2 Introduction Home range is the area normally traversed by an individual animal or group of animals during activities associated with feeding, resting, reproduction, and shelter-seeking.
3 Introduction Home range is closely related to, but not identical with, the concept of "territory", which is a defended area Home ranges of two unpaired kit foxes overlap with those of two paired males in western Arizona. Territorial boundaries of rurous-collarded sparrows.
4 Introduction The home range of an individual animal is typically constructed from a set of location points that have been collected over a period of time identifying the position in space of an individual at many points in time. Minimum convex polygon - smallest possible convex polygon around the data Variation among species in home range size (ha) Sorex vagrans 0.11 Canis lupus 20,276 Ursus arctos 204, 120
5 Introduction How is it important for conservation and management? Species Most Vulnerable to Extinction (Primack 2010). Species with a narrow geographical range Specie with one or a few populations Species with small population sizes or declining population sizes Species that are overharvested Species that need a large home range (also Hunter and Gibbs (2007) A species in which individual animals or social groups need to forage over wide areas is prone to die off when part of the range is damaged or fragmented by human activity. Animal species with large bodies.
6 Introduction Body size and extinction rates Primack 2010
7 Introduction How is it important for conservation and management? In the case of protected areas, animals with large home ranges are more likely to roam onto surrounding lands where they are subject to increased human-induced mortality and increased risk of extinction. In the case of game harvest units, knowledge of home range size is needed to estimate population abundance and set harvest rates. With respect to conservation planning and species recovery programs, it is important to know how much space individuals need when estimating potential carrying capacities for recovery areas.
8 Introduction Topics Energetics of home range size Environmental correlates of home range size Conservation implication of the influence of ecosystem productivity on home range size Alternative hypotheses of controls on body size Test of hypotheses Conclusions
9 Energetics of Home Range Size Home range size is thought to have a basis in an animal s energetics. Seton (1909) stated that "the size of home region corresponds somewhat with the size of the animal. Flesh eaters as a class have a larger home region than herb eaters."
10 Energetics of Home Range Size Herbivores: r 2 = 0.75; Omnivores: r 2 = 0.90; Carnivores: r 2 = 0.81.
11 Energetics of Home Range Size The size of an animal s home range is thought to be dictated by its energetic requirements. Energy requirements are largely determined by body weight and basal metabolic rate. Hence, home range size is known to increase with body weight, is larger for homeotherms than endotherms because of their relatively higher energy requirements, and is larger for carnivores than herbivores because of lower average density of utilizable production at higher trophic levels.
12 Energetics of Home Range Size Among vertebrates there is a well-documented relationship between size of home range, H, and body weight W, of the form H = aw k home range size = proportionality factor x body weight x exponent that relates to trophic level.
13 Energetics of Home Range Size Why might this be? 1. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended daily by humans and other animals at rest. 2. BMR is a function of body size (Kleiber s law). BMR increases proportional to body weight. Thus, larger animals require more energy, procuring more energy requires a larger home range. Kleiber 1947
14 Energetics of Home Range Size The effect of ecosystem productivity Consider that an animal of weight W has energetic requirements R (kcal/day). The environment provides utilizable energy at a rate P (kcals/day/unit area). The simplest expression of home range (H) is thus H =R/P The effects of body weight, trophic status, productivity of the habitat, and season can be synthesized by considering how these factors affect either R or P.
15 Energetics of Home Range Size R should increase with weight. If R is proportional to basal metabolic rate then (from Kleiber 1961) R = a W.75 But modified in a predictable fashion by the trophic status of the animal and the density and productivity of its resource base.
16 Energetics of Home Range Size P-The production of utilizable energy is affected by animal weight, trophic status, productivity of the habitat, and season. 1) Body weight.-we expect P, the density of utilizable production of energy, to decrease with increasing energetic requirements R which increase with body weight. The relationship results from "patchiness" of resources in the environment 2) Trophic status.-utilizable energy per unit area, P, is greater for herbivores than for carnivores 3) Productivity of habitat. -Within a specific trophic group and weight-class, habitats of greater productivity (P) will generate smaller home ranges, for the energetic requirements (R) will not change. 4) Season.-Among herbivores, both R and P are affected, R by the quality of forage. As their food dies, becomes dormant, or is covered with snow, P should decrease below summer values. The direction of change in size of home range will depend on the relative rates of change of P and R.
17 Energetics of Home Range Size Thus Home range size is hypothesized to be inversely related to habitat productivity, controlling for body size and trophic level (Harestead and Bunnell 1979) in more productive environments, energy requirements can be met in a smaller area, allowing home ranges to be smaller.
18 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal, I., J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, E. B. Nilsen, and R. Andersen Prey density, environmental productivity and home-range size in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Journal of Zoology 265:
19 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal et al Study Aim: explain variation in home range size in terms of readily available indices of prey density and environmental productivity. Methods: Individual Level. Relate the sizes of 52 home ranges, derived from 23 (9:14 male:female) individual resident lynx obtained from south-eastern Norway, with an index of density of roe deer Capreolus capreolus. The index was obtained from the density of harvested roe deer within the municipalities covered by the lynx home ranges.
20 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal et al Results: Individual Level. Mean annual home-ranges size (95% MCP) was 917 km2 and 560 km2 for males and females respectively (SD=580 km2 and 205 km2). The best model home-range size of lynx included roe deer density lynx sex (model r2 =0.523, F =9.31, df=2,17, P=0.002).
21 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal et al Methods: European Level. Lynx home range size for 111 lynx (48:63 male: female) from 10 study sites to estimates derived from remote sensing of environmental productivity and seasonality. Monthly global 4 4 km MODIS FPAR data sets were downloaded from NASA MODIS home page, covering October 2000 through October FPAR is an expression for the fraction of photosynthetical absorbed radiation, and is a measure of the percentage of radiation, available for photosynthesis, that is absorbed
22 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal et al Results: European Level. Mean home range size (100% MCP) was 625 km2 (SD=509 km2) for males and 319 km2 (SD=231 km2) for females. The model with lowest AICc included sex and the interaction between seasonality and productivity.
23 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Herfindal et al Conclusions These analyses support widely held predictions that variation in home-range size is due to variation in prey density.
24 Small-group exercise Draw a box and arrow diagram on the linkages among home range size, body size, trophic level, basic metabolic rate, and habitat productivity, homeotherms, and endotherms.
25 Homeotherm vs endotherm Body Size Basic Metabolic Rate Trophic level Productivity Home Range Size
26 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Case Study: Nilsen, E. B., I. Herfindal, J. D. C. Linnell Can intra-specific variation in carnivore home-range size be explained using remote-sensing estimates of environmental productivity? Ecoscience 12: Study Aim: Evaluate the utility of FPAR to explain interpopulation variation in home range size for 12 carnivore species globally. Methods: Collect data on home range size from the literature (199 studies) for 12 species of carnivores. Use same FPAR data as previous case study. Use model selection to relate home range size to annual productivity and seasonality.
27 Ecosystem Productivity as a Predictor of Home Range Size Results: FPAR added predictive power to the models for eight of the species. The explanatory power varied between 16% and 71% for different species. Wolf
28 Body Size
29 Body Size Huston, M. A., and S. Wolverton Regulation of animal body size by enpp, Bergmann s rule, and related phenomena. Ecological Monographs 81: Bergmann's rule is an ecogeographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed genus, species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions. The rule is named after a nineteenth-century German biologist, Christian Bergmann, who was among the first to describe the pattern in Larger animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller animals, so they radiate less body heat per unit of mass, and therefore stay warmer in cold climates. Warmer climates impose the opposite problem: body heat generated by metabolism needs to be dissipated quickly rather than stored within. Thus, the higher surface area-to-volume ratio of smaller animals in hot and dry climates facilitates heat loss through the skin and helps cool the body.
30 Body Size Huston, M. A., and S. Wolverton Regulation of animal body size by enpp, Bergmann s rule, and related phenomena. Ecological Monographs 81: H & W 2011 proposed an alternative hypothesis for geographic variation in body size based on food availability, as regulated by the net primary production (NPP) of plants, specifically NPP during the growing season, or enpp (ecologically and evolutionarily relevant NPP). enpp concept animal growth rates are set by productivity during the plant growing season. During the non-growing, dormant, or starvation season, the survival of organisms depends on the amount of resources that they have acquired during the growing season. Thus, body size should vary with enpp.
31 Body Size enpp = total annual NPP/length of growing season
32 Body Size Huston, M. A., and S. Wolverton Regulation of animal body size by enpp, Bergmann s rule, and related phenomena. Ecological Monographs 81: Results.
33 Body Size Huston, M. A., and S. Wolverton Regulation of animal body size by enpp, Bergmann s rule, and related phenomena. Ecological Monographs 81: Results.
34 Body Size Huston, M. A., and S. Wolverton Regulation of animal body size by enpp, Bergmann s rule, and related phenomena. Ecological Monographs 81: Conclusions. The data do not fit Bergmann s Rule. The data for most species are inadequate for testing the enpp hypothesis, except for wolves?
35 Conservation Implications In the case of protected areas, animals with large home ranges are more likely to roam onto surrounding lands where they are subject to increased human-induced mortality and increased risk of extinction. Woodroffe, R. and J.R. Ginsberg Edge Effects and the Extinction of Populations Inside Protected Areas. Science 280: Theory predicts that small populations may be driven to extinction by random fluctuations in demography and loss of genetic diversity through drift. However, population size is a poor predictor of extinction in large carnivores inhabiting protected areas. Conflict with people on reserve borders is the major cause of mortality in such populations, so that border areas represent population sinks. The species most likely to disappear from small reserves are those that range widely and are therefore most exposed to threats on reserve borders irrespective of population size.
36 Summary Animal home range size is influenced by the productivity of the environment. A fact that should be taken into account when designating the size of reserve areas, harvest rates, and area needed for population restoration. Animal body size likely varies with productivity of the environment in ways that are currently not well understood.
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