Spatial Analysis of Natural Hazard and Climate Change Risks in Peri-Urban Expansion Areas of Dakar, Senegal

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1 1 Spatial Analysis of Natural Hazard and Climate Change Risks in Peri-Urban Expansion Areas of Dakar, Senegal URBAN WEEK 2009 BBL Preston Lounge Thursday, March 12, 2009 Christian Hoffmann GeoVille group

2 2 Content 1) Conceptual study framework 2) Natural & climate change related hazards 3) Map generation 4) Spatial analysis 5) Conclusion

3 3 Conceptual study framework How much safe building land is available? Where are the people moving to? Which areas are at risk? What is the value of land affected by natural hazards? Copyrights: GeoVille study for World Bank;

4 4 Conceptual study framework Background Massive rural-urban migration flow into Greater Dakar, due to deteriorating climate and soil conditions for agriculture Rapid population growth leading to uncontrolled peri-urban expansion & heavy pressure on peri-urban areas High proportion of new urban settlements is on sites at risk due to natural and climate change related hazards Need for better preparedness in managing urban expansion - strengthening resilience of local urban authorities

5 5 Conceptual study framework Project objectives Spatial Analysis of Natural Hazard and Climate Change Risks Develop a generic methodology supporting urban growth analysis related to natural hazards and climate change risks Monitoring Peri-urban expansion Risk diagnostics Enable comparison of peri-urban expansion areas of major cities on a continental level Establish a geographic information base employing timeseries satellite, socio-economic and other geospatial data

6 Slide 5 P1 PERI-urban expansion PCI, 01/19/2009

7 6 Conceptual study framework Study scope & limitations Generic study concept addresses all pertinent hazards for Dakar Limitation: for spatial analysis only selected hazards are considered (flooding, coastal erosion, sea level rise) Approach at an intermediate scale can be applied to any other city at reasonable costs (given respective input data) Limitation: Consideration of local phenomena (e.g. ground subsidence) requires local expertise as well as additional input data and analysis Estimation of the spatial distribution of relative hazard potentials Limitation: no absolute damage-frequency relationships & probabilities and their spatial differentiation can be derived Focus is on exposure-related information Limitation: vulnerabililty is only approximated by spatial indicators and inferred from hot-spots of exposure Social & economic exposure/vulnerability as key topics Limitation: no information on ecologic & institutional vulnerability and resilience (e.g. protection measures by local authorities) is provided

8 7 Conceptual study framework Conceptual study framework Definition of risk by the UNDP, 2004: The probability of harmful consequences resulting from interactions between natural or human induced hazards and vulnerable condition. Risk as a function of - Hazard (=potentially damaging event) - Vulnerability (=susceptibility of a community) - Exposure (=quantity of exposed elements) - Resilience (=strategies for relief and recovery) Source: Thywissen 2006

9 8 2 Natural and climate change related hazards in Dakar Natural and Climate Change related Hazards in Dakar Drivers: natural setting / migration / climate change / Drought Flooding Coastal erosion Sea level rise

10 9 3 Map Generation Geospatial information on urban extent and land uses Geospatial information on urban extent and land uses & other non-built-up urban areas

11 10 3 Map Generation Geospatial information on urban extent and land uses Close-up views of landuse map 2008 & other non-built-up urban areas Remark: Mapping of roads if covered with asphalt and width larger than 10m

12 11 3 Map Generation / 1999 / Geospatial information on urban expansion and land use changes 2008 & other non-built-up urban areas

13 12 3 Map Generation Geospatial mappingof the different hazards

14 13 3 Map Generation Geospatial mappingof multiple hazards Relative Flood Potential (RFP) Coastal Erosion Potential (CEP) Coastal Inundation Potential (CIP)

15 14 3 Map Generation Comparison of census-based and spatially disaggregated population distribution population per department statistics disaggregated population density per 250m Grid cell (2008) Dakar Population No Population 50 and below inh/h inh/ha inh/ha inh/ha Above 500 inh/ha

16 15 3 Map Generation 3 dimensional population on grid level Copyrights: GeoVille study for World Bank;

17 16 4 Spatial analysis selected results Dakar Land use change statistics Dakar Land use change statistics Area in km² Change in km² Change in % Thematic classes Residential areas Non residential urban areas * Transport units Green & other non-built-up urban areas Forests Water Agricultural and other open non-urban land * Comprises all industrial / commercial areas incl. water supply infrastructure, construction & mineral extraction sites

18 17 Rate of Urban Development in Dakar s Metropolitan Area 4 Spatial analysis km² Development of Built-up area ,0% +9,6% ,4% +12,2% ,4% +14,3% Year urban peri-urban rural Share of built-up area % Urban communes 23% 77% Peri-urban communes 55% Rural communes 6% 77% of of the land in in Greater Dakar s urban communes are built-up The built-up areain in Dakar s peri-urban and rural communes increases with a growth rate of of >1% p.a. 94% Total area built-up Total area non-built-up

19 18 4 Spatial analysis Population Growth vs Urban Development Population development Population and urban development Index (1988 = 100%) Year Population (urban) Population (peri-urban) Population (rural) Built-up area (urban) Built-up area (peri-urban) Built-up area (rural) Rate of population growth (+74%) is significantly higher than urban area expansion (+23%)

20 19 4 Spatial analysis Population Growth & Social Vulnerability Hot-spots of social vulnerabilty since 1999 Population growth in risk zones 100,0% 90,0% 80,0% 70,0% 60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% Hot-spot of population increase in high risk zones 20,0% 10,0% 0,0% Urban Peri-urban Rural Dakar (average) Population growth in areas with low or no hazard potential Population growth in areas with high/moderate hazard potential Peri-Urban Areas : 40% of the newcommers have settled in areas with significant hazard potential

21 20 4 Spatial analysis Potential expansion areas exposed to risk Urban communes (Open land: 23,78 km² = 23%) Peri-urban communes (Open land: 44,74 km² =45%) Rural communes (Open land: 357,79 km² =94%) High Risk 91% 9% 4% 3% 2% High Risk 83% 17% 10% 7% 0% 93% High Risk 7% 5% 1% 1% Non-built-up area (high RFP) Non-built-up area (high CEP) Non-built-up area (high CIP) Non-built-up area (no hazard potential) 17% of the open land in Dakar s peri-urban communes is exposed to high risk

22 21 4 Spatial analysis Land Price Values & Economic Vulnerability Land price values exposed to high risk in Mio USD. All land price values are based on estimations provided by World Bank Country Office in Senegal. The Dakar Metropolitan region represents a total land valueof 44 billion USD 4,9% of of this land value, i.e billion USD, areat at high risk

23 22 4 Spatial analysis Land Price Values & Economic Vulnerability Relative Flood Potential Urban Peri-urban Rural Coastal Erosion Potential <400 Mio USD Mio USD Coastal Inundation Potential Mio USD C Coastal Erosion Potential Rural areas most affected - $1.030 billion USD Land price values exposed to high risk in Mio USD. All land price values are based on estimations provided by World Bank Country Office in Senegal.

24 23 Conclusion How much safe building land is available? Which areas are at risk? Where are the people moving to? What is the value of land affected by natural hazards? Copyrights: GeoVille study for World Bank;

25 24 Conclusion Generic concept for peri-urban monitoring & risk diagnostics - applicable for other African cities Validated, modular and expandable information base for better management & planning of future expansion Spatial dimension makes trends visible "at-a-glance. This can assist effective policy formulation, leading to improving preparedness of local urban authorities strengthening the resilience of local communities

26 25 Thank you for your attention Dr. Christian Hoffmann +43 (0)

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