some are within Earth, and some are on the surface of Earth. Landforms can also be changed by humans. These changes

More information

Weathering, Mass Wasting and Karst

Weathering, Mass Wasting and Karst Weathering, Mass Wasting and Karst Capable of wearing down anything that the internal processes can build. Gravity, water, wind and ice Denudation - the overall effect of disintegration, wearing away and

More information

Name. 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different soil horizons, A, B, C, and D, are shown.

Name. 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different soil horizons, A, B, C, and D, are shown. Name 1. In the cross section of the hill shown below, which rock units are probably most resistant to weathering? 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different

More information

1 Earth s Oceans. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What are the five main oceans?

1 Earth s Oceans. TAKE A LOOK 2. Identify What are the five main oceans? CHAPTER 13 1 Earth s Oceans SECTION Exploring the Oceans BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What affects the salinity of ocean water? What affects

More information

Earth s Changing Surface Chapter 4

Earth s Changing Surface Chapter 4 Name Hour Due Date Earth s Changing Surface Chapter (You do not need your book) Page 1 Fossils Summary Page 2 Traces of Tracks Page 3 Finding the Relative Age of Rocks Summary. Page - Finding the Relative

More information

2 Rates of Weathering

2 Rates of Weathering Name CHAPTER 10 Class Date Weathering and Soil Formation SECTION 2 Rates of Weathering National Science Education Standards BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these

More information

Benchmark 3 Science Study Guide S6E5 A-Crust, Mantle, Core 1. What happens to the temperature as you travel to the center of the Earth?

Benchmark 3 Science Study Guide S6E5 A-Crust, Mantle, Core 1. What happens to the temperature as you travel to the center of the Earth? Benchmark 3 Science Study Guide S6E5 A-Crust, Mantle, Core 1. What happens to the temperature as you travel to the center of the Earth? IT GETS HOTTER. 2. What happens to the density as you travel to the

More information

GEt Dirty SKE2 Students will describe the physical attributes of rocks and soils. Background information

GEt Dirty SKE2 Students will describe the physical attributes of rocks and soils. Background information Get Dirty This activity covers the following Georgia Performance Standards: SKE2 Students will describe the physical attributes of rocks and soils. a. Use senses to observe and group rocks by physical

More information

Surface Processes. Water Cycle. Evaporation Transpiration Condenstation Precipitation Infiltration Runoff

Surface Processes. Water Cycle. Evaporation Transpiration Condenstation Precipitation Infiltration Runoff s e s s roce S P e c urfa s e s s e c o r P e s c d r a a f C r Su iew Note v e R Water Cycle Evaporation Transpiration Condenstation Precipitation Infiltration Runoff Runoff The moving of water along

More information

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form?

What Do You See? Learning Outcomes Goals Learning Outcomes Think About It Identify classify In what kinds of environments do igneous rocks form? Section 2 Igneous Rocks and the Geologic History of Your Community What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Goals Text Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Identify and classify

More information

Changing Earth s Surface

Changing Earth s Surface Name Date Class Changing Earth s Surface What processes wear down and build up Earth s surface? What causes the different types of mass movement? Erosion is the process by which natural forces move weathered

More information

UNIT 1: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH CHAPTER 2: OCEANS CONTROL THE WATER CYCLE

UNIT 1: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH CHAPTER 2: OCEANS CONTROL THE WATER CYCLE UNIT 1: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH CHAPTER 2: OCEANS CONTROL THE WATER CYCLE ORIGINS OF OCEAN WATER OCEANS HAVE FILLED OVER HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF YEARS SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THE OCEANS ARE MORE THAN 3 BILLION

More information

abrasion the rubbing, grinding, and bumping of rocks that cause physical weathering (SRB, IG)

abrasion the rubbing, grinding, and bumping of rocks that cause physical weathering (SRB, IG) FOSS Soils, Rocks, and Landforms Module Glossary 3 rd Edition 2012 abrasion the rubbing, grinding, and bumping of rocks that cause physical weathering (SRB, IG) acid a substance that geologists use to

More information

The Cycling of Matter. Day 1

The Cycling of Matter. Day 1 The Cycling of Matter Day 1 Objective I will learn the rock cycle is the series of processes in which rock changes from one form to another. I will learn in the water cycle, water condenses, precipitates

More information

The boulder was most likely moved to this location by A) glacial ice B) prevailing wind C) streamfiow D) volcanic action

The boulder was most likely moved to this location by A) glacial ice B) prevailing wind C) streamfiow D) volcanic action 1. Which rock material was most likely transported to its present location by a glacier? A) rounded sand grains found in a river delta B) rounded grains found in a sand dune C) residual soil found on a

More information

Bill Nye: Rocks and Soil

Bill Nye: Rocks and Soil Bell Ringer 1.What kind of rock is formed by applying heat and pressure to existing rock? 2.What would be required to turn a sedimentary rock into an igneous rock? 3.How are sedimentary rocks classified?

More information

WEATHERING DEFINITION:

WEATHERING DEFINITION: WEATHERING WEATHERING DEFINITION: Breaking down of rock to form soil. Rock is continually broken down into smaller and smaller particles, resulting in the formation of soil. Discuss the importance of soil

More information

Earth Science Unit 1 Review

Earth Science Unit 1 Review Name: Date: 1. The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle. 2. rock cycle diagram is shown below. During which part of the rock cycle does water break rocks apart?. part 1 B. part 2. part 3 D. part

More information

EROSION RATES (1 Hour)

EROSION RATES (1 Hour) EROSION RATES (1 Hour) Addresses NGSS Level of Difficulty: 2 Grade Range: 3-5 OVERVIEW In this activity, students will conduct simple investigations to collect data on erosion rates of different Earth

More information

The Earth s Crust. Weathering & Erosion

The Earth s Crust. Weathering & Erosion The Earth s Crust Weathering & Erosion ! Soil begins with rocks so how is rock turned into soil?! How does soil travel and move?! Without sediments our planet would decline, perhaps ceasing to exist Inside

More information

Unit Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface

Unit Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface Name Date Per Unit 8.3.2 Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should be able

More information

What Causes Erosion? 3.2 Case Studies

What Causes Erosion? 3.2 Case Studies 3.2 Case Studies What Causes Erosion? Looking at evidence of erosion has helped you identify some of the causes of erosion. It has also helped you raise questions about what causes erosion. Other people

More information

Earth Science Review

Earth Science Review Earth Science Review Earth Science Categories Resources Earth Clues W-E-D 1 W-E-D 2 Misc. Grab Bag $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400

More information

Ponce de Leon Middle School 6 th Grade Summer Instructional Packet

Ponce de Leon Middle School 6 th Grade Summer Instructional Packet Ponce de Leon Middle School 6 th Grade Summer Instructional Packet DIRECTIONS: 1. You are required to complete the Summer Instructional Packet. 2. Turn in your completed package to your teacher, when you

More information

GOING WITH THE FLOW (1 Hour)

GOING WITH THE FLOW (1 Hour) GOING WITH THE FLOW (1 Hour) Addresses NGSS Level of Difficulty: 3 Grade Range: 3-5 OVERVIEW In this activity, students use a stream table to model the processes of erosion and streambed formation. The

More information

Wednesday, October 10 th

Wednesday, October 10 th Wednesday, October 10 th Page 13a (left side) / Place Lab on table Objective: We will describe the different types of weathering and erosion and identify evidence of each type. Warm-up: 1. What is weathering?

More information

Identify three agents of mechanical weathering. Compare mechanical and chemical weathering processes.

Identify three agents of mechanical weathering. Compare mechanical and chemical weathering processes. Objectives Identify three agents of mechanical weathering. Compare mechanical and chemical weathering processes. Describe four chemical reactions that decompose rock. #1 Weathering Processes weathering

More information

Weathering and Erosion Board Game Directions

Weathering and Erosion Board Game Directions Weathering and Erosion Board Game Directions 1. Divide the class into teams of three. Two of the groups will be the players and one will hold the answer sheet and tell players if answers are correct or

More information

Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that most likely formed on the surface of this volcano? A) B)

Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that most likely formed on the surface of this volcano? A) B) 1. When snow cover on the land melts, the water will most likely become surface runoff if the land surface is A) frozen B) porous C) grass covered D) unconsolidated gravel Base your answers to questions

More information

The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes

The Coast: Beaches and Shoreline Processes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Coast: es and Shoreline Processes Trujillo & Thurman, Chapter 10 Oceanography 101 Chapter Objectives Recognize the various landforms characteristic of beaches and coastal regions.

More information

deep within the planet. They are also shaped by conditions on the planet s surface. In

deep within the planet. They are also shaped by conditions on the planet s surface. In Chapter 4 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Earth is home to many different types of landforms. These landforms are shaped by forces deep within the planet. They are also shaped by conditions on

More information

The Upper Course of a River

The Upper Course of a River The Upper Course of a River I. Introduction A river is split along the long profile into three different sections; the upper, middle and lower course. As GCSE students you are expected to know the characteristics

More information

Chapter 5: Weathering and Soils. Fig. 5.14

Chapter 5: Weathering and Soils. Fig. 5.14 Chapter 5: Weathering and Soils Fig. 5.14 OBJECTIVES Recognize that weathering breaks down minerals and rocks and occurs as a result of both mechanical and chemical processes. Explain the processes that

More information

Exploring Geography. Chapter 1. Chapter 1, Section

Exploring Geography. Chapter 1. Chapter 1, Section Chapter 1, Section World Geography Chapter 1 Exploring Geography Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 1, Section

More information

Chapter 5: Weathering and soils! Monument Valley, Utah!

Chapter 5: Weathering and soils! Monument Valley, Utah! Chapter 5: Weathering and soils! Monument Valley, Utah! weathering, erosion, and transportation! rocks on Earth s surface are constantly changed by "water, air, temperature changes and other factors! weathering

More information

ì<(sk$m)=bdidbj< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U

ì<(sk$m)=bdidbj< +^-Ä-U-Ä-U Genre Comprehension Skill Text Features Science Content Nonfiction Sequence Captions Diagrams Call Outs Glossary Changes on Earth Scott Foresman Science 3.8 ì

More information

Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum. Lesson title: Unique Landforms. Grade level: 3-4. Duration: Two class periods

Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum. Lesson title: Unique Landforms. Grade level: 3-4. Duration: Two class periods Assignment Discovery Online Curriculum Lesson title: Unique Landforms Grade level: 3-4 Duration: Two class periods Objectives: Students will do the following: Learn how water and erosion affect the landscape

More information

Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity

Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity Chapter 15 Lecture Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Twelfth Edition Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity Tarbuck and Lutgens Chapter 15 Mass Wasting The Importance of Mass Wasting Slopes are the

More information

1- Water on Earth 2- Oceans and seas / continental waters 3- Uses, risks and problems of water

1- Water on Earth 2- Oceans and seas / continental waters 3- Uses, risks and problems of water Contents: I- Relief 1- Structure of the Earth and relief formation 2- Shaping of relief 3- Types of relief II- Water 1- Water on Earth 2- Oceans and seas / continental waters 3- Uses, risks and problems

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the generalized bedrock of a part of western New York State.

1. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the generalized bedrock of a part of western New York State. 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the generalized bedrock of a part of western New York State. 3. The table below describes the deposits that an observer saw while

More information

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface.

The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals at or near Earth s surface. The material that is chemically and mechanically weathered to yield sediment and soil. Regolith consisting

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE

WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE WEATHERING, EROSION & DEPOSITION STUDY GUIDE Weathering: The difference between mechanical & chemical weathering is: Sort terms as being mechanical/physical or chemical weathering: acid rain, root splitting

More information

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment

Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment Sediment and sedimentary rocks Sediment From sediments to sedimentary rocks (transportation, deposition, preservation and lithification) Types of sedimentary rocks (clastic, chemical and organic) Sedimentary

More information

Flooding and it s solutions

Flooding and it s solutions Flooding and it s solutions Describe this hydrograph in 35 words What is a flood? What is a flood? A period of of high discharge, where the river overflows its banks Why is this a problem? What are some

More information

Minerals By Patti Hutchison

Minerals By Patti Hutchison Minerals By Patti Hutchison 1 Minerals. They are all around us. We eat them, wear them, and build with them. What is a mineral? How are they identified? What can we do with them? 2 Earth's crust is made

More information

Non-fiction: Dig This! Want to know what the world was like millions of years ago? Look to the rocks.

Non-fiction: Dig This! Want to know what the world was like millions of years ago? Look to the rocks. Non-fiction: Dig This! Dig This! Fossil Find Want to know what the world was like millions of years ago? Look to the rocks. One hundred and fifty million years ago, one of the very first birds appeared

More information

Vocabulary Words. theory continental drift fault magma lava. weathering glacier erosion deposition delta

Vocabulary Words. theory continental drift fault magma lava. weathering glacier erosion deposition delta Earth s Landforms Vocabulary Words theory continental drift fault magma lava weathering glacier erosion deposition delta Theory: A possible explanation. Continental drift: The continuing movement of the

More information

LANDFORMS. Extra Credit. Name Date

LANDFORMS. Extra Credit. Name Date LANDFORMS Extra Credit Name Date 1. Label the drawing above using the words below that match the landforms. canyon meander plateau delta mountain valley 2. The bending of rock at plate boundaries is A.

More information

Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting. Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting. Mechanical Weathering

Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting. Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting. Mechanical Weathering Weathering, Erosion and Mass Wasting Weathering is the the breakdown of solid rock at or near the Earth's surface. Chapter 16 Weathering, Erosion, Mass Wasting Does weathering of rock remove or add CO

More information

I. Earth s Layers a. Crust: Earth s outside layer. Made of mostly rock. i. Continental: er; made of mostly granite, forms the continents and shallow

I. Earth s Layers a. Crust: Earth s outside layer. Made of mostly rock. i. Continental: er; made of mostly granite, forms the continents and shallow I. Earth s Layers a. Crust: Earth s outside layer. Made of mostly rock. i. Continental: er; made of mostly granite, forms the continents and shallow sea beds, floats! ii. Oceanic: er; dense rock such as

More information

Weathering and Erosion

Weathering and Erosion Unit abstract Overview In this unit of study, students are expected to develop understanding of the effects of weathering and the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. The crosscutting concepts

More information

4 th Grade Science Vocabulary ~ Student List

4 th Grade Science Vocabulary ~ Student List Magnetism Attract Force Magnetism Repel Compass Pole Magnetic field Battery Circuit Closed Circuit Open circuit Electricity Conductor Insulator Static Electricity Series Circuit Parallel circuit Electromagnet

More information

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

2 Igneous Rock. How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture of igneous rock? BEFORE YOU READ. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures CHAPTER 4 2 Igneous Rock SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do igneous rocks form? What factors affect the texture

More information

Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks

Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks Lesson 3: Understanding the Properties of Rocks 1 Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Magma 2 I. Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. A. Underground, they

More information

Which process is represented by letter F? A) capillarity B) infiltration C) condensation D) vaporization

Which process is represented by letter F? A) capillarity B) infiltration C) condensation D) vaporization 1. Water's covalent bond is due to A) water's ability to stick to stick to other materials B) a slight negative charge of O and positive charge of H C) an uneven sharing of electrons D) both B and C 2.

More information

Chapter 2, Section 1 Planet Earth

Chapter 2, Section 1 Planet Earth Chapter 2, Section 1 Planet Earth (Pages 33 36) Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Where is Earth located in our solar system? How is Earth shaped? What is Earth s structure?

More information

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks 1. Which characteristic of nonsedimentary rocks would provide the least evidence about the environment in which the rocks were formed? A) structure B) color C) crystal size D) mineral composition 2. Which

More information

Earth Science S5E1b (EarthScienceS5E1b)

Earth Science S5E1b (EarthScienceS5E1b) Name: Date: 1. The flattest part of the ocean floor is the A. trench. B. abyssal plain. C. continental shelf. D. mid-ocean rift valley. 2. Which causes some parts of the ocean to be saltier than other

More information

Lesson 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Lesson 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Lesson 1 Student Labs and Activities Page Launch Lab 8 Content Vocabulary 9 Lesson Outline 10 MiniLab 12 Content Practice A 13 Content Practice B 14 School to Home 15 Key Concept Builders 16 Enrichment

More information

Landscape. Review Note Cards

Landscape. Review Note Cards Landscape Review Note Cards Last Ice Age Pleistocene Epoch that occurred about 22,000 Years ago Glacier A large, long lasting mass of ice which forms on land and moves downhill because of gravity. Continental

More information

Which particle of quartz shows evidence of being transported the farthest distance by the stream? A) B) C) D)

Which particle of quartz shows evidence of being transported the farthest distance by the stream? A) B) C) D) 1. Base your answer to the following question on the block diagram below, which represents the landscape features associated with a meandering stream. WX is the location of a cross section. Location A

More information

Student Exploration: Weathering

Student Exploration: Weathering Name: Date: Student Exploration: Weathering Vocabulary: abrasion, chemical weathering, clay formation, climate, dissolving, frost wedging, granite, limestone, mechanical weathering, rusting, sandstone,

More information

Page 1. Weathering & Erosion by Mass Wasting Pre-Test. Name:

Page 1. Weathering & Erosion by Mass Wasting Pre-Test. Name: Weathering & Erosion by Mass Wasting Pre-Test 3048-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) As a particle of sediment in a stream breaks into several smaller pieces, the rate of weathering of the sediment will A) increase

More information

Soil. Soil in Our Environment

Soil. Soil in Our Environment Soil Soil in Our Environment What is soil? Or is it Dirt? Gold s father is dirt, yet it regards itself as noble. Yiddish Proverb Is it alive? Is it fragile? Formations of Soils How much time does it take

More information

Minerals and Rocks. Rocks

Minerals and Rocks. Rocks Minerals and Rocks Rocks What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement or a D if you

More information

A BEACH IS A BEACH. Or Is It? Hawaii. St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

A BEACH IS A BEACH. Or Is It? Hawaii. St. Croix, US Virgin Islands A BEACH IS A BEACH Or Is It? Pt. Reyes, California Western Florida Hawaii AGI What is a beach? Eastern Maine A beach is a strip of shoreline washed by waves and tides. Crane Key, Florida Bay St. Croix,

More information

Grade 7 Earth/Space Posttest

Grade 7 Earth/Space Posttest Grade 7 Earth/Space Posttest Select the best answer to each question. 1. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle, and the crust. Which phrase best describes the crust? A. the innermost

More information

Weathering, Soil, and Mass Movements

Weathering, Soil, and Mass Movements Tarbuck Lutgens Weathering, Soil, and Mass Movements 5.1 Weathering Mechanical Weathering Mechanical weathering occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the

More information

A Living Planet. Chapter PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. What you will learn in this chapter. Summary of the chapter

A Living Planet. Chapter PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. What you will learn in this chapter. Summary of the chapter QUIT Main Ideas What you will learn in this chapter Summary Summary of the chapter Test your geographic knowledge by playing the. Main Ideas Section 1: The Earth Inside and Out The earth is the only habitable

More information

Midterm Review. Nata/Lee

Midterm Review. Nata/Lee Name: 1. Which statement best supports the theory that all the continents were once a single landmass? (1) Rocks of the ocean ridges are older than those of the adjacent sea floor. (2) Rock and fossil

More information

Changes in Texas Ecoregions

Changes in Texas Ecoregions Comment On Lesson Changes in Texas Ecoregions The state of Texas can be divided into 10 distinct areas based on unique combinations of vegetation, topography, landforms, wildlife, soil, rock, climate,

More information

Introduction to the Rock Cycle

Introduction to the Rock Cycle Introduction to the Rock Cycle Lesson Concept Weathering and erosion are processes of the rock cycle. Link In the previous lesson students learned that moving air, water or ice causes erosion via rain,

More information

Name: KEY OBJECTIVES HYDROLOGY:

Name: KEY OBJECTIVES HYDROLOGY: Name: KEY OBJECTIVES Correctly define: abrasion, capillarity, deposition, discharge, erosion, evapotranspiration, hydrology, impermeable, infiltration, meander, permeable, porosity, water table, weathering,

More information