Oracle Spatial Koordinatni sustavi, projekcije i transformacije. Dalibor Kušić, mag. ing. listopad 2010.

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1 Oracle Spatial Koordinatni sustavi, projekcije i transformacije Dalibor Kušić, mag. ing. listopad 2010.

2 Pregled Uvod Koordinatni sustavi Transformacije Projekcije Modeliranje 00:25 Oracle Spatial 2

3 Uvod Longley (2005):...atomic element of geographic information: a triple of location, optionally time, and attribute. Atribut Lokacija Geokodiranje nazivi mjesta, poštanske adrese, poštanski brojevi, koordinatni sustavi, linearno referenciranje, itd... 00:25 Oracle Spatial 3

4 Koordinatni sustavi Sustav unutar kojega set koordinata jedinstveno određuje položaj točke u prostoru (u odnosu na nekakvu referencu) Kako primijeniti na površinu Zemlje? 00:25 Oracle Spatial 4

5 Koordinatni sustavi Pravi oblik Zemlje? (iz perspektive GIS-a) Sfera Elipsoid Geoid Litosfera (topografija) 00:25 Oracle Spatial 5

6 Koordinatni sustavi Elispoidalni koordinatni sustav Horizontalna lokacija: geografska širina (φ) i dužina (λ) 00:25 Oracle Spatial 6

7 Koordinatni sustavi Problemi: 1. Koji elipsoid koristiti? a. Povijesni nastao mjerenjima na tlu (Bessel 1841) b. Moderni nastao satelitskim mjerenjima (WGS84, GRS80) 2. Gdje ga smjestiti (u odnosu na Zemlju?) a. U središte mase (WGS84, GRS80) b. S pomakom radi bolje lokalne aproksimacije (Bessel 1841) Položajni datum 00:25 Oracle Spatial 7

8 Koordinatni sustavi Problemi: 3. Visina? 00:25 Oracle Spatial 8

9 Koordinatni sustavi Geografski referentni koordinatni sustav Set koordinata Elipsoidalne, kartezijske, sferične, cilindrične... Datum Elipsoid (GRS80, WGS84, itd...) Položaj u odnosu na Zemlju (geocentrični ili lokalni) Početni meridijan Obično Greenwich Mjerna jedinica Stupnjevi, minute, radijani, itd... 00:25 Oracle Spatial 9

10 Koordinatni sustavi Geografski referentni koordinatni sustav MGI Baziran na lokaliziranom Besselovom elipsoidu HTRS96 Baziran na ETRS89 i GRS80 elipsoidu WGS84 00:25 Oracle Spatial 10

11 Koordinatni sustavi Izbor krivog Datuma? 00:25 Oracle Spatial 11

12 Koordinatni sustavi Izbor krivog Datuma? 00:25 Oracle Spatial 12

13 Transformacije Promjena iz jednog referentnog koordinatnog sustava u drugi Metode Računske (Bursa-Wolf, Molodensky, itd...) Bazirane na matricama 00:25 Oracle Spatial 13

14 Transformacije Bursa-Wolf metoda Coordinate frame rotation transformation, Position vector transformation 7 parametara: Rotacija (Rx, Ry, Rz) Pozitivni smjer rotacije varira Translacija (dx, dy, dz) Skaliranje (s) u dx v = dy (1 s) Rz w dz Ry Rz 1 Rx Ry x Rx y 1 z 00:25 Oracle Spatial 14

15 Transformacije Bursa-Wolf metoda 00:25 Oracle Spatial 15

16 Projekcije Kako prikazati trodimenzionalni elipsoid na ravnoj plohi? 00:25 Oracle Spatial 16

17 Projekcije Translacija 3D prostora u 2D 00:25 Oracle Spatial 17

18 Projekcije Neizostavno degradiraju prostorna svojstva promatranog područja Oblik Površinu Udaljenosti Azimut Projekcije obično održavaju 2 ili 3 svojstva no niti jedna sve! 00:25 Oracle Spatial 18

19 Projekcije Plate Carrée Najjednostavnija Meridijani i paralele se mapiraju u jednako razmaknute vertikalne i horizontalne linije X = λcos φ 1 (φ 1 = 0 u općem slučaju) Y = φ Značajne distorzije sa udaljavanjem od početne paralele 00:25 Oracle Spatial 19

20 Projekcije Plate Carrée 00:25 Oracle Spatial 20

21 Projekcije Neke od standardnih projekcija Planarna Konusna Cilindrična 00:25 Oracle Spatial 21

22 Projekcije Što je sa visinom (ponovno)? Elipsoidna visina vezanog položajnog datuma Drugi modeli Geoid - ekvipotencijalna ploha Zemljinog gravitacijskog polja Geoid Visinski datum referentni model za određivanje visine značajki 00:25 Oracle Spatial 22

23 Projekcije Što je sa visinom (ponovno)? RH H h 44m undulacija geoida 00:25 Oracle Spatial 23

24 Model koordinatnog sustava Položajni datum 00:25 Oracle Spatial 24

25 Model koordinatnog sustava EPSG European Petroleum Survey Group OGP Surveying and Positioning Committee Baza podataka elipsoida, datuma, koordinatnih sustava i ostalih komponenti Referentna lista identifikatora Integrirana u Oracle Spatial 00:25 Oracle Spatial 25

26 Pitanja? IN2 d.o.o. Marohnićeva 1/ Zagreb, HR tel:

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