7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 OBJECTIVE

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1 7 LAND USE AND LAND COVER 7.1 INTRODUCTION The knowledge of land use and land cover is important for many planning and management activities as it is considered as an essential element for modeling and understanding the earth feature system. Land use is defines as the any human activity or economical related function associated with a specific piece of land, while the term land cover relates to the type of feature present on the surface of the earth (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Land cover maps are presently being developed from local to regional and national to global scales. The use of panchromatic and medium scale aerial photographs to map land use has been an accepted practice since the 1940s. More recently, small scale aerial photographs and satellite images have been utilized and enhanced the land use and land cover mapping. The satellite remote sensing technology has found its acceptance worldwide for rapid resource assessment and monitoring, particularly in the developing world. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) of USA has made most significant contributions with satellite based remote sensing techniques. Since 1972, after the Landsat 1 was launched, remote sensing technology and its application has undergone a tremendous change in terms of sensing development, aerial flights with improved sensors, satellite design development and operations including data reception, processing, interpretation, and utilization of satellite images. All these advancement have widened the applicability of remotely sensed data in various areas, like forest cover, vegetation type mapping, and land cover changes on a regional scale. If this remotely sensed data is judiciously used along with the sufficient ground data, it is possible to carry out detailed forest inventories, monitoring of land use, and vegetation cover at various scales. The present work is an attempt of the same in the Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I area. 7.2 OBJECTIVE The objective of the present work is to prepare land use and land cover map using hybrid digital classification technique. Also, to produce land cover data set appropriate for wide variety of applications like catchment area treatment (CAT) planning. Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-1

2 7.3 CATCHMENT AREA The Tawang H.E Project Stage-I site is spread between N to N latitudes and E to E longitudes. The proposed barrage is located on the Tawang Chhu river. The headwater of Tawang Chhu originates from Great Himalayan mountain ranges in NE India. The Tawang Chhu river emerges after the confluence of Mago Chhu and Nyukcharong Chhu, and flows northeast to southwest via international boundary of India and Tibet. The region is well connected with Bomdila. 7.4 DATABASE The details of primary data in the form of digital data on CDROMs (procured from NRSA in 2007) for interpretation and analysis are given in Table 7.1. The mask of the entire Tawang Chhu catchment area including the project site was generated from the IRS-1D data and the same is given in the Fig For the secondary data, Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on 1:50,000 scales were referred to for the preparation of base map and drainage map. Table 7.1 Database used for land use and land cover mapping of the Tawang Chhu catchment Satellite Sensor Path/Row Date Data type & Bands IRS P6 LISS-III 110/ Digital (2,3,4,5) 7.5 METHODOLOGY Land use and land cover mapping of the Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I was carried out by standard methods like digital image processing (DIP) supported by ground truthing. For this purpose digital data on CDROMs was procured from National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad. DIP of the satellite data, preparation of various thematic maps, and their interpretation were achieved at Computer GIS Lab, using Erdas Imagine 9.0 of Leica Geosystems. Before digitally processing, image enhancement, transformation, classification and pre-processing was done for band separation. Different bands were downloaded into the workstation using Erdas Imagine 9.0. The images were checked for occasional shortcomings in the quality of radiometric and line dropouts. Band separation and windowing of the study area Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-2

3 with the help of Survey of India (SOI) toposheets was performed. The registration of image was performed using the nearest neighbour resampling algorithm (Jensen, 1996). The scene was geometrically corrected with toposheets using proper identification of GCPs with a root-meansquare (RMS) error of to pixels. Indian Remote Sensing data was radiometrically corrected using dark pixel subtraction technique. They were then co-registered with SOI toposheets using UTM Zone 46 N WGS84 projection systems. Geo-referencing of the composite image was done using digital vector layer of drainage, road network, water bodies, and other permanent ground features extracted from SOI toposheets. Distinguishable Ground Control Points (GCPs) both on image and vector database were identified. By using these GCPs the image was resample and geo-coded. Sub-pixel image to map registration accuracy was achieved through repeated attempts. The image enhancement techniques like edge detection, filters, manipulation of contrast and brightness, histogram equalization etc. was performed by using different combinations for best image contrast. Standard false color composite (FCC) image of the catchment area was prepared using bands 2, 3 and 4 of IRS-1D (Fig. 7.2) and discrimination of features was made by visual interpretation on this image. The interpretation key was based on the relationships between ground features and image elements like texture, tone, shape, location and pattern. A flow chart indicating the general procedure for land use and land cover classification is shown in the Fig. 7.3 In order to provide higher resolution of base image (IRS-P6 LISS III), panchromatic (PAN) image was fused with MSS LISS III image. In this process, a portion of high resolution PAN band, which corresponds to an area of interest (AOI) in the multi-spectral LISS III image was extracted. Thereafter, both the images were co-registered and LISS-III image was resampled for merging with PAN image. Merging or image fusion was done by special enhancement module in Erdas Imagine 9.0. The digital vector layers like contour, drainage network, snow, glacier, forest, settlements etc. of the Tawang HEP Stage-I site were prepared from the SOI toposheet in 1:50,000 scale. The vector layers were also prepared for nearby free-draining catchment areas. Further, the drainage network was classified into various sub-watersheds based on stream order (Horton, 1945, Strahler, 1952, 1957). Major morphomotric parameters like drainage length, density, area etc. were calculated in each sub-watershed for determining basin characters. Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-3

4 In the preliminary analysis, image classification was done by unsupervised classification method by performing ISODATA training. It helped in assigning the classification of the image into land use categories. However, the boundaries of water bodies were separately mapped from SOI toposheets for image classification. The doubtful areas or wrongfully interpreted areas owing to various physical features controlling the study area were marked for ground truth collection. After ground truth collection, supervised classification was assigned for the final image classification. The classified map was regrouped and merged. The classified raster map thus, prepared was then converted to vector format for GIS analysis, and the preparation of required thematic maps using ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and ArcGIS CLASSIFICATION SCHEME Keeping in mind the objectives of preparation of environmental management plan (EMP), action plan for watershed management and catchment area treatment (CAT) plan, the classification scheme adopted for the preparation of land use/land cover maps on 1:50,000 scale is described below. Density classification was made by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique. 7.7 LAND USE/ LAND COVER The land use and land cover of the Tawang Chhu catchment area includes dense forest, open forest, scrub, degraded forest, alpine meadow, cultivation, moraines, barren / rocky land, river / nallahs, lakes, and snow (Fig. 7.4). Large area of the catchment ( ha) is prevalently covered by snow, which occupies 59.50% of the total area. It is prominently spread in the northern part of the catchment. Dense, open and degraded forest lands together occupy ha, which is 10.7% of the total area. Forest cover is spatially spread in the southern part of the catchment. However, degraded forest is sparsely spread with area coverage of ha. Alpine meadow occupies an area of ha, which forms only 1.66 % of the catchment area. Moraines occupy ha, which is 12.95% of the catchment area. Significant area of ha is covered by barren / rocky land, which is 12.31% of the total area. River / nallahs and lakes together occupy an area of ha, which contributes 1.51% of the total catchment. All the types of land use and land cover and their geographic area are summarized in Table 7.2. Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-4

5 Table 7.2 Area of the different categories of land use and land cover in the Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I area Land use/ Land cover Area (Ha) Percentage Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Degraded Forest Alpine Meadow Cultivation Moraines Barren / Rocky Land River / nallahs Lakes Snow Total STUDY AREA (POWER HOUSE SITE AND BARRAGE SITE) Additionally, MoEF has been following a general practice of baseline data to be collected in a 10 km radius of a project while conducting EIA studies. A base map was developed to demarcate the submergence zone and influence zone of the Tawang H.E Project Stage-I. Therefore land cover and land use maps will be examined within the 10 km radius of power house and barrage site. It is called as the study area (Influence zone and the submergence area). From the Figure 7.5 the study area has ha of land. Dense Forest has maximum area coverage of % of the study area. It is prevalent along the left bank of the Tawang Chhu. Open forest is predominantly spread on the right bank of the main Tawang Chhu river, it accounts for 17.37% of the total study area. Moraines and barren land spread on 13.63% of the total study area. These land covers are spread on the high reaches along the northern and southern mountain ranges. Scrub is typically spread on the right bank of Tawang Chhu and covers 4.52% of the study area. Cultivation and settlement are also prevalent on the right bank of the study area with 2.48% of the study area. Degraded forest covers an area of 1.78% of the total study area and is extremely prevalent on the right bank of the Tawang Chhu. Remaining land covers (Snow, River, Alpine meadow and Lakes) accounts for 2.45% of the study area. Right Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-5

6 bank of Tawang Chhu is more exposed to human induced developmental activities such as cultivation, deforestation and constructions. 7.9 SUBMERGENCE AREA The submergence area extends up to 1.15 km from the u/s of barrage site and it covers an area of ha (Fig. 7.6). A total of 3.49 ha of scrubs will be submerged. In addition to it, 0.78 ha and 2.61 ha of open forest and dense forest would also be submerged due to the project. However settlements and agricultural classes are out of the submergence area. Tawang H.E. Project Stage-I 7-6

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