University of Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. Health and Earth Building a Safer Environment PROGRAM AND ABSTRACT VOLUME

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1 1 st International Symposium on Medical Geology in Africa (ISMGAf) University of Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Health and Earth Building a Safer Environment PROGRAM AND ABSTRACT VOLUME Sponsored by the University of Johannesburg and co-sponsored by the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA), the International Union of Geological Science (IUGS), the Geological Society of South Africa (GSSA) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). Held on March 24-26, 2014, C1Lab University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Campus Republic of South Africa Organised by Prof Hassina Mouri (Chair South African Medical Geology Chapter), assisted by Derek Rose (PhD student, Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg)

2 Day 1: 24 March 2014 (Short course) 8:00 9:00 Registration/Tea & Coffee 9: Welcome Remarks and Course Overview Hassina Mouri, Univ. of Johannesburg Jose A. Centeno, Joint Pathology Center (JPC), International Medical Geology Association (IMGA), USA 9:30 10:15 Health and Earth Building a Safer Environment Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA 10:15 10:45 Tea & Coffee Break Session: Environmental Health, Toxicology, and Geochemical Aspects of Medical Geology 10:45 11:30 Metals, Metalloids and Trace Elements A Medical Geology Perspective 11:30 12:30 Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Trace Elements in the Environment A Geochemical and Human Health Overview 12:30 13:30 Lunch Break Session: Medical Geology Research Case Studies 13:30 14:30 Arsenic A Beneficial Therapeutic Agent and an Environmental Poison 14:30 15:30 Measurement of Human Exposure to Potentially Harmful Elements in Soils by Ingestion 15:30 16:00 Tea & Coffee Break 16:00 17:00 Health Risks from Mercury Exposure- A Medical Geology Research Case 17:00 17:30 Group Discussion and Questions 17:30 17:45 Summary and Adjourn Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Mark Cave, British Geological Survey, UK Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Mark Cave, British Geological Survey, UK Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA

3 Day 2: 25 March 2014 (Short course) 8:30 9:00 Registration 9: Introduction 2nd Day Session: Dust, Particulate Matter and Health Effects 9:30 10:30 Chemical and Environmental Pathology Studies of Particulate Matter- A Medical Geology Perspective 10:30 11:00 Tea & Coffee Break 11:00 12:00 Soils and Medical Geology A Geochemical and Toxicological Perspective Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Mark Cave, British Geological Survey, UK 12:00 13:30 Lunch Break Session: Analytical Tools and Risk Assessment Aspects of Medical Geology 13:30 14:15 Use of Exposure Measurements in Human Health Risk Assessment 14:15 15:00 An Overview of Trace Element Speciation Analysis and Biophysical Tools in Medical Geology 15:00 15:30 Tea & Coffee Break Session: Emerging and Future Issues of Medical Geology 15:30 16:15 Integrating Earth Sciences and Public Health Examples and Future Directions 16:15 17:00 Group Discussion and Questions 17:00 17:30 Certificates and Adjourn Mark Cave, British Geological Survey, UK Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA Jose A. Centeno, JPC, IMGA, USA

4 Day 3: 26 March 2014 (Symposium) 8:00 8:30 Arrival Coffee/Tea 8: Opening Remarks: DVC Internationalisation and Dean Faculty of Science 9:00 9:20 Future Earth Initiative International Council of Science (ICSU) 9: Keynote Talk: Toxicology: An Evolving Discipline and Applications in Medical Geology : Coffee break Session 1: Heavy metals in soils & rocks :50 Determination of geochemical background levels and contamination patterns of heavy metals around Johannesburg 10:50 11:10 Sources and concentrations of heavy metals/metalloids in the soils of eastern Bloemfontein, South Africa 11:10 11:30 Possible health impact of the alkaline Pilanesberg Complex on communities in the semi-arid region of the north west province South Africa. Session 2: Water quality and geophagy 11:30 11:50 Uranium bearing rocks a source of cancer bearing radon gas. 11:50 12:10 Water quality assessment of some selected hand dug wells and a pond in the ancient parts of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria 12:10 12:30 An assessment of Ruwan Zafi Numan for exploitation as a source of dietary water in Nigeria. 12:30-13:45 Lunch break 13:45 14:05 The effects of geophagy on pregnant women in Nigeria 14:05 14:25 Compositional characteristics and health implications of geophagia clays of parts of southern Nigeria. 14:25-14:45 Towards development of a comprehensive data base: an overview of possible risk of Prof Maluleke and Prof Moteetee Dr E. Madela-Mntla (Director ICSU ROA) Dr J.A. Centeno Mr M. Maya Mr J. Clark Ms R. Shelembe Dr M. Levin Mr K. Nghargbu Mr K. Nghargbu Ms J. Agene Dr O. Okunlola Dr M.L. Diko

5 lead, arsenic and cadmium poisoning associated with geophagia in Africa 14:45-15:15 Coffee break 15:15-15:55 Keynote: The use of bioaccessibility testing for Dr M. Cave estimating human exposure to potentially harmful substances in soil Session 3: Mining and health impacts 15:55 16:15 Characterization of respirable Ms T. Madzivhandila crystalline silica dust in the abandoned mines around, Roodepoort, Central Rand Johannesburg, South Africa. 16:15 16:35 Evaluation of the economic potential of gold tailings in the Giyani Gold Belt: A case study Prof J. Ogola of Klein Letaba tailings dam, Limpopo Province, South Africa 16: Questions/Discussions All delegates :20 Concluding Remarks Hassina Mouri and Jose Centeno :45 Closing ceremony/cocktail function

6 THE EFFECTS OF GEOPHAGY ON PREGNANT WOMEN IN NIGERIA Agene, J.I 1,2., Lar, U.A 1., Mohammed, S.O., 3 Gajere, E.N 2., Dang, B 1., Jeb, D.N 2. and Ogunmola J.K 2. 1 Department of Geology and mining, University of Jos Nigeria, 2 National Centre for Remote Sensing Jos Nigeria 3 National Space Agency, Abuja Nigeria Corresponding author: Geophagy, the act of deliberately eating clay is a common practice among pregnant women and children in Nigeria. Several edible Clays such as Montmorillonite, Chabazite-Na, Diaspore, Faujasite-Na, Lizardite-1M, Montmorillonite 15A, lizardite and Montmorillonite were collected across the country from the following states Bauchi, Benue, Gombe, Kogi, Nasarawa, Osun and Plateau respectively. Geochemical analysis were carried out using the XRD and ICP-OES to determine the elements in the clay and the mineralogy of the clay. Heavy metals analyzed for include Aluminium (AL), Arsenic (As), Chromiun (Cr), Cupper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Selinium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The result of the analysis indicates that the Heavy metals have very high concentrations in almost all the clay samples collected. The level of contamination of As, Pb, and Se in the clays from all the states of the study area is also exceptionally high. These metals occur in concentrations far above the WHO recommended dose for human consumption and hence may contribute to so many health hazards, like deformed babies and different types of cancers among women. Keywords: Heavy Metals, Clay materials, Geophagy, Public health, Fetus, Pregnant women, WHO The use of bioaccessibility testing for estimating human exposure to potentially harmful substances in soil Mark Cave British Geological Survey Since the early reports of the use of in-vitro extraction methods to mimic the human ingestion bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements in soils [1], the increasing need for accurate estimates of exposure for human health risk assessments has driven research into the development of these methods. The key criteria for bioaccessibility methods are: to produce similar results to in-vivo trials; but are also practical and reproducible for contaminated land testing laboratories. Currently these include the relative bioaccessibility leaching procedure (RBALP) [2] and the in vitro gastro intestinal (IVG) [3] methods in the US and the method developed by the Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) known as the Unified BARGE method (UBM) [4]. The presentation will give

7 an overview of the developments in these methods with particular emphasis on the European UBM method to show the method has been validated against an animal model, undergone inter-laboratory trials and been used on a regional and national level within the UK. References: 1. Ruby, M.V., et al., Development of an in-vitro Screening-Test to Evaluate the in- Vivo Bioaccessibility of Ingested Mine-Waste Lead. Environmental Science & Technology, (13): p Drexler, J.W. and W.J. Brattin, An in vitro procedure for estimation of lead relative bioavailability: With validation. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, (2): p Basta, N.T., et al., The effect of dosing vehicle on arsenic bioaccessibility in smelter-contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, (9): p Denys, S., et al., In Vivo Validation of the Unified BARGE Method to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Arsenic, Antimony, Cadmium, and Lead in Soils. Environmental Science & Technology, : p SOURCES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF HEAVY METALS/METALLOIDS IN THE SOILS OF EASTERN BLOEMFONTEIN, SOUTH AFRICA Clark, J 1., Tredoux, M 1., and van Huyssteen, C 2. 1 Department of Geology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 2 Department of Soil, Water and Crop Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein Corresponding author: A soil survey study for heavy metal and metalloid contamination was conducted across the eastern portion of Bloemfontein, Central South Africa, around a coal-generated power station. Onehundred-and-forty-three samples were collected for the study. Elements under investigation were metals antimony, cadmium and mercury, the metalloid arsenic, and the non-metal selenium. The research indicated elevated concentrations for antimony, cadmium, and mercury. The elevated levels occurred mostly in the industrial areas of Bloemfontein. Little to no contamination occurred for arsenic and selenium. Arsenic contained a small amount of contamination and selenium indicated no contamination. Selenium levels indicated a deficiency of the element in the study area. A possible source for the contamination might be blamed on the release of ash from the local power station that may contain trace amounts of the elements, but because the highest concentration levels were found in the industrial areas, both the power station and industrial processes could have caused the elevated levels seen in the soils.

8 TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE DATA BASE: AN OVERVIEW OF POSSIBLE RISK OF LEAD, ARSENIC AND CADMIUM POISONING ASSOCIATED WITH GEOPHAGIA IN AFRICA Diko ML Geology Division, University of Limpopo, South Africa Corresponding author: Over the past decade, literature on geophagia is replete with increasing contributions on the practice in Africa; especially with regards to incidence, characterisation (geological, phisicochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, chemical and biological) as well as associated health implications. What equally stands out is the fact that scholars from the continent, in close collaboration with peers from around the world have lead initiatives geared towards in-depth studies on geophagia; particular from an Afro-centric perspective. While these strides must be applauded, a general picture on the status quo of geophagia in Africa remains elusive. Against this backdrop, the aim of this study is to develop a comprehensive data base on possible lead, arsenic and cadmium poisoning associated with geophagia in Africa from existing literature. By comparing the quantity of ingested soil, trace element concentration and their acceptable daily intake, an inventory of thresholds and lethal doses across the continent is established. It is anticipated that these findings may (1), assist in easy identification of areas (geophagic communities), countries or regions that are most at risk; (2) encourage actions geared towards mitigation for at-risk communities, and (3) stimulate debate towards development of a geochemical data base for the continent. Keywords: Geophagia, Africa, status quo, geochemical data base. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SOME SELECTED HAND DUG WELLS AND A POND IN THE ANCIENT PARTS OF BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA Jabbo, J. N 1., Ugodulunwa, F. X. O 2.,Gin, N. S 1., Nghargbu, K 3., Dibal, H. U. 4, Ibrahim, A. Q 5., Usman, Y. M 1. 1 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic Bauchi, Nigeria. 2 Dept. of Physics, Geology and Geophysics Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria 3 Department of Geology and Mining, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria. 4 Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos, Nigeria. 5 Department of Chemistry, Nigeria Police Academy, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria. Corresponding author: Waters were sampled from nine (9) hand dug wells and a pond in the Ancient parts of Bauchi metropolis, Nigeria in May, 2012.The water quality parameters for portability were examined using physico-chemical and microbiological indices. Analysis was done using standard methods. The results showed the ranges of parameters to be: Temperature o C, Turbidity NTU, Electrical Conductivity (EC) μs/cm, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) mg/l, ph

9 , Total Hardness mg/l, Fe mg/l, Cu mg/L, F mg/l, Zn mg/l, NO mg/l, Pb mg/l, SO mg/l, Cl mg/l, Cr mg/l, Total Coliform cfu/100ml and Faecal Coliform cfu/100ml. ph was within, Cu 2+, F -, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, Cr 6+ were below, while Total Hardness, HCO - 3, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and Total Faecal Coliform were above the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL) of the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) of Nigeria Industrial Standards (NIS) in all the samples. Turbidity was above in Kofar Idi and below MPL of the NIS in the remaining nine (9) samples. Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were below in Railway, Unguwar Gulmammu, and above the MPL of NIS in the remaining eight (8) sample stations respectively. Fe 2+ was below the MPL of NIS at Rariya, Bakin Kura, Shakel Yammawa, Kofar Dumi, Railway and Gwallaga and above at Kofar Idi, Unguwar Gulmammu, Dutsin Tanshi, Unguwar Kuka, Nufawa Behind Bata. NO - 3 and NO - 2 were below the MPL of NIS at Kofar Dumi and above in the remaining nine (9) sample stations. Pb 2+ was within the MPL of 2- NIS in all the samples. SO 4 was below the MPL of NIS at Kofar Idi and Unguwan Kuka and above at the eight (8) remaining sample stations. Cl - has the lowest concentration below the MPL of NIS at Railway and highest at Rariya Bakin Kura. The high values of most of the parameters might be attributed to urbanization and proximity of dumpsites, soak ways, gutter streams, pit latrine to the wells which may need to be monitored from time to time. Keywords: Water Quality, NIS, Bauchi-Nigeria, Standard Methods. URANIUM BEARING ROCKS A SOURCE OF CANCER BEARING RADON GAS. Levin, M 1*., Strydom, R 2. and Strauss, M 2. 1 Aurecon 2 PARC RGM Corresponding author: Uranium is widespread present in rocks in South Africa. Uranium is found in most rocks and soils and is the source of radon gas. Radon is a chemically inert, naturally occurring, radioactive gas. It has no smell, colour, or taste, and is produced from the natural radioactive decay of uranium which is found in rocks and soil. Radon gas escapes easily from rocks and soils into the air and tends to concentrate in enclosed spaces, such as basements, houses, and other buildings. A country wide survey of indoor radon levels was performed in South Africa, and the results will be indicated in the presentation. Certain areas were shown to be radon prone, with elevated indoor levels. In uranium rich areas radon concentration in groundwater is high and can also be a threat. This was found in the Pofadder area where a Water Research Project was done in to establish the correlation between the uranium in the groundwater and blood cancer in the area where high concentration of uranium is present in groundwater. It is reported that tens of thousands of people die annually from lung cancer globally caused by radon exposure. There are tools to make the public aware of the radon risks and means to reduce and prevent it.

10 CHARACTERIZATION OF RESPIRABLE CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST IN THE ABANDONED MINES AROUND, ROODEPOORT, CENTRAL RAND JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA. Madzivhandila, T¹ &3 and Gopolang, S 1,2&4 1 Occupational and Hygiene Section, National institute for occupational health, 2025 South Africa 2 Senior Lecturer, School of Public health, University of the Witwatersrand, 2025 South Africa 3 Geological Society of South Africa, 2025, South Africa 4 British Occupation of Hygiene Society, UK Corresponding author: or Introduction: The Central rand mining areas have been extensively mined since 1886 to depth up to 3500m below earth surface and are the one of nine district gold mining areas (Gold Fields) that has developed in the greater Witwatersrand basin. The issue of abandoned mines is important because it represents many thousands of former mining sites that continue to pose a real or potential threat to human safety and health and/or environmental damage, (MMSD, 2002). Crystalline silica has been classified as a human lung carcinogen (IARC, 2002). Additionally, breathing crystalline silica dust can cause silicosis, which in severe cases can be disabling, or even fatal. There is no cure for silicosis. Since silicosis affects lung function, it makes one more susceptible to lung infections like tuberculosis Purpose: To characterize crystalline silica from abandoned mines around Roodepoort. Method: The abandoned mines will be selected around Roodepoort area. Dust will be collected through sampling. The Method for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) 101 developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) in the UK will be used for preparation of calibration standards which involves deposition of RCS on PVC filters from a dust atmosphere produced in a glass flask. The mass of silica deposited is determined gravimetrically. Standard concentrations are prepared over the range of (15-720) µg/filter. The silica peak at θ of XRD. Results: A Philips X pert XRD with an X cellerator detector will be used for the analyses. Discussion and conclusion: The obtained results will be applicable to all abandoned mines present in the study area.

11 DETERMINATION OF GEOCHEMICAL BACKGROUND LEVELS AND CONTAMINATION PATTERNS OF HEAVY METALS AROUND JOHANNESBURG. Maya, M 1 and Crowley, M 1 1 Council for Geoscience, Pretoria Corresponding author : Assessment of contamination in urban areas is usually restricted by the lack of reference standards. The aim of this study was to determine geochemical baselines and metal contamination around Johannesburg. The study makes use of the regional geochemical survey data, and a total of 650 samples analysed for heavy metals by ICP-AES were used. The iterative method was used to determine background values of As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. Contamination levels were assessed by total concentration and enrichment factor ratio. The perspective baseline values for V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb were 78, 219, 19, 60, 55, 121, 20, and 94, mg/kg -1, respectively. Significant correlation between baseline values and normalizing elements indicate the influence of grain size/ texture on baseline calculations. Mean values for heavy metals are higher than the established background values. Using enrichment factor and geochemical indices, heavy metal hotspots were effectively mapped. The levels of heavy metals are consistent with anthropogenic and industrial activities in the city. These results suggest that the national geochemical database can be applied to urban areas to describe geochemical processes and trends. AN ASSESSMENT OF RUWAN ZAFI NUMAN FOR EXPLOITATION AS A SOURCE OF DIETARY WATER IN NIGERIA. Nghargbu, K 1., Ponikowska, I 2., Latour, T 3., Kurowska, E 4., Schoeneich, K 5. and Alagbe, S.A 5. 1 Department of Geology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria 2 College of Medicine, Nicolas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland 3 Department of Health Resort Materials, National Institute of Public Health and Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland 4 Department of Fundamental Geology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland 5 Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Corresponding author: In the Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria near Numan is a thermal spring flowing to the surface under natural conditions. Geologically, it is believed that this water passes through the Continental Bima Sandstones of the Albian, the transitional to marine Yolde Formation of the Cenomanian, and eventually through the continental Gombe Sandstones of Maastrichtian age, thus deriving their unique chemistry. Bottled mineral waters have been served in several parts of the world as a dietary water. They are a common source of essential micro and macro nutrients, needed by the human body. A sample of the thermal spring water was taken and analysed using the following techniques-

12 electrometric method to determine electrical conductivity, ph value, iodide and fluoride content, the spectrophotometric method for the determination of ammonium, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, bromate, and sulphate content, the flame photometric method for the determination of sodium, and potassium content, and finally the complexometric titration to determine calcium, and magnesium, the argentometric titration to determinate chloride, while the acidimetric titration was used in the determination of hydrocarbonate. The following results were generated from the analyses done; temp C, ph 7.38, mineralisation mg/l, Comparing these with the results of two bottled mineral water from Poland, namely: Jurajska and Zywiec zdroj one can conclude that the Ruwan Zafi- Numan is possibly a good source of dietary water which if exploited will improve the health needs of its consumers as well as boost national GDP. Keywords: Upper Benue Trough, Ruwan Zafi Numan, dietary water, mineral water, thermal spring EVALUATION OF THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF GOLD TAILINGS IN THE GIYANI GOLD BELT: A CASE STUDY OF KLEIN LETABA TAILINGS DAM, LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA Ogola, J.S., Ramuada, T.E. and Muzerengi, C. Department of Mining and Environmental Geology, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Corresponding author: In South Africa there are about 6,000 decommissioned or abandoned mines and the cost of their rehabilitation is about R30 billion. The main concern here is the tailings dams, most of which are associated with gold mining. Consequently, there is need to identify new strategies for the rehabilitation of such tailings dams. One such strategy is to undertake feasibility study of reprocessing gold tailings dams and extract gold, while converting the residue to a construction material. The study focused on the evaluation of gold and heavy metals in tailings dams at Klein Letaba within the Giyani greenstone belt as a step for preparing the tailings dam for a clean-up during which gold can be recovered to offset the cost of rehabilitation. The work involved augering, profile logging and sampling up to a depth of 8 m along three profiles. A total of 95 samples were analysed for heavy metals, using atomic absorption spectrometry and 24 samples for gold analysis by fire assay. The tonnage for the heavy metals was rather low, for example, 2183 tons As, 667 tons Cr and 306 tons Mn. However, Au was 699 kg, which at the current gold price would be US $ 30.7 million. Reprocessing of gold is therefore recommended, during which, the tailings could be used for the manufacture of bricks and tiles.

13 COMPOSITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HEATH IMPLICATIONS OF GEOPHAGIA CLAYS OF PARTS OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA Okunlola, O.A 1 and Owoyemi, A.K 1 1 Department of Geology University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Corresponding author: Geophagy has been described as the practice of deliberate consumption of soil and clays by humans and animals. Reasons for geophagic behavior in the study area include alleviation of hunger pangs and gastro intestinal upsets such as diarrhea and ulcers, suppressing nausea in pregnant women and obtaining essential nutrients This study therefore aims at elucidating the compositional characteristics and health implications of the geophagic clays consumed around Asaba, Benin, Ibadan and Aramoko-Ekiti areas southern Nigeria,. X-ray Diffraction Analysis of fifteen clay samples collected from these areas show that Kaolinite (70-80%) predominates with minor smectite (<5%), while the non clay fraction are mainly quartz (15-20%) and feldspar (5%). This compares with geophagia clays of Tanzania, those consumed by golden-faced sakis in Brazil and humans in Uganda. This high percentage of fine grained kaolinite in the geophagia clays is strikingly similar to those for kaolin based pharmaceutical syrups that are marketed locally for the purpose of alleviating gastro intestinal upsets. This characteristic is also revealed in the major and trace analysis of these clay samples.the bacteriological analysis show relatively enhanced total bacterial count of 9.8 x x 104 for the Asaba samples while the Benin and Aramoko-Ekiti samples have lower average total bacterial count of 2.1 x 104. The Ibadan samples have the lowest total bacterial count of 0.2 x 104. The low total bacterial count of Ibadan sample may have resulted from the baking of the samples before consumption as against the fresh samples of Asaba. Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus acidophilus are the two microorganisms common to all samples. These causes skin infection like pimples to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia and meningitis. Thus, consuming these clays raw and unprocessed may be hazardous. Results of preliminary nutritional analysis as presented in the study also indicate that the clays have minimal nutritional value. Keywords: Geophagy, Analysis, kaolinite, bacterial count, nutritional value.

14 POSSIBLE HEALTH IMPACT OF THE ALKALINE PILANESBERG COMPLEX ON COMMUNITIES IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE SOUTH AFRICA Shelembe, R 1,2., Mouri, H 2. and Kramers, J 2. 1 Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. 2 Department of Geology, University of Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. Corresponding author: South Africa as many other African countries, has naturally occurring geological problems that can have direct or indirect effects on human and animal health. However, data of such problems are very few or do not exist for some localities. Therefore, rigorous studies are needed to examine the possible links between the geology of a specific area and its health problems. The study area is semi-arid and is situated at the southern edge of the Kalahari Desert about 60 km northwest of Rustenburg, North West Province. In this study, particular focus is given to the possible association between the geology of the alkaline Pilanesberg Complex and the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite in the area and the health of communities living there. In this locality, almost all communities depend on groundwater for domestic use. Data from previous reports as well as preliminary results from some groundwater samples indicate high concentrations in F, Ca, U and total dissolved solids (TDS). The concentrations of these elements in previous reports are about 10 times more than the allowable limits. In the North West Province, skeletal fluorosis, cardiovascular related diseases, renal diseases and diarrhoea are prevalent. In addition to this, health data from the study area show a prevalence of hypertension (which may be coupled with musculoskeletal and mental disorders), diarrhoea and irregular menstrual cycles. Providing holistic-approach solutions to help communities with preventative measures to healthier living conditions is also important for this investigation. THE STATUS OF MEDICAL GEOLOGY IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES, PROSPECTS AND BENEFITS Lar, U.A. and Dibal, H. U. Department of Geology, University of Jos, Jos- Nigeria Corresponding author: Medical Geology is an emerging field in the geosciences that has gained international recognition in recent times. It is the knowledge of the relationships between geologic materials and processes and how that impact on human and animal health. As far back as Medical science has existed, there has been knowledge of certain human and animal diseases related to geographical areas. However, in Nigeria, Medical Geology is at its infancy and therefore still poorly understood. It came into limelight in Nigeria during the last decade. A local chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA) has sometime last year been inaugurated in Nigeria. The increased demand of

15 minerals from the BRICS economies in recent times will lead to the rapid expansion of mining operations in Nigeria; endowed with abundant mineral resources. This will be further compounded by the consequences of urbanization and population growth that will aggravate to inestimable magnitude the present inherent environmental and human health problems. The role of Medical geology in the control and management of public health resulting from such anthropogenic engagements cannot be over-emphasized. Efforts have been made to incorporate Medical Geology in Nigerian Universities undergraduate and post graduate curricula, but this has been met with stiff resistance. Nonetheless, recently quite a few Universities teach medical Geology as part of Environmental Geology course. The level of research output from these Nigerian Universities is very low compared to most emerging economies like South Africa and Brazil for example. The expertise to teach the subject is inadequate and where available, securing funding for the conduct of world class researches is difficult to come by. For Medical Geology to assume its rightful position in the scheme of public health control there is need for more advocacies, interaction, communication and strong collaboration between geoscientists, biomedical and public health researchers. Keywords: Medical Geology, Environment, human health, Nigerian Universities

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20 TRIBUNE TRIBUNE TRIBUNE /LLEß3ELINUS /LLEß3ELINUS 2O B E RT ß" ß& I N K E L MA N * O S E ß! ß # E NT E N O 0H $ ßGEOLOGIST ß 'EOLOGICALß3URVEYß OFß3WEDEN #HAIRMANßOFßTHEß )NTERNATIONALß-EDICALß 'EOLOGYß!SSOCIATION OLLE SELINUS SGU SE 2OBERTß" ß&INKELMAN *OSEß! ß#ENTENO 0ROFESSOR ßß$EPTßOFß 'EOSCIENCES ß5NIVERSITYß OFß4EXASß $ALLAS #O CHAIRMANßFORß 'EOSCIENCE ßTHEß )NTERNATIONALß-EDICALß 'EOLOGYß!SSOCIATION 2BF USGS GOV 3ENIORß2ESEARCHß3CIENTIST ß 5 3 ß!RMEDß&ORCESß )NSTITUTEßOFß0ATHOLOGYß 7ASHINGTON ß$# #O CHAIRMANßFORß -EDICALßSCIENCES ß THEß)NTERNATIONALß-EDICALß 'EOLOGYß!SSOCIATION *OSE #ENTENO AFIP OSD MIL 4HEßMEDICALß GEOLOGYß REVOLUTION! LTHOUGHßGEOLOGICßFACTORSßPLAYßKEYßROLESßINßAßRANGEßOFßENVIRONMENTALßHEALTHßISSUESßTHATß IMPACTßTHEßHEALTHßANDßWELL BEINGßOFßBILLIONSßOFßPEOPLEßWORLDWIDE ßFEWßACTUALLYßREALIZEß HOWß CRUCIALß Aß ROLEß THESEß FACTORSß PLAYß INß ANIMALß ANDß HUMANß HEALTH ß )Nß ß THISß SITUATIONß MOTIVATEDßTHEß)NTERNATIONALß5NIONßOFß'EOLOGICALß3CIENCESß )5'3 ßTOßFORMßANß)NTERNATIONALß 7ORKINGß 'ROUPß ONß -EDICALß 'EOLOGYß -'7' ß HEADEDß BYß /LLEß 3ELINUSß OFß THEß 'EOLOGICALß 3URVEYß OFß 3WEDENß 3'5 ß 4HISß WORKINGß GROUP Sß PRIMARYß AIMß WASß TOß PROMOTEß AWARENESSß CONCERNINGßTHISßISSUEßAMONGßGEOSCIENTISTS ßMEDICALßSPECIALISTS ßANDßTHEßPUBLICßATßLARGE 3INCEß THEß7ORKINGß'ROUPßWASßESTABLISHED ß STEADYßPROGRESSßHASßBEENßMADEßINßTHISßFIELD ß )Nß /CTOBERß ß THEß GROUPß METß INß 6ALE ß #OLORADO ß 53! ß!Tß THISß MEETING ß THEß TERMß ±-EDICALß'EOLOGY²ßWASßADOPTEDßBYßTHEßPAR TICIPANTS ß4HEßNEXTßMEETINGßOFßTHEß7ORKINGß 'ROUPßTOOKßTHEßFORMßOFßAßWORKSHOPßHELDßINß 5PPSALA ß3WEDENßINß ß$ISCUSSIONSßFOCUSEDß ONßTHEßFEASIBILITYßOFßPREPARINGßAßNEWßHAND BOOKßONßMEDICALßGEOLOGY ß)Nß3EPTEMBERß ß SOMEß ß PEOPLEß PARTICIPATEDß INß Aß SECONDß MEETINGßANDßWORKSHOPßINß5PPSALA ßWHEREßAß TWO DAYßSEMINARßWASßHELDßONßMEDICALßGEO LOGY ßENTITLEDß±4HEß'EOCHEMICALß%NVIRONMENTß ANDß (UMANß (EALTH² ß!ß VOLUMEß OFß PROCEE DINGSß WASß SUBSEQUENTLYß PUBLISHEDß ß4HEß WORKSHOPßPARTICIPANTSßDISCUSSEDßFUTUREßWORKß TOß BEß UNDERTAKENß BYß THEß GROUP ß INCLUDINGß EDITINGß NEWSLETTERS ß CREATINGß ANß INTERNETß HOMEPAGE ßGENERATINGßOTHERßINFORMATIONALß MATERIALS ßANDßPUBLISHINGßANßINTERDISCIPLINARYß BOOKßONßMEDICALßGEOLOGYßDESIGNEDßFORßAßWIDEß AUDIENCE 4HEß )NTERNATIONALß 'EOLOGICß #ORRELATIONSß 0ROGRAMMEß )'#0 ßLAUNCHEDßAßNEWßPROJECTßINß ß±)'#0ß ß-EDICALß'EOLOGY ²ßCHAIREDßBYß /LLEß3ELINUS ß4HEßPRIMARYßAIMßOFßTHEßPROJECTß WASßTOßFOSTERßCONTACTSßBETWEENßSCIENTISTSßINß DEVELOPINGß COUNTRIESß WORKINGß ONß MEDICALß GEOLOGYßISSUESßANDßTHEIRßCOLLEAGUESßINßOTHERß PARTSß OFß THEß WORLD ß &ORß THEß FIRSTß TIME ß THISß AFFORDEDßANßOPPORTUNITYßFORßSCIENTISTSßFROMß DEVELOPEDßANDßDEVELOPINGßCOUNTRIESßTOßCOMEß TOGETHERßINßAß TRULYßINTERNATIONALßANDßINTER DISCIPLINARYßFORUMßANDßTOßIDENTIFYßANDßTACKLEß SIGNIFICANTßENVIRONMENTALßHEALTHßPROBLEMS )Nß ßTHEßGROUPßWASßJOINEDßBYß"OBß&INKELMAN ß 5 3 ß'EOLOGICALß3URVEYß 53'3 ßANDß*OSEß#ENTENO ß 5 3 ß!RMEDß &ORCESß )NSTITUTEß OFß 0ATHOLOGYß!&)0 ß "OTHß HADß SINCEß ß BEENß WORKINGß INDEPENDENTLYßINßMEDICALßGEOLOGYßONßISSUESß THATß PARALLELEDß ANDß COMPLEMENTEDß THEß OBJECTIVESßOFß)5'3 SUPPORTEDßACTIVITIESßANDß HADßDEVELOPEDßAßPOPULARßSHORTßCOURSEßONßTHEß HEALTHßIMPACTSßOFßTRACEßELEMENTSßANDßMETALß IONSß THATß COULDß EASILYß BEß BROUGHTß INß LINEß WITHß -'7'ß OBJECTIVES ß4HEYß PRESENTEDß Aß SHORTßCOURSEßINß ßATßAßMEETINGßINß,USAKA ß :AMBIA ß4HEßENTHUSIASTICßRECEPTIONßITßRECEIVEDß WASß Aß CONVINCINGß DEMONSTRATIONß THATß THEß ß( # 7 ß3KINNERßANDß! 2 ß"ERGER ßEDITORSß ß ß'EOLOGYßANDß(EALTH ß#LOSINGßTHEß'AP ß/XFORDß0RESS ß/XFORD ß ßP 13-Tribunes n 5.indd 108 7/03/07 10:53:35

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