DESIGNEE OF WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURES FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: A MODEL STUDY FROM CHELILA WATERSHED, BHUTAN

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2017, pp , Article ID: IJMET_08_10_073 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed DESIGNEE OF WATER HARVESTING STRUCTURES FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: A MODEL STUDY FROM CHELILA WATERSHED, BHUTAN SS.Asadi Associate Dean Academics & Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (D.t), A.P, India N.Vijay Kumar Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (D.t), A.P, India K. Rajyalakshmi Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, KL University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (D.t), A.P, India M. Satish Kumar Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Kallam Haranadha Reddy Institute of Technology, Guntur (D.t) A.P, India. ABSTRACT Woochu water shed area is located at the slope ranging from gentle slope to very steep slope where there is no potential of exploring ground water. Due to the mountainous and steep terrain of the country, most of the rainfall immediately flows as surface runoff despite the significant vegetation cover and adequate annul rain fall. While water resources are seemingly abundant with the stream flowing through the middle of the catchment area, there have come signs of water scarcity as more people put increasing pressure on the scarce and erratic waters for irrigation and drinking purposes. A significant portion of the agricultural lands depend on the seasonal rainfall due to there is no proper conservation of runoff during seasonal.and more over this area being located in the hills, the stream flowing in deep gorges joining with main river PA CHHU is out of reach and the lack of flat terrain also limits the utilization of water for irrigation. In this connection by adopting Remote Sensing Technologies and GIS tools The study area is Woochu, Paro District, Bhutan laying between Longitude: 89º20 to 89º26 E Latitude: 27º21 30 to 27º24 30 N covering the Survey of Bhutan Toposheet no 78E/7 with scale 1:50000 and Multi-Spectral imageries from Land sat 7 (TM), RADAR (SRTM) data and IRS-1D, LISS-III

2 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar geocoded Satellite data are acquired as primary and secondary data for analysis. Interpretation techniques are used to identify the drainage and preparation of different thematic maps by applying both pre- interpretation, ground truth and post visual interpretation technique. The interpreted maps Topology is created by linking the spatial data file and attribute data file identified suitable water harvesting structures connection sites and prepared designees for water resources management to meet the feature requirements. Keywords: water harvesting structures, thematic maps, designee of structures, Remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS). Cite this Article: SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar, Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 8(10), 2017, pp INTRODUCTION In recent years the advancement in satellite and computer technology along with different models and basis. Some of the parameters are we can abstract the attributed datas for the required applications with the help of RS and GIS softwares that will immensely benefit for proper determination of of it leads to a proper quantification of the catchment water balanc components and thereby proper assement of the hydrologic behaviors of the catchment. In this study, study of run off from sub watershed catchment of Woo-chu area located in Paro Distrct, Bhutan has been assessed using catchment water balance method. This component of water balance were derived using ground based data collected from concerned offices. While the sattelite images were used for derivation of various components for preparation of base map, interipatation and analysis.woochu water shed area is located at the slope ranging from gentle slope to very steep slope where there is no potential of exploring ground water. Due to the mountainous and steep terrain of the country, most of the rainfall immediately flows as surface runoff despite the significant vegetation cover and adequate annul rain fall. While water resources are seemingly abundant with the stream flowing through the middle of the catchment area, there have come signs of water scarcity as more people put increasing pressure on the scarce and erratic waters for irrigation and drinking purposes. A significant portion of the agricultural lands depend on the seasonal rainfall due to there is no proper conservation of runoff (excess water) during seasonal and more over this area being located in the hills, the stream flowing in deep gorges joining with main river PA CHHU is out of reach and the lack of flat terrain also limits the utilization of water for irrigation 1.1 Description of Study Area Woochu watershed is located in Luni Geog under Paro Dzongkhag (refer Fig.1). The watershed extends from Pa Chhu in the east to Chelela in the west and the Paro Haa highway passes through the watershed. The watershed is located between 27º 22 6 and 27º N and between 91º and 91º E. The survey area covers about 2810ha (about acres). Figure 1 Location map of Study Area

3 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan The study area stretches from an altitude of about 2240m asl (above sea level) near the Pa Chhu to about 3910m asl, which is about 2.0km NW upslope along the ridge of Chelela Pass. It falls within a wide range of climatic zones, stretching from warm temperate to sub-alpine. The survey area has approximately equal cover of cool and cold temperate zones, with broadleaf forest as the dominant natural vegetation along the later stages of Jew Rongchhu and coniferous forest on the surrounding hill slopes. The survey area has predominantly southerly and northerly aspect. 2. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Basically the main objective of the study is to do water designee of water harvesting structures study of a particular catchment. calculate all water resource available and then come out with plan and strategy to make the maximum possible use of that water resources. Following are the objective of our research: 1. To extract and understand the topographical characteristics of the study area for effective management and future development (Preparation of thematic maps using RS and GIS). 2. To identify suitable sites for construction of water harvesting structures 3. To designee the water harvesting structures in the study area for sustainable management of water resource 3. METHODOLOGY The two types of data products are spatial data and non-spatial/attribute data. The spatial data comprised of drainage, base details, slope maps. The non-spatial or attribute data is composed of rainfall, geology, topography, climate, soil data and cropping pattern and crop water requirement in Bhutan, all those had been collected from the various departments. In this study the steps involved in deriving all these data products, the sources of the data acquisition and the ways transforming these data products which are suitable to GIS software are discussed Data Collection The GIS data used in this study are classified as Topographical data, Thematic data, Field data, Collateral data. The topographical and thematic data are classified as spatial data and the field data and collateral data as attribute data. The details of these types of data products are discussed below

4 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar Spatial data: The spatial is derived from satellite sensing system and survey of Bhutan topo-sheets. Survey of Bhutan topo-sheets are 78E/7 on 1:50,000 scale. Figure 2 Figure 3 LAND SAT data 3.2. Collateral Data The collateral data is acquired from various offices of the Government Organizations in Bhutan like Department of Agriculture, Meteorology Department, Survey of Bhutan and National Soil Service Center, MoAF, Bhutan. In the present study four different sources are used to collect the required data. The four sources are remote sensing satellite systems, survey of Bhutan topo-sheets, related Government and private agencies for existing data products and field surveys for collection of primary data products. In transforming this raw data to data compatible to GIS, care is taken for appropriate level of data precision and accuracy. Building Digital Database: The database development consumes substantial resources particularly, in the initial stages of system development. The geographic information databases are developed from multiple sources and by a variety of methods, namely, digitization, scanning and automated digitization, coordinate geometry (COGO), remote sensing, SOB topo maps and other sources. Data Creation: In GIS, topology is the term used to describe the geometric characteristic of objects, which do not change under transformations and are independent of any coordinate system. The topological characteristics of an object are also independent of scale of measurement. Topology as it relates to spatial data and non-spatial data consists of three elements, namely adjacency, containment and connectivity. Broadly, topology can be explained in two ways. Topology consists of metric aspects of spatial relations, such as size, shape, distance and direction. Many spatial relations between objects are topological in nature, including adjacency, containment and overlap. The geometric relationship between spatial entities and corresponding attributes are very crucial for spatial analysis and integration in GIS. In topology creation both the spatial and attribute data are linked from

5 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan which different parameter maps are generated. These maps depict the special distribution of non-spatial information on spatial locations. Digital Thematic Mapping: Using the image interpretation key, preliminary interpretation of satellite imagery is carried by transferring the features from base map on to the transparency. This transparency with base line data feature is then overlaid on the satellite imagery. Then the features of thematic maps are extracted and transferred from the satellite pictorial data. Data Integration: The work schedule gives the following principle steps involved. 1) Collection of toposheet from survey of Bhutan(1:50,000 scale) 2) Data from satellite imagery(land SAT) obtained from NRSA. 3) Delineation of the study area and conversion of raster data into vector data. 4) Preparation of thematic maps with the help of secondary data and primary data. 5) The above data is then exported to ARC GIS /INFO and further processed in ArcView GIS software to create digital database for subsequent data analysis. 6) Study of the thematic maps and their application in obtaining values for designee of water harvesting structures in this study area. Figure 4 Methodology flow chart

6 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Estimation of Runoff The surface runoff for the last sixteen years in the study area was estimated. The Runoff estimations were based on the SCS method. It was found that the average annual surface runoff yield for the last sixteen years in Woochu watershed is equal to ( m3), which represents 7.01 % of the total annual rainfall ( m3). The runoff in Woochu watershed resulting from a given precipitation and Antecedent Moisture Condition II can be estimated using an appropriate curve number as shown in Figure. Figure 5 The curve number Map for Woochu watershed Table 1 Annual summary rainfall & runoff Name of Area Rainfall (m 3 ) Run off (m 3 ) Woochu Chundu Tajosa Jiphu Nashi Changna Zarchu Gangulu Kila Chelila Figure 6 Pie chart showing annual rainfall

7 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan Sl no Figure 7 Pie chart showing annual runoff 4.2 Eva transpiration In order to calculate Eva transpiration The most important parameters in estimating ET0, are temperature and solar radiation. Original Hargreaves equation (Hansen et al, 1979) resulted in a simplified equation which requires only temperature and latitude according to The simplified equation is: ET0 = (KT)(Ra)(TD)1/2(TC+17.8) Where TD = Tmax-Tmin ( C), and TC is the average daily temperature ( C). Equation 1 explicitly accounts for solar radiation and temperature. Although relative humidity is not explicitly contained in the equation, it is implicitly present in the difference in maximum and minimum temperature. The temperature difference (TD) is linearly related to relative humidity. Equation 1 has been successfully used in some locations for estimating ET0 where sufficient data were not available to use other methods. Even though equation 3.10 does not account for advection, it has been successfully used even in adventive conditions when calibrated against wind data. KT = (TD) TD The relationship shows that KT itself is a function of temperature difference. As temperature difference decreases, the KT changes from a low value of 0.13 to a high value of 0.24 Ra is directly brought from the given spatial distribution map TD=Tmax-Tmin(0C), TC is the average daily temperature (oc), KT = (TD) TD , ETo=Evatranspiration and Ra= extraterrestrial radiation Month Mean max. Temp. (ºC) Table 2 Monthly Evatranspiration Mean min. Temp. (ºC) TD TC Ra(mm/ day) KT ETo(mm) 1 Jan Feb Mar Apr May

8 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar 6 Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Design Work Design of Counter Bunding The bunds act as barriers to the flow of water and at the same time impound water to build up soil moisture storage. The spacing of bunds is so arranged that the flowing water is intercepted before it attains the erosive velocity. The spacing is increased by 25% highly permeable soil and decreased by 15% in poorly permeable soil. If leveling is not economical, deviation of 10cm for crossing the ridges and 20cm for crossing the depressions. For narrow bunds the top width is 50cm, height is 80cm and side slopes of 1:1 Spacing of Bund Where; VI = Vertical interval S = Slope or % Horizontal Spacing = 0.7m Where; HI = Horizontal interval Depth of impounding = 70m Where; H = Depth of impounding in front of the bund(m) Re = 24 hours rainfall excess (cm) for 10 years recurrence interval. VI = Vertical Interval Where Re is from BARROW S Table i.e. Re = 10% (733) H =

9 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan Height of Bund H = Where; L = Horizontal Interval between two consecutive bund (m) S = Slope of the Land H = Top width of bund T = T = top width of bund T = No. of waste weirs Roof Water Harvesting In our study area it s obvious that the crop water requirement is not sufficient during the winter season, especially for the winter cropping. The peak season for rain fall occurs during the month of June to August as per the Metrological Department and this water is being loss in the form of runoff. In order to harvest and store the water for the winter cropping it was found feasible to store the water during peak season of rainfall and it can be used later for irrigating winter cropping as well as it can be used for domestic purposes also. Following are the design of Roof water harvesting system taking one of the typical houses located in the study area. Quantity of water from roof top harvesting Where; Y = Yield of the roof top harvesting F = Run off coefficient R = Rainfall in mm (day) Run off Coefficient Uncovered Uncovered A house has a sloping roof of GI sheet with an area of m 2. The rainfall for the last 16 years is as below and roof top harvesting system is designed. Average rainfall = mm

10 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar = 0.297m 3 /day Gutter design (Figure 8) Available water = m 3 = lit. Maximum rate of runoff from roof on either side = (10x60.705x0.9)/(1000x3600) = 1.52x10-4 m 3 /sec = l/sec Provide a minimum slope of the collector channel of 5mm in length of 10m i.e in 1:200 Q = 0.152l/sec Design the section of channel/collector Q = A x V, Design of Base for tank V = (t x n x q) + et Where et = 0 V = (90x5x40) + 0 = litres or 18m 3 Total weight of the water = tones Dead weight of the tank and cover (L.S) = 0.30 tones Total = tones Where; V = Volume of the tank T = Length of day season (days) N = Number of people using the tank Q = Consumption per capita per day (lit.) Et = Evaporation loss during the day period. Assuring bearing capacity of soil = 10 tones/m 2 Area of foundation = m 2 Providing a maximum width of 0.60m for foundation Total area of foundation tone - = 4.12m 2 Providing 0.6m wide circular foundation in cement concrete 1:3:6, 75mm thick Depth of foundation 900mm below ground level

11 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan Design of Check Dam The most applied engineering measure is the check dam. Forces acting on a check-dam depend on design and type of construction material. Non-porous dams with no weak holes, such as those built with concrete and steel sheet, receive a strong impact from the dynamic and hydrostatic forces of flow. These forces require strong anchoring of the dam into the gully banks to which much of the pressure is transmitted. (Figure 9) Given data Catchment area = sq. km(5.44 sq.mile) Nature of Catchment = Good Catchment Average annual rainfall = mm Max annual rainfall=264.3 mm 65 percent dependable rainfall = mm Gauge-Discharge Table Yield from Catchment From Strange's Table Yield/sq. km for mm rainfall is percent of rainfall = 0.35 MCM Yield from the catchment = = MCM Discharge Table 3 Water Level

12 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar Design Flood Where a formula applicable to a given situation is available viz. Dicken s or Ryve s formula Assuming that following Dicken s formula is available Q = 1000 A¾ Q = 1000 (5.44)3/4 = 3562 cusecs = cumecs Design of Sharp Crested Weir Discharge, Q = 1.84 (L KnH) H3/2 Where, L = Length of weir K = Coefficient of end contraction (adopted 0.1) n = Number of end contractions (in this case = 2) H = Total head over spillway crest Q = Discharge Providing a total head (including velocity head of 0.05) = 1.05 m = 1.84 (L ) 1.053/2 = 1.84 (L 0.21) L = m Say 52m 100.9cumecs q Discharge intensity, 52 = 1.94 cumecs Normal Scour depth, R = 1.35 ( )1/3 1/ R 1.35 f = 2.09m Assuming, f = 1 R = 2.09 m below the maximum flood level Computed flood level at weir site corresponding to the design discharge of 100.9cumecs is 98.21m Keeping the crest level = m Maximum water level = = m Thus, there will be a net flood lift of ( ) i.e m at the weir site Depth of downstream cutoff = 1.5 R = = 3.13 m Desired R.L. of cut off = = m Average bed level of deep channel is m Providing a minimum depth of 1 m for cutoff Actual R.L. of cutoff = = (against the desired level of 96.12) Design of Check dam Design flood = cumecs Length of weir = 50 m Height of weir above the bed = = 0.30 m Provide a length of 50.00m and provide height of check dam 3.20 m

13 Designee of Water Harvesting Structures for Water Resources Management: A Model Study from Chelila Watershed, Bhutan REFERENCES: Figure 10 Cross Section for Check Dam [1] Gyamtsho, Pema. Assessment of the Condition and Potential for Improvement of High Altitude Rangelands of Bhutan. A dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich [2] Kunzang Choden, Forest structural change and Human use of Natural Resources along the altitudinal of Woochu watershed area, Paro, Bhutan [3] Vidula Arun Swami, Sushma Shakhar Kulkani, Watershed Management- A means of sustainable Development A case study, Civil Engg. Dept. KIT s College of Engineering Gokul Shirgaon, Vol. 3 No.3, March 2011: [4] Yassir Arafit M.N, Watershed Management for Asifabad and Taluks, Adilabad district, Karnataka Applied Engineering Research Vol I No : [5] Hydrology and Watershed Management III by C.Saraha et.al, BS Publication,Text Book [6] Malika Chauhan, A perspective of watershed Development in the central Himalaya state of Uttarakhand, India National Institute of Ecology, New Delhi, [7] John Kerr, Watershed management: Lesson from Common Property Theory, Department of Community, Recreation Studies Michigan State University, Vol I No. I Oct : [8] A. Sadoddin, V. Sheikh, R. Mostafazadeh, M. Gh. Hslili, Analysis of vegetation-based management scenarios in Raman watershed, Golestan, Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, Iran, 2010: [9] Engineering Hydrology by CSP Ojaha-R. Berndisson & P.Bhunya[Text Book] [10] SS. Asadi, Padmaja Vuppala, K. Santosh Kumar and M. Anji Reddy, Evaluation and Mapping of Groundwater Prospects Zone Usingremote Sensing and Geographical Information System Jour. of Geophysics, January-April-July & October 2009,Vol. XXX No.1-4, pp 63 to 7. [11] SS. Asadi, A. K. Vuppaladadiyam, M. V. Raju, T. Lakshmi Prasad, Assessment of Hydrogeological Characteristics Using Remote Sensing & GIS: A Model Study From Guntur (Dt), A. P. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences ISSN Volume 10, Number 2 (2015), pp

14 SS.Asadi, N.Vijay Kumar, K. Rajyalakshmi and M. Satish Kumar [12] SS.Asadi, Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Yettapu Sai Sruthi, Sanjay Yadav, Gauri Shankar Sah Land Sliding Zones Identification Using Remote Sensing And Gis: A Model Study From Pokhara To Kurintar, Prithvi Highway, Nepal International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN Volume 10, Number 8 (2015) pp [13] SS. Asadi, B. Harish kumar, M. Sumanth, P. Sarath Chandra, T. Eswar Rao, Evaluation of soil quality using Geospatial technology, International Journal of Applied Chemistry. ISSN Volume 12, Number 1 (2016) pp [14] SS.Asadi, P. Neela Rani, B.V.T.Vasantha Rao and M.V.Raju, Estimation of Ground Water Potantial Zones Using Remote Sensing and Gis: A Model Study, International Journal Of Advanced Scientific Research And Technology Issue 2, Volume 2 (April 2012) ISSN: [15] K. Pavan Kumar and B Sri Muruganandam, Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Potential for a Part of Chandigarh, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(9), 2017, pp [16] Mohammad M J, Sai Charan G, Ravindranath R, Reddy YV and Altaf SK, Design, Construction and Evaluation of Rain Water Harvesting System For SBIT Engineering College, Khammam, Telangana. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp [17] Mohammad M J, Ravi Kumar T, Sashidhar Reddy P, Prathyusha P, Ashok P, Kiran T and Varaprasad YKL, Rain Water Harvesting System for Domestic Use in SBIT Engineering College, Khammam, Telangana. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp [18] Mohammad M J, Ramyasree G, Swarooparani CH, Krishnaveni T, Deepika P R and Sairam J, Role of Rain Water Harvesting In Artificial Recharge of Ground Water, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2017, pp

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