Chapter 5 Review. 1) Our Earth is about four times larger than the Moon in diameter. 1)

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1 Chapter 5 Review Name TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) Our Earth is about four times larger than the Moon in diameter. 1) 2) The Earth's hotter, inner core is liquid and its cooler, outer core is solid. 2) 3) Neap tides occur at first and third quarter phases of the Moon. 3) 4) Weather occurs in the troposphere. 4) 5) The three most abundant gases in our atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. 5) 6) Seismic P-waves can travel through both solid and liquid materials. 6) 7) Seismic S-waves can travel through Earth's liquid outer core. 7) 8) Most lunar craters are volcanic in origin. 8) 9) The crust on the near side of the Moon is on average thinner than the crust on the far side, due to our tidal pull on the Moon. 9) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 10) Which of the following layers of the Earth is unique among the terrestrial planets? 10) A) core B) hydrosphere C) mantle D) ionosphere E) crust 11) What is true of spring tides? 11) A) The difference between low and high tides would be greatest. B) There would be one high and one low tide each day. C) The third quarter moon would be high overhead at dawn. D) The difference between low and high tides would be smallest. E) The Moon's phase will be first quarter. 12) At what phase are the tides least noticeable? 12) A) full moon B) waning gibbous C) third quarter D) new moon E) waxing crescent 1

2 13) What is true of the Moon's orbital and rotational periods? 13) A) They are equal. B) The orbital period is greatest at full moon. C) The rotational period is longer. D) The orbital period is longer. E) The rotational period varies with the Moon's phase. 14) In what part of our atmosphere do we live? 14) A) troposphere B) stratosphere C) ionosphere D) exosphere E) mesosphere 15) Which of these gases is least abundant in our atmosphere? 15) A) argon B) oxygen C) carbon dioxide D) nitrogen E) hydrogen 16) What is the average molecular speed of hydrogen (mass = 1) on Earth (temperature = 300 K)? 16) A) 2.72 km/s B) 2.72 m/s C) 4.71 m/s D) 4.71 km/s E) None of the above 17) We determine the structure of the Earth's core using 17) A) magnetic resonance imaging. B) radar and sonar. C) deep mine shafts. D) seismic wave data. E) satellite imaging. 18) The atmospheric gases primarily responsible for our greenhouse effect are 18) A) water vapor and carbon dioxide. B) oxygen and carbon dioxide. C) argon and water vapor. D) carbon monoxide and methane. E) hydrogen and helium. 19) In noting that the Earth is "differentiated," we mean that 19) A) the Earth is very different than any other planet we study. B) the density increases as you descend downward toward the core. C) the radioactive heating in the core is increasing with time. D) the Earth's magnetic field varies at different locations on the globe. E) the density of oceanic basalt is less than that of granite on the mountain tops. 2

3 20) Which statement about seismic waves is true? 20) A) P waves travel faster, and thus arrive sooner than do the S waves. B) Only S waves can travel through liquid. C) In the shadow zones, neither type is observed. D) S waves can travel though the outer core, but P waves cannot. E) On the far side of the Earth, only the S waves on the surface can be detected. 21) Which of these is not a result of plate tectonics? 21) A) the Grand Canyon B) the San Andreas Fault C) the Mid-Atlantic Rift D) the Andes E) the Philippine Trench 22) When strong solar winds are displaced poleward by our magnetic fields, we get 22) A) hurricanes in the tropics. B) intense auroral displays. C) sunspots. D) the Van Allen radiation belts. E) droughts and dust bowls in the American West. 23) The region in which charged particles are trapped by our magnetic fields is the 23) A) ionosphere. B) ozone layers. C) Van Allen radiation belt. D) exosphere. E) Aurora. 24) Which of these theories seems to best explain the Moon's origin? 24) A) Capture Theory B) Fusion Theory C) Impact Theory D) Coformation Theory E) Fission Theory SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 25) The Sun reinforces the Moon's tidal pull during tides. 25) 26) The ozone layer blocks much of the Sun's radiation. 26) 27) The oxygen in our atmosphere is produced by. 27) 28) The water that has been detected on the Moon lies at its. 28) 29) Our molten core is believed to consist primarily of the element. 29) 30) is responsible for heating the Earth's interior today. 30) 3

4 31) The dominant dark features on the near side of the Moon are the. 31) 32) The Moon's composition is similar to Earth's. 32) ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 33) List the six main regions of the Earth, in order, starting from the center. 34) Why does the Moon lack an atmosphere? 35) What were the two primary courses of heating that let the Earth differentiate? 36) Where is the newest material in the Earth's crust found? 37) Note at least three surface features that are driven by plate tectonics. 38) Explain how crater counts allow us to estimate the ages of surfaces throughout the solar system. 39) Relate our magnetic field to the aurorae. 40) Why is the impact theory now preferred as an explanation for the Moon's origin? 4

5 Answer Key Testname: CH 5 REVIEW 1) TRUE 2) FALSE 3) TRUE 4) TRUE 5) TRUE 6) TRUE 7) FALSE 8) FALSE 9) TRUE 10) B 11) A 12) C 13) A 14) A 15) E 16) A 17) D 18) A 19) B 20) A 21) A 22) B 23) C 24) C 25) spring 26) ultraviolet 27) life processes 28) poles 29) iron 30) Radioactive decay 31) mare 32) mantle. 33) core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, magnetosphere 34) Its atmosphere escaped into space due to the low surface gravity of the Moon. 35) Impacts of interplanetary debris and radioactive decay. 36) At the mid-ocean ridges, where plate tectonics constantly extrudes new lava. 37) Rift valleys, trenches, mountain ranges, volcanic chains, faults, midocean ridges 38) Craters are the rule everybody was a target in the early days of accretion. The longer the surface has sat without internal deformation, the more impacts have cratered the surface. If craters are absent, it is because other processes, such as lava flows or erosion, have replaced the older cratering. 39) The magnetic field's Van Allen radiation belts deflect the charged particles away from our equator toward the poles, where the charged particles spiral down the magnetic field lines and hit the ionosphere to create the colorful ionized patterns. 40) The capture theory is unlikely for a body as big as the Moon, while the coformation theory would have the Moon orbit our equator as it condensed. The impacting body would be of different composition than the Earth, and the heat of impact would drive off the lighter materials, as noted for the Moon's crust. The body would also have been moving in the ecliptic plane before impact, and the Moon still orbits close to the ecliptic even now. 5

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