1 Detailed solution Model Test 30 (GS paper I) 1. Financial Stability and Development Council: With a view to strengthening and institutionalizing the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination, and promoting financialsector development, the government has set up an apex level Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) in December 2010, in line with the G 20 initiatives. The Council is chaired by the Finance Minister. 2. Insurance Penetration: The growth in the insurance sector is internationally measured based on the standard of insurance penetration defined as the ratio of premium underwritten in a given year to the gross domestic product (GDP). Insurance density is another well recognized benchmark and is defined as the ratio of premium underwritten in a given year to total population (measured in US dollars for convenience of comparison). The Indian insurance business has in the past remained underdeveloped with low levels of penetration. Despite the growth in the insurance sector that was witnessed during the last few decades, insurance penetration and density remained low as compared to other developing countries of the world. 3. The New Pension System (NPS) was introduced for the new recruits who join government service on or after 01January Till 5 January 2013 a total of lakh subscriptions have been enrolled with a corpus of ` 26,189 crore. From 1 May 2009, the NPS was opened up for all citizens in India to join on a voluntary basis. Although the NPS is perhaps one of the cheapest financial products available in the country, in order to make it affordable for the economically disadvantaged, the government in September 2010 introduced a lower cost version, known as Swavalamban Scheme, which enables groups of people to join the NPS at a substantially reduced cost. As per existing scheme under NPS, Swavalamban could be availed either in unorganized sector or in NPS Lite. NPS Lite is a model specifically designed to bring NPS within easy reach of the economically disadvantaged sections of the society. NPS Lite is extremely affordable and viable due to its optimized functionalities available at reduced charges. Under the Swavalamban scheme, the government provides subsidy to each NPS account holder and the scheme has been extended until A customized version of the core NPS model, known as the NPS Corporate Sector Model was also introduced from December 2011 to enable organized-sector entities to move their existing and prospective employees to the NPS under its Corporate Model. All the PSBs have been asked to provide a link on their website to enable individual subscribers to open online NPS Accounts. 4. Sector wise, manufacturing, construction, financial services, business services and communication services received significant amount of inflows. Country-wise, Foreign
2 Direct Investment routed through Mauritius remained, as in the past, the largest component, followed by Singapore and the UK. 5. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is preferred to the foreign portfolio investments primarily because FDI is expected to bring modern technology, managerial practices and is long term in nature investment. The Government has liberalized FDI norms overtime. As a result, only a handful of sensitive sectors now fall in the prohibited zone and FDI is allowed fully or partially in the rest of the sectors. Despite successive moves to liberalize the FDI regime, India is ranked fourth on the basis of FDI Restrictiveness Index (FRI) compiled by OECD. FRI gauges the restrictiveness of a country's FDI rules by looking at the four main types of restrictions viz. foreign equity limitations; screening or approval mechanism; restrictions on the employment of foreigners as key personnel; and operational restrictions. A score of 1 indicates a closed economy and 0 indicates openness. FRI for India in 2012 was (it was in 2006 and in 2010) as against OECD average of China is the most restrictive country as it is ranked number one with the score of in 2012 indicating that it has more restriction than India. As there is moderation in FDI inflows to India in the current fiscal vis-à-vis last year it is imperative therefore to rationalize FDI norms further. At present, defence sector is open to FDI subject to 26 per cent cap. It also requires FIPB approval and is subject to licensing under Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951 and guidelines on FDI in production of arms & ammunition. Within the 26 per cent cap, FII is also permissible subject to the proviso that overall cap is not breached. India needs to open up the defence production sector to get access and ensure transfer of technology. The existing FDI policy for defence sector provides for offsets policy. 6. Mass-wasting processes are associated with strongly accidented terrain, e.g. where tectonic uplift has created mountains and in areas with steep fault scarps or incised valleys. Mass wasting often produces erosion landforms, such as residual hills or mountains that remain as isolated features in a low-relief plain. The residual elements consist normally of weathering-resistant rocks (e.g. Uluru sandstone, Australia) or are capped with a layer of resistant rock protecting the underlying softer rock from erosion (e.g. Utah, Great Monument National Park). Such a residual hill or table mountain is called an `inselberg' or `mesa'. Mountain foot slopes with a low slope angle and consisting of bedrock covered with a thin blanket of debris are termed `pediments'. Contrary to what it is often thought, pediments are erosional landforms because material is moved down the slope. Ultimately, severe erosion may create multiple, deeply incised valleys, in particular in areas with soft sedimentary rocks such as shale or marls, and create a `badland'. The only depositional landform associated with mass wasting is the `talus cone' or `rock debris cone'. In barren deserts or mountains, temperature differences between day and night can be considerable and this frequently results in thermal disintegration of rocks. Salt crystals in the fissures may accelerate the process. Detached fragments of rocks and stones accumulate in debris cones at the foot of an inselberg or mountain. 7. There are four types of plate boundaries:
3 Divergent boundaries -- where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other. Convergent boundaries -- where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another. Transform boundaries -- where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other. Plate boundary zones -- broad belts in which boundaries are not well defined and the effects of plate interaction are unclear. Divergent boundaries Divergent boundaries occur along spreading centers where plates are moving apart and new crust is created by magma pushing up from the mantle. Perhaps the best known of the divergent boundaries is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This submerged mountain range, which extends from the Arctic Ocean to beyond the southern tip of Africa, is but one segment of the global mid-ocean ridge system that encircles the Earth. The rate of spreading along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge averages about 2.5 centimeters per year (cm/yr), or 25 km in a million years. This rate may seem slow by human standards, but because this process has been going on for millions of years, it has resulted in plate movement of thousands of kilometers. Seafloor spreading over the past 100 to 200 million years has caused the Atlantic Ocean to grow from a tiny inlet of water between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas into the vast ocean that exists today. 8. What is Conglomerate? Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that contains large (greater than two millimeters in diameter) rounded clasts. The space between the clasts is generally filled with smaller particles and/or a chemical cement that binds the rock together. What is the Composition of Conglomerate? Conglomerate can have a variety of compositions. As a clastic sedimentary rock it can contain clasts of any rock material or weathering product that is washed downstream or down current. The rounded clasts of conglomerate can be mineral particles such as quartz or they can be sedimentary, metamorphic or igneous rock fragments. The matrix that binds the large clasts together can be a mixture of sand, mud and chemical cement. What are Igneous Rocks?
4 Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are two basic types: 1) intrusive igneous rocks such as diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface; and 2) extrusive igneous rocks such as andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on or above Earth's surface. Welded Tuff is a rock that is composed of materials that were ejected from a volcano, fell to Earth, and then lithified into a rock. It is usually composed mainly of volcanic ash and sometimes contains larger size particles such as cinders. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across. Gneiss is a metamorphic rock form characterized by banding caused by segregation of different types of rock, typically light and dark silicates. Rather than an indication of specific mineral composition, the term is an indication of texture. The "gneissic texture" refers to the segregation of light and dark minerals. It is indicative of high-grade metamorphism where the temperature is high enough, say C, so that enough ion migration occurs to segregate the minerals. Within the banded structure are mostly elongated and granular structures rather than sheets or plates. Some gneisses will split along the layers of materials, but most break in an irregular fashion. Gneiss often forms from the metamorphism of granite or diorite. The most common minerals in gneiss are quartz, potassium feldspar, and sodium feldspar. Smaller amounts of muscovite, biotite and hornblende are common. Gneiss can also form from gabbro or shale. Granite is a common type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture. This rock consists mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar (orthoclase, sanidine, or microcline) and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram. True granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali granite. When a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite; pyroxene and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. The volcanic equivalent of plutonic granite is rhyolite. Granite has poor primary permeability but strong secondary permeability. 9. Nominal rupee depreciation, while having some adverse effects such as greater imported inflation, is also useful over time in offsetting higher domestic inflation and ensuring Indian exports remain competitive. The nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) and real effective exchange rate (REER) indices are used as indicators of external competitiveness of the country over a period of time. NEER is the weighted
5 average of bilateral nominal exchange rates of the home currency in terms of foreign currencies, while REER is defined as a weighted average of nominal exchange rates, adjusted for home and foreign country relative price differentials. REER captures movements in crosscurrency exchange rates as well as inflation differentials between India and its major trading partners and reflects the degree of external competitiveness of Indian products. The RBI has been constructing six currency (US dollar, euro for euro zone, pound sterling, Japanese yen, Chinese renminbi and Hong Kong dollar) and 36 currency indices of NEER and REER. 10. India's share in global exports and imports also increased from 0.7 per cent and 0.8 per cent respectively in 2000 to 1.7 per cent and 2.5 per cent in 2011 as per the WTO. Its ranking in the leading exporters and importers improved from 31 and 26 in 2000 to 19 and 12 respectively in India's export growth has almost continuously been above world export growth in the 2000s decade and in One issue that has been a topic of debate is whether India's export growth rate is dependent on world growth/trade or exchange rate. There is a strong correspondence between India's export growth and world export growth.this is clearly visible in 2009 when there was a big dip in both world exports and India's exports. 11. The North Magnetic Pole is the point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downwards (in other words, if a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal axis, it will point straight down). There is only one location where this occurs, near (but distinct from) the Geographic North Pole and the Geomagnetic North Pole. The North Magnetic Pole moves over time due to magnetic changes in the Earth's core. In 2001, it was determined by the Geological Survey of Canada to lie near Ellesmere Island in northern Canada at 81.3 N W. It was situated at 83.1 N W in In 2009, while still situated within the Canadian Arctic territorial claim at 84.9 N W, it was moving toward Russia at between 34 and 37 miles (55 and 60 km) per year. As of 2012, the pole is projected to have moved beyond the Canadian Arctic territorial claim to 85.9 N W. Located hundred of miles south of the geographic North Pole lies the magnetic North Pole at approximately 82.7 North and West (2005), northwest of Canada's Sverdrup Island. However, this location is not fixed and is moving continually, even on a daily basis. The earth's magnetic pole is the focus of the planet's magnetic field and is the point that traditional magnetic compasses point toward. Compasses are also subject to magnetic declination which is a result of the earth's varied magnetic field. Each year, the magnetic North Pole and the magnetic field shift, requiring those using magnetic compasses for navigation to be keenly aware of the difference between magnetic north and true north.
6 The magnetic pole was first determined in 1831, hundreds of miles from its present location. 12. In 2011, India had a global export share of 1 per cent or more in 53 out of a total of 99 commodities at the two-digit harmonized system (HS) level. There has been significant market diversification in India's trade. Region-wise, while India's exports to Europe and America have declined, its exports to Asia and Africa have increased A canyon (occasionally spelled cañon) or gorge is a deep ravine between pairs of escarpments or cliffs and is most often carved from the landscape by the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces so will eventually wear away rock layers to lessen their own pitch slowing their waters; given enough time, their bottoms will gradually reach a baseline elevation which is the same elevation as the body of water it will eventually drain into. This action, when the river source and mouth are at much different base elevations will form a canyon, particularly through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Yavapai: Wi:ka'i:la) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is contained within and managed by Grand Canyon National Park, the Hualapai Tribal Nation, and the Havasupai Tribe. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of
7 preservation of the Grand Canyon area, and visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery. It is considered one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. 15. The G33 group of countries, which is a coalition of 46 developing countries, including India, has tabled a proposal on food security in the WTO on 16 November The proposal is for an amendment to certain provisions of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture to allow developing countries greater flexibility in their public stockholding operations for food security purposes. The issue of food security is very important for India and any concession on the trade facilitation front needs to be balanced by acceptance of the G33 proposal in any package deal for MC9. The G33 is a group of developing countries that coordinate on trade and economic issues. It was created in order to help a group of countries that were all facing similar problems. The G33 has proposed special rules for developing countries at WTO negotiations, like allowing them to continue to restrict access to their agricultural markets. 16. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) Agreement among ASEAN + 6 (Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea, and New Zealand): During the 20th ASEAN Summit held in Cambodia in April 2012, ASEAN States agreed to move towards establishing an RCEP involving ASEAN and its FTA partners. The objective of launching RCEP negotiations is to achieve a modern, comprehensive, high-quality, and mutually beneficial economic partnership agreement among the ASEAN member States and ASEAN's FTA partners. The RCEP will cover trade in goods, trade in services, investment, economic and technical cooperation, intellectual property, competition, dispute settlement, and other issues. 17. BILATERAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION: While India has always stood for an open, equitable, predictable, non-discriminatory, and rule based multilateral trading system(mts), it has also been active in recent years with regional trading arrangements (RTAs), to serve as 'building blocks' for achieving trade liberalization and complementing the MTS. So far, India has signed 10 free trade agreements (FTAs) and 5 preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and these FTAs/PTAs are already in force. Further, India is currently negotiating 17 FTAs, including review/expansion of some of the existing ones. 18.
8 19. Pitt's India Act of 1784 was introduced by the British Parliament to bring the administration of East India Company under the control of British Government. It was passed on the failure of Regulating act of 1773 (also known as East India Company Act). Pitt's India Act of 1784 provided for a joint Government provided by the Company (represented by the Directors) and the Crown (represented by the Board of Control). By 1773 East India Company was facing an acute problem of financial crisis and asked for monetary assistance from the British Government. British Rulers found that the
9 Company was running in loss due to nepotism and corruption of the company officials. The British Government enacted the Regulating Act of 1773 to control the activity of the Company and Warren Hastings was elected the first Governor General. But the law failed to be effective in order to prevent corruption and Hastings himself was charged for corruption. Then British Government decided to take a more active role and interfere with the affairs of the Company. So it was the second important step undertaken by British Parliament to set up a Board of Control under Pitt's India Bill of A Board was established with six members, two of who were the members of British Cabinet and four were of Privy Council. The President of the Board soon became the Minister for the affairs of the East India Company. The Board had all the powers to control the civil, military and revenue related affairs of the company. 20. The mission, estimated to cost Rs. 400 crore over five years, is designed to improve the current dynamic numerical models through better insight of the highly complex phenomenon of monsoon. Under the project, scientists will work on two models already available from the United Kingdom's Met Office and the United States' National Centres for Environment Prediction. The mission will have two components on two different time scales medium-range forecast, up to 15 days on the one hand and seasonal and extended range prediction (16 days to one season). Once the mission is implemented, the India Meteorology Department can come out with predictions based on a dynamic forecasting system for all time scales at appropriate spatial scales and with improved prediction skills. At present, the IMD makes its forecasts based on a statistical model. Under the project, Pune-based Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology will work on improving long-range and seasonal scale forecasts while the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting in Noida, will spearhead efforts to improve medium-range scale (upto 15 days) forecast of rainfall. M Rajeevan, India s foremost monsoon expert and head of the mission, says the project has already kickstarted and proposals have been invited from all over the country. We re concentrating on two global dynamic models the climate Forecast System model developed in the US and the Unified model developed by the UK meteorological office. These models have seen a lot of improvement over the past five to six years, but we need to finetune them further. 21. Aided Sector Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES), Mumbai
10 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Calcutta Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Allahabad Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc or Matscience), Chennai Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 22. Edible Oil Economy: India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world. However, 50 per cent of its domestic requirements are met through imports, out of which crude palm oil and RBD palmolein constitute about 77 per cent and soyabean oil constitutes about 12 per cent. Import dependence was about 3 per cent during The production of oilseeds, though it has increased in recent years (from lakh tons in to lakh tons in ), has not kept pace with the demand for edible oils in India. Imports have helped raise the per capita availability of edible oils which has increased from 5.8 kg in increased to 14.5kg in Contour plowing (or contour ploughing) or contour farming is the farming practice of plowing across a slope following its elevation contour lines. The rows formed slows water run-off during rainstorms to prevent soil erosion and allows the water time to settle into the soil. In contour plowing, the ruts made by the plow run perpendicular rather than parallel to slopes, generally resulting in furrows that curve around the land and are level. A similar practice is contour bunding where stones are placed around the contours of slopes. Contour ploughing helps reduce erosion by holding rain within their channels and stopping soil racing down the hill. Contour ploughing acts against the flow of the landscape so that wind and water have a harder time to blow and wash the water away, respectively. What is gully erosion? Gully erosion is the removal of soil along drainage lines by surface water runoff. Once started, gullies will continue to move by headward erosion or by slumping of the side walls unless steps are taken to stabilise the disturbance. Repair work done in the early stages of newly formed gullies is easier and more economical than letting the problem go unchecked for too long. Large gullies are difficult and costly to repair. What causes gully erosion? Gully erosion occurs when water is channelled across unprotected land and washes away the soil along the drainage lines. Under natural conditions, run-off is moderated by
11 vegetation which generally holds the soil together, protecting it from excessive run-off and direct rainfall. Excessive clearing, inappropriate land use and compaction of the soil caused by grazing often means the soil is left exposed and unable to absorb excess water. Surface run-off then increases and concentrates in drainage lines, allowing gully erosion to develop in susceptible areas. 24. India meets 80 per cent of its urea requirement through indigenous production but is largely import dependent for meeting its requirements of the potassic (K) and phosphatic (P) fertilizer requirements. 25. A dike or dyke in geology is a sheet of rock that formed in a crack in a pre-existing rock body. However, when the crack is between the layers in a layered rock, it is called a sill, not a dike. It is a type of tabular or sheet intrusion, that either cuts across layers in a planar wall rock structures, or into a layer or unlayered mass of rock. Dikes can therefore be either intrusive or sedimentary in origin. For example, when molten rock intrudes into a crack then crystallizes, it is an igneous dike. When sediment fills a pre-existing crack, it is a sedimentary dike. 26.
12 27. Allocation of Foodgrains under the TPDS and Other Welfare Schemes: Allocations for Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and below poverty line (BPL) families are being made at 35 kg per family per month. For above poverty line (APL) families, allocation varies from 15 kg to 35 kg in different states. 28. COMMODITY FUTURES MARKET The commodity futures market facilitates the price discovery process and provides a platform for price-risk management in commodities. Currently 113 commodities are notified for futures trading of which 51 are actively traded in five national and 16 regional commodity-specific exchanges.
13 29. Aruna Asaf Ali (July 16, 1909, Kalka, Haryana July 29, 1996) (born Aruna Ganguli), was an Indian independence activist. She is widely remembered for hoisting the Congress flag at the Gowalia Tank maidan in Bombay during the Quit India Movement, She was 87 years old at the time of her death. 30. The index of industrial production (IIP) with as base is the leading indicator for industrial performance in the country. Compiled on a monthly basis, the current IIP series based on 399 products/ product groups is aggregated into three broad groups of mining, manufacturing, and electricity. Comparative Picture of India and World Manufacturing Production: India is one of the top ten manufacturing countries though its share in total manufacturing value added (MVA) is only about 1.8 per cent. 31. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of pulses and oilseeds in the country. The State also shares a major share of the National agriculture production. About 25% of pulses, 15% of Peas and 40% of Grams are grown in the state. The State is the largest producer of Soya bean and Gram and the second largest producer of Jowar and Masoor in the Country. Madhya Pradesh leads in the production of Spices with the largest production of Garlic, accounting for 37% of the total national production. The state is the second largest producer of Coriander in the country. Currently, India is second largest producer of Wheat in the world after China with about 12% share in total world Wheat production. Now, India is surplus and in a position to export Wheat in the International Market and can earn foreign exchange. Wheat is grown in India in an area of about 30 Million ha. with a production of 93 Million tonnes. The normal National productivity is about 2.98 tonnes/ha. The major Wheat producing Statesare Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. These States contribute about 99.5% of total Wheat production in the country India - Second Largest Producer Of Tobacco In The WorldOutput Of Apprx. 600 M.Kgs(Dry Weight) Of Which Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) Tobacco Accounts For 185 M.Kgs Major Tobacco Producing States In India Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh Also Grown In Orissa And Maharashtra In Small Quantities. Out of total cultivable land in Maharashtra about 60% land is under food grain crops, and Maharashtra contribute only 5.8% production of food grains in India because Jowar is dominating crop but its yield is low (583 kg/ha). Maharashtra is major producer of
14 Jowar and Arhar contributing and %, respectively to the total production of India. It is second largest producer of Cotton (22.21%), Soybean (28.14%), and total cereals (13.56%) in the country. 32. Central Public sector Enterprises Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) are an important constituent industry. There were altogether 260 CPSEs under the administrative control of various ministries/departments as on 31 March The government amended the policy on single brand retail trading, amending the conditions relating to : (i) the foreign investor being the owner of the brand: it has been specified that, henceforth, only one non-resident entity, whether owner of the brand or otherwise, shall be permitted to undertake single brand product retail trading, for the specific brand, through a legally tenable agreement, with the brand owner and (ii) mandatory sourcing of at least 30 per cent of the value of products to be done from Indian 'small industries/ village and cottage industries, artisans and craftsmen', applicable in respect of proposals involving FDI beyond 51 per cent: (iii) It has been specified that, sourcing of 30 per cent of the value of goods purchased, will be done from India, preferably from MSME, village and cottage industries, artisans and craftsmen, in all sectors. (iv) The government has decided to permit FDI up to 51 per cent, with FIPB approval, in multibrand retail trading, subject to specified conditions. 34. The key underpinning cause of the recent industrial slowdown has been the manufacturing sector. India's manufacturing value-added (MVA) as share of GDP, has remained sticky at around 15 per cent. As per the latest competitive industrial performance index (CIP) compiled by UNIDO for the year 2009, India was placed 42nd out of the 118 countries. India's low CIP ranking hints at the underlying weaknesses and vulnerabilities despite being one of the top ten manufacturing nations. India's manufacturing sector therefore needs to acquire dynamism and technological sophistication to become one of the leading manufacturers. From the long term point of view, low level of R&D and inadequate availability of skilled manpower would adversely affect India's competitiveness and the manufacturing growth. 35. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu has the largest number of textile mills (215) and accounts for about 5 per cent of the looms and 25 per cent of the spindles of the country. The state is the largest producer of mill made cotton yarns (44.46%) in the country. Besides it is the third largest producer of mill-made cotton cloths (6.69%) in India. Here raw material from the cotton growing tracts of the state, rich pool of skilled labour, cheap hydel power from the Py kara project and expertise in the production of quality textile goods are some of the advantages which have favoured the develop-ment of cotton textile industry in the state. Coimbatore is the leading producer of textile goods (81 mills), followed by Chennai, Madurai, Tirunel velli, Tuticorin, Salem, Virudhnagar, Udmalpet, and Pollachi, etc.
15 The bulk of production includes sheeting, sarees and other piece goods. The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian economy is manifested in terms of its contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It contributes 20 percent of industrial production, 9 percent of excise collections, 18 percent of employment in the industrial sector, nearly 20 percent to the country s total export earning and 4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product India has been well known for her textile goods since very ancient times. The traditional textile industry of India was virtually decayed during the colonial regime. However, the modern textile industry took birth in India in the early nineteenth century when the first textile mill in the country was established at fort gloster near Calcutta in The cotton textile industry, however, made its real beginning in Bombay, in 1850s. The first cotton textile mill of Bombay was established in 1854 by a Parsi cotton merchant then engaged in overseas and internal trade. Indeed, the vast majority of the early mills were the handiwork of Parsi merchants engaged in yarn and cloth trade at home and Chinese and African markets. The first cotton mill in Ahmedabad, which was eventually to emerge as a rival centre to Bombay, was established in The spread of the textile industry to Ahmedabad was largely due to the Gujarati trading class. Bhadohi is a city, Lok Sabha constituency and a municipal board in Sant Ravidas Nagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is also known as the "Carpet City," as it is home to the largest hand-knotted carpet weaving industry hub in South Asia. The Indian Institute of Carpet Technology, the only institute of its kind in Asia, was established there in 2001 by the Ministry of Textiles and offers B.Tech. courses in carpet and textiles technology. 36. Tax buoyancy is a measure of the responsiveness of tax receipts with respect to GDP or National Income. A tax is buoyant when revenues increase by more than 1 per cent for a 1 per cent increase in GDP. 37. Tax authorities have taken aggressive, provocative and industry-wise positions that have jolted the entire fraternity of the multinational companies (MNCs). Even to this day, the transfer pricing disputes revolve around very basic issues such as use of data not available in the public domain, selection of comparables and noncontemporaneous data. Other areas for transfer-pricing disputes are valuation of shares, corporate guarantees, inter corporate loans, royalty, intangibles, etc, on which there is no statutory guidance. To address the current crying need of corporate India, the Union Budget 2012 is expected to introduce a very important dispute-resolution mechanism: advance pricing agreements (APAs), which are in vogue in countries with mature transfer-pricing regimes. This is indeed the only progressive dispute resolution option among defensive alternatives.
16 APA is an advance agreement that sets transfer price of the covered transactions prospectively between the taxpayer and tax authorities. The taxpayer and tax authority also mutually agree on the TP method to be applied and its application fora certain period of time. 38. Inflation, as measured by the Wholesale Price Index (WPI), has remained above 7 per cent since December Food inflation has been particularly elevated over this period, contributing to an average of one third of total inflation. Consumer price inflation, with higher weights on food, have been generally higher than the headline WPI inflation. Within primary food articles, however, inflation in protein foods has moderated, especially so in the case of milk and animal products, where it has been significant and sequential. For pulses too, a sharp decline in inflation in Q3 of is observed. Cereals have, however, emerged as the major contributor to an increase in the inflation in food articles in first three quarters of the current year. Inflation in cereals which had moderated to a level of 2.73 per cent in Q3 of increased to per cent in Q3 of mainly contributed by wheat, rice and maize. 39. Cirrus clouds or "Mother of Pearl" are found near tropopause and are composed of ice crystals due to lower temperature at high altitude. The temperature in troposphere falls with increase in altitude. 40. A tropical cyclone is a rapidly-rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy from the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation. This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the (partial) conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they rarely form within 5 of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 4,000 km (62 and 2,500 mi) in diameter. The term "tropical" refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which usually form over the tropical oceans. The term "cyclone" refers to their cyclonic nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis force. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone Bay of Bengal is in northern hemisphere.
17 41. The Senkaku Islands (also known as the Diaoyu Islands in Mainland China or Tiaoyutai Islands in Taiwan, or the Pinnacle Islands, are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea. They are located roughly due east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. After it was discovered in 1968 that oil reserves might be found under the sea near the islands, Japan's sovereignty over them has been disputed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan) following the transfer of administration from the United States to Japan in The Chinese claim the discovery and control of the islands from the 14th century. Japan controlled the islands from 1895 until its surrender at the end of World War II. The United States administered them as part of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands from 1945 until 1972, when the islands reverted to Japanese control under the Okinawa Reversion Treaty between the United States and Japan. 42. Red soils are mainly formed due to the decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses and from rock types rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium. The term red soil is due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soil. It covers almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, S.E. Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh, parts of Orissa, Jharkhand and Bundelkhand. They are generally deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, but rich in potash.they are suitable for rice, millets, tobacco and vegetables (also groundnuts and potatoes at higher elevations) Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of laterites are dependant on their parent rocks. Laterites consist mainly of quartz, zircon, and oxides of titanium, iron, tin, aluminium and manganese, which remain during the course of weathering. Quartz is the most abundant relic mineral from the parent rock 43. The nuclear industry was dealt a big blow on Friday when two of the most nuclear-friendly countries decided to exit or sharply curb their reliance on the technology following a public opinion backlash after the Fukushima accident in Japan last year.japan, which produced more than 10% of the global nuclear power before Fukushima disaster, joins Germany, Switzerland and Belgium in deciding to shut down their nuclear plants and to spend money on renewable energy instead.japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda announced on Friday his country would pull out of nuclear
18 power by the 2030s and triple the share of renewable sources to 30% of its energy mix."if you were looking at investing in an energy source at the moment, why would you invest in nuclear when you've just seen two major countries turning off their plants?" said Richard George, energy campaigner at Greenpeace. Japan's exit and France's renewed pledge to reduce nuclear power to 50% of its electricity capacity by 2025 sends an anti-nuclear message to countries which have been undecided about what stance to take on the technology.the industry saw a renaissance over the past decade when governments across the globe stepped up efforts to reduce carbon, of which nuclear emits none. 44. V-Shaped Valleys A V-shaped valley, sometimes called a river valley, is a narrow valley with steeply sloped sides that appear similar to the letter "V" from a cross-section. They are formed by strong streams, which over time have cut down into the rock through a process called downcutting. These valleys form in mountainous and/or highland areas with streams in their "youthful" stage. At this stage, streams flow rapidly down steep slopes. An example of a V-shaped valley is the Grand Canyon in the Southwestern United States. After millions of years of erosion, the Colorado River cut through rock of the Colorado Plateau and formed a steep sided canyon V-shaped canyon known today as the Grand Canyon. 45. Sringeri is one of the most celebrated pilgrimage centers in Karnataka, and is home to the Sarada Peetham established by the revered spiritual leader Aadi Sankaracharya. The Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri was built in memory of Guru Vidyashankara or Vidyathirtha by Vidyaranya, with the aid of the Vijayanagar rulers in the 14th century. 46. Folding may be so pronounced that strata are overturned beyond the vertical. In an overturned fold, the beds dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial plane because one of those limbs being rotated through an angle of at least 90º. An extreme example of an overturned fold occurs when the axial plane is horizontal this is called a recumbent fold. (To visualize this concept, place an opened book flat on a table with the spine (hinge) uppermost. Close the book by squeezing the edges toward one another, and then flip the book onto one side. One half of the book (one limb) has rotated through more than 90º.) 47. SERVICES SECTOR : INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON: Interestingly, unlike world services growth, which has been moving in tandem with its overall growth with mild see-saw movements over the years, India s services growth has been consistently above its overall growth in the last decade except for 2003.
19 The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir Robert Chambers, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. 50. Trade with a share of above 15 per cent in India s GDP in the last seven years (16.6 per cent in ) and a CAGR of 9.3 per cent during to , has grown to ` 8,10,585 crore in As per the A.T. Kearney, Global Retail Development Index 2012 report, India ranked at 5 th place remains a high-potential market with accelerated retail market growth of 15 to 20 per cent expected over the next five years.
20 While the overall retail market contributes 14 per cent of India s GDP, organized retail penetration remains low, indicating room for growth. Brazil tops the ranks with retail sales accounting for 70 per cent of Brazil s consumer spending, followed by Chile, China, and Uruguay. In India, the food and beverages segment is seeing increased activity from foreign players, and grocery remains India s largest source of retail sales. 51. Tourism accounts for around 6-7 per cent of global employment (direct and indirect) and 5 per cent of global income as per the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Tourism Highlights 2012 edition. It is one of the largest generators of employment across the world and women account for 70 per cent of the workforce in the travel and tourism industry. Hence it generates more inclusive growth than other sectors. According to the UNWTO, international tourist arrivals surpassed the 1 billion mark for the first time in history in 2012, reaching a figure of 1.04 billion from 996 million in 2011 with 4 per cent growth despite the volatility around the globe, particularly in Europe. 52. Okha is a small coastal town in Jamnagar district of Gujarat state in India. It has a sea port. Okha is famous for its Krishna Temple Bet Dwarka dedicated to Krishna on Bet Dwarka island across a small creek from Okha port. Okha has an automobile-assembly plant. Fishing and salt processing are also industries. Mineral resources in Bastar District Lime Stone, Dolomite, Diamond, Bauxite are main minerals that found in Bastar District. FCI Aravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL) is Government of India undertaking under the Ministry of Chemical & Fertilizers. FAGMIL was earlier a part of Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd., functioning as Jodhpur Mining Organization. It is engaged in Mining & exploration of mineral Gypsum. 53. The Baltic Dry Index (BDI) is a number issued daily by the London-based Baltic Exchange. Not restricted to Baltic Sea countries, the index provides "an assessment of the price of moving the major raw materials by sea. Taking in 23 shipping routes measured on a timecharter basis, the index covers Handysize, Supramax, Panamax, and Capesize dry bulk carriers carrying a range of commodities including coal, iron ore and grain." 54. Real Estate Services and Housing Real estate and dwellings has a share of 5.9 per cent in India s GDP and a growth of 7.2 per cent in The growth of the real estate services in particular has been impressive consistently at over 25 per cent since with 26.3 per cent growth in Housing is a basic necessity for human life and is the second largest generator of employment, next only to agriculture. Housing activities have both forward and backward linkages in nearly 300 sub-sectors such as manufacturing (steel, cement,
21 and builders hardware), transport, electricity, gas and water supply, trade, financial services, and construction which contribute to capital formation, income opportunities, and generation of employment. 55. A Credit Risk Guarantee Fund Trust has been established since 1 May 2012, which will be managed by the NHB, and provide default guarantee for housing loans up to ` 5 lakh sanctioned and disbursed by the lending institutions without any collateral security or third party guarantees and for new borrowers in the EWS/ LIG category in urban areas. The NHB has also floated a joint-venture mortgage guarantee company the India Mortgage Guarantee Corporation Pvt. Ltd which will offer mortgage guarantees against borrower defaults on housing loans from mortgage lenders which will help expand access to housing in India. Renting of residential units has been included in the negative list of services that are exempt from payment of service tax. The Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Ministry launches a new scheme for financing low-income housing Seeking to protect the interests of the poor and marginalised sections of society, the Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation Ministry has launched a unique Credit Risk Guarantee Fund Scheme (CRGFS) for low-income housing. 56. The government has approved the National Policy on Information Technology, which aims to make at least one individual in every household e-literate among other objectives The policy envisages the growth of the IT market to USD 300 billion and creation of additional 10 million employments by 2020, the statement said. Under the policy, government has plans to to create a pool of 10 million additional skilled manpower in ICT. The statement said that one of the thrust areas of the policy will be to enhance transparency, accountability, efficiency, reliability and decentralization in government and in particular, in delivery of public services by using ICT. 57. National Housing Bank has on Monday announced the formation of India's first mortgage guarantee joint venture with three overseas partners -- International Finance Corporation, Asian Development Bank and US-based financial security firm Genworth Financial International Holdings. NHB will have the majority stake with 38% holding while Genworth will hold 36%. IFC and ADB will hold 13% each the company -- the India Mortgage Guarantee Corporation Pvt Ltd. It proposes to start operation with a Rs 120 crore paid up capital once it gets licence from Reserve Bank of India. 58. Legal services: In legal services FDI is not permitted and international law firms are not authorized to advertise and open offices in India. Foreign service providers can neither be appointed as partners nor sign legal documents and represent clients. The
22 Bar Council is opposed to entry of foreign lawyers/law firms in any manner. Indian advocates are not permitted to enter into profit-sharing arrangements with persons other than Indian advocates. 59. The objective of the tidal energy programme is to study, testing and assessment of the potential of tidal energy in the country and to harness it for power generation. Among the various forms of energy contained in the seas and oceans, tidal energy, has been developed on a commercial scale. India has a long coastline with the estuaries and gulfs where tides are strong enough to move turbines for electrical power generation. The Gulf of Cambay and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat on the west coast have the maximum tidal range of 11m and 8m with average tidal range of 6.77m and 5.23m respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sundarbans is approximately 5m with an average tidal range of 2.97m. The identified economic power potential is of the order of 8000 MW with about 7000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay, about 1200 MW in the Gulf of Kachchh in the State of Gujarat and about 100 MW in the Gangetic Delta in the Sunderbans region in the State of West Bengal. The Ministry sanctioned a project for setting up a 3.75 MW demonstration tidal power plant at Durgaduani Creek in Sunderbans, West Bengal to the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency (WBREDA), Kolkata. The National Hydro Power Corporation Ltd. (NHPC) is executing the project on a turnkey basis. The State Government of Gujarat formed a Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) with public private partnership and sponsored a study for large scale exploitation of tidal energy across the coastline of Gujarat. This study is based on one of the advanced technologies developed so for. In this technology kinetic energy of tidal currents has been proposed to be harnessed under the water and along the flow of water and without using the conventional methods like water wheel or other types of turbines. 60. India's estimated coal reserves were about 286 billion tonnes, lignite 41 billion tonnes, crude oil 757 MT, and natural gas 1241 billion cubic metres (BCM). Estimated hydro potential (above 25 MW) is about 145 gigawatts (GW). The total potential for renewable power generation from various sources other than large hydro projects was 89,760 MW. 61. The Ninety East Ridge (also rendered as Ninetyeast Ridge, 90E Ridge or 90 E Ridge) is a linear, age-progressive seamount chain in the Indian Ocean and is named for its near-parallel strike along the 90th meridian. It is approximately 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) in length and can be traced topographically from the Bay of Bengal southward towards the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), though the feature continues to the north where it is hidden beneath the sediments of the Bengal Fan. The ridge extends between latitudes 33 S and 17 N and has an average width of 200 km.
23 62. Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited or "HECLtd." is a Public Sector Undertaking ("PSU") in India. HEC was established in the year 1958 as one of the largest Integrated Engineering Complex in India. It manufactures and supplies capital equipments & machineries and renders project execution required for core sector industries. It has complete manufacturing set up starting from casting & forging, fabrication, machining, assembly and testing - all at one location, Ranchi, backed by a strong design - engineering and technology team. About ICF District Started in 1956, this 53 years old Scouts & Guides organization has registered strength of about 1500 which comprising of ICF employees, their children and dependents. Apprentices and School Children. ICF District Scouts and Guides is functioning as a Unit with in Southern Railway state which has 10 Districts namely Mysore, Bangalore, Palghat, Trichy, GOC, Madurai, ICF, Perambur, Central & Salem. Railways Scouts & Guides have been acknowledged as the best in the country and the Southern Railway State has been known for its quality of Scouting. ICF District has better representation among the other District of Southern Railway. Narora Atomic Power Station is located in Narora, Bulandshahar District in Uttar Pradesh, India. Commercial operation of unit 1 began on 1 January Unit 2 began commercial operation on 1 July Each unit has a capacity of 220 MWe. Narora is situated in the state of Uttar Pradesh and in the district of Bulandshahr. Narora is 68 kilometers from the district headquarters Bulandshahr, 135 km from Meerut. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bhopal invited application for recruitment of 229 various posts. The candidates eligible for the post can apply online in the prescribed format on or before 9 November Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) was established in 1964, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. It is an Indian state-owned integrated power plant equipment manufacturer and operates as an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi. It is engaged in the design, engineering, manufacture, construction, testing, commissioning and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz. Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas and Defence. 63. The Ministry of Power launched an initiative for development of coal-based super critical Ultra Mega Power Projects (UMPP) of about 4000 MW capacity each. Four UMPPs, viz. Sasan in Madhya Pradesh, Mundra in Gujarat, Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and Tilaiya in Jharkhand have already been transferred to the identified developers and are at different stages of implementation. 64. Amini Commission 1776 A revenue commission of inquiry instituted by Governor General Warren Hastings to make an evaluation of India's land resources so that the next revenue settlement could be made fairly. The Quinquennial Settlement (1772-
24 1776), which was based on nilam or auction bids among revenue farmers, proved to be a disastrous failure. A new settlement was due from Warren Hastings instituted a revenue commission to survey (hence the term 'amini') the resource situation and recommend a fair assessment of land revenue for the next settlement. It consisted of two covenanted officers and one native diwan. The two covenanted officers were David Anderson and George Bogle. They worked as commissioners and the native diwan Gangagovind Singh served on the commission as peshkar. The Governor General in Council concurred that a reliable valuation should take place in the revenues, that some diminution should be made, and that the coming settlement should be permanent. The commission was asked to give their concrete recommendations as to how these objects could be achieved. The Amini Commission made the following observations about its survey: i) zamindars had propensity to rack-renting which was not likely to end with the reduction of revenue demand; ii) abolition of one tax was likely to create another and, therefore, raiyats were not likely to benefit from any reduction or abolition of tax; iii) claims for reduction of revenue were made on the ground of river encroachments, new hats and bazaars, usurpation by a neighbouring zamindar but information would not be supplied by the complainants; iv) taking advantage of government ignorance of the state of the affairs, the zamindars were alienating land on a much larger scale than imagined; and v) the revenue was definitely declining ever since the assumption of diwani by the Company. 65. The Meerut Conspiracy Case was a controversial court case initiated in British India in March 1929 and decided in Several trade unionists, including three Englishmen were arrested for organizing an Indian railway strike. The trial immediately caught attention back home in England, inspired the 1932 play titled Meerut, by Manchester street theatre group the 'Red Megaphones', highlighting the detrimental effects of colonisation and industrialisation In more than one way the Meerut Conspiracy case trial helped the Communist Party of India to consolidate its position among workers. Dange along with 32 persons were arrested on or about March 20, 1929 and were put on trial under Section 121A of the Indian Penal Code, which declares: Whoever within or without British India conspires to commit any of the offenses punishable by Section 121 or to deprive the King of the sovereignty of British India or any part thereof, or conspires to overawe, by means of criminal force or the show of criminal force, the Government of India or any local Government, shall be punished with transportation for life, or any shorter term, or with imprisonment of either description which may extend to ten years. 66. Lok Adalat is a system of alternative dispute resolution developed in India. These are usually presided over by retired judges, social activists, or other members of the legal profession.
25 Lok Adalat accepts the cases which could be settled by conciliation and compromise, and pending in the regular courts within their jurisdiction. TYPES OF CASES WHICH CAN BE TAKEN UP THEREIN A Lok Adalat has the jurisdiction to settle, by way of effecting compromise between the parties, any matter which may be pending before any court, as well as matters at prelitigative stage i.e. disputes which have not yet been formally instituted in any Court of Law. Such matters may be civil or criminal in nature, but any matter relating to an offence not compoundable under any law cannot be decided by the Lok Adalat even if the parties involved therein agree to settle the same. 67. To encourage creation of facilities of setting up cold storage and temperature controlled perishable cargo centres through Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, logistic based Public Sector Units i.e. Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR), Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC), Central Railside Warehouse Company Limited (CRWC) were asked to provide Infrastructure at six locations on Indian Railways under a pilot project, the Kisan Vision Project. Out of six locations, Singur (West Bengal) and Nasik (Ojhar in Maharashtra) are in operation. New Jalpaiguri (West Bengal). Dankuni (West Bengal) and New Azadpur (Adrash Nagar, Delhi NCR) are under process and will be completed shortly. Mecheda (West Bengal) being un-remunerative project, not found to be a potential location for establishment of Perishable Cargo Centre. 68. October 2012 January 2013 Rural tele-density in% Urban tele-density in % Overall tele-density in % NTP-2012: 1. Provide secure, affordable, and high-quality telecommunication services to all citizens. 2. Strive to create One Nation-One Licence across services and service areas. 3. Achieve One Nation-Full Mobile Number Portability and work towards One Nation-Free Roaming. 4. Increase rural tele-density from the current level of around 39 to 70 by the year 2017 and 100 by the year Recognize telecom, including broadband connectivity, as a basic necessity like education and health and work towards 'Right to Broadband'. 70. The year 2012 may arguably be considered a high water mark in the field of environment and sustainable development initiatives. The global community met at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development that took place in Rio in June
26 2012, also marking the 20th anniversary of the landmark first Earth Summit held in The Conference reviewed the progress made, identified implementation gaps, and assessed new and emerging challenges, which resulted in a political outcome called the 'The Future We Want'. 71. The major sugarcane crop growing States are: 1. Uttar Pradesh 2. Bihar 3. Assam 4. Haryana 5. Gujarat 6. Maharashtra 7. Karnataka 8. Andhra Pradesh 9. Tamil Nadu The sugar production of sugar is spread across the country. In above States, they are classified into three groups according to its production capacity. They are, the high sugar producing States are Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The second category was the medium sugar producing States. They are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Haryana. The remaining States are low sugar producing States. They were Bihar and Assam. 72. Celebration of Water Conservation Day on 19th November 2012 National Integration Day is celebrated on 19th November to mark the birth anniversary of late Mrs Indira Gandhi, the 1st woman Prime Minister of India. On this occasion Union Ministry of Water Resources has decided to celebrate Water Conservation Day" on 19th November 2012 to create awareness regarding concern about depleting water resources & its vision for the water underlining the Ministry s commitment to be an active contributor to the sustainability of this very important natural resource. 73. Amarkantak (The one with the voice of God) is a pilgrim town and a nagar panchayat in Anuppur District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Also called "Teerthraj" (the king of pilgrimages), Amarkantak region is a unique natural heritage area and is the meeting point of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras, with the Maikal Hills being the fulcrum. 74. All Lakshadweep islands are of coral origin and some of them like Minicoy, Kalpeni, Kadmat, Kiltan and Chetlat are typical atolls. The coral reefs of the islands are mainly atolls except one platform reef of Androth. The height of the land above the sea level is about 1-2 metres. The continental shelf off the west coast of India is divided into four sedimentary basins, namely Kutch, Bombay, Konkan and Kerala Offshore Basins. The boundaries of these basins are broadly denned by transverse ridge-type structural features.
27 In the Kutch Offshore Basin, Mesozoic strata are confined to the eastern part of the shelf. Tertiary sediments are relatively thin in the eastern part and thicken towards the west across a hinge zone. A few drape structures are noted in the Mesozoic rocks. The Bombay Offshore Basin has only a Tertiary fill with Eocene strata absent on the Bombay High structural uplift. West of the uplift, the Paleogene and Miocene are represented by a thick sequence of limestones and thin shales which are poor in source rock characters. In the southeast, along the Bassein structural trend, the Paleogene consists of limestone and shale. In the northeast, the Paleogene is represented by thick shales, which are considered to be source rocks for the Bombay High (Miocene oil accumulation), Bassein and B-38 fields (Paleogene oil accumulation). The structures of the fields are formed by faulting within the Deccan Trap basement and subsequent rejuvenation. Far to the west of the Bombay High uplift, the Paleogene and Neogene consist of a thick sequence of fine elastics in the shelf margin sedimentary sink. In the Kerala and Konkan Offshore Basins, Tertiary strata thicken across the hinge zones located within the continental shelf and extend westwards beyond the shelf. Carbonates may be predominant in the Konkan Offshore Basin, whereas coarse elastics above basaltic sills form the section of the Kerala Offshore Basin. While several carbonate build-up features with drape structures are noted in the Konkan Basin, beyond the continental shelf; gently folded structural features only are noted in the shelf of Kerala Basin. 75. Dhanush, the India s 350 km range Surface-to-Surface ballistic missile was successfully launched on 5th October at 11:25 A.M from a naval ship off the coast of Balasore, Odisha. The missile was launched by India s strategic forces command. It was a text book launch meeting all the mission objectives. Dhanush, developed by DRDO, is India s short range (350 km range) strategic ballistic missile capable of being launched from naval ships. 76. The Minister for Rural Development and Drinking Water and Sanitation Shri Jairam Ramesh said here that India will be an open defecation free country in the next ten years and sanitation issue should become a national obsession. Talking about the Nirmal Bharat Yatra to be launched from Wardha on 3rd of October, he said in the presence of Actress and Sanitation Ambassador Vidya Balan, it is an epic journey of 56 days across 5 states spanning nearly 2,000 kilometers and will target over 9 crore people to spread awareness about sanitation. 77. Bajra is the fifth most important cereal crop in India. It is grown in around 40 countries around the world India is the largest producer of Bajra in the world. The other major producing countries are Senegal, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan. Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third most
28 important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu. Apart from these states, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh are also important for the production of ragi. 78. The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper "Variability and Mutability" The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example levels of income). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has an exactly equal income). A Gini coefficient of one (100 on the percentile scale) expresses maximal inequality among values (for example where only one person has all the income). For India, the income Gini coefficient was 36.8 in India has three cropping seasons rabi, kharif and zaid. Zaid: In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Some of the crops produced during zaid are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops. 80. In 2011, Kerala has the highest sex ratio with 1084 females per 1000 males, followed by Tamil Nadu (995), while Haryana is at the bottom (877). Interestingly, the sex-ratios in some of the developed states like Gujarat and Maharashtra are also low at 918 and 925 respectively. 81. Rabi: Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. Though, these crops are grown in large parts of India, states from the north and northwestern parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh are important for the production of wheat and other rabi crops. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops. However, the success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the above mentioned rabi crops. 82.
29 83. The poverty estimates indicate that the highest poverty headcount ratio (HCR) exists in Bihar at 53.5 per cent as against the national average of 29.8 per cent. In compared to , Bihar has displaced Odisha as the poorest state with Odisha's situation improving considerably in Lowest poverty is in Himachal Pradesh (9.5 per cent) followed by Kerala (12 per cent). 84. Kerala is the best performer in terms of life expectancy at birth for both males (71.5 years) and females (76.9 years) whereas Assam is the worst performer for both males (61 years) and females (63.2 years) during Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national average of Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. Our country is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25 C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan. 86. In 1934, Jayaprakash and his friends formed the Congress Socialist Party under the Presidentship of Acharya Narendra Deva and Secretaryship of Jayaprakash himself. The group intended to function as the Socialist wing within the Congress party and aimed to make socialism the goal of the Congress. In a book Why Socialism? (1932), Jayaprakash explained why socialism would be right for India. He was adored by the youth for his idealism. 87. Oil Seeds: India is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world. Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of the country. Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. However, some of these are also used as raw material