Landforms. Lesson 1: Physical Geography of Canada Mexico. Canada s mountainous eastern and western edges create a central region of fertile plains.

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2 Lesson 1: Physical Geography of Canada Mexico Landforms Canada s mountainous eastern and western edges create a central region of fertile plains. Collisions of tectonic plates thrust up a series of sharp-peaked mountains, like the Pacific Ranges and Rockies. A wide range of climates, from frozen tundra to humid continental, support a variety of wildlife. Abundant water and energy resources make up Canada s great natural resource wealth.

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5 Lesson 1: Physical Geography of Canada Water Systems Canada s plentiful freshwater lakes and rivers support the needs of people and industries in both cities and rural areas. The St. Lawrence River is one of Canada's most important rivers and forms part of the border between the United States and Canada. The Niagara Falls, also on the border, is a key source of hydroelectric power.

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9 Lesson 1: Physical Geography of Canada Climate, Biomes, & Resources Ocean currents, like the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current, play a key role in Canada s large variation in climates. Canada has a variety of biomes that support abundant forms of plant and animal life. Fisheries as well as timber, energy, and minerals are important to Canada's economy. The Athabasca Tar Sands make Canada a leading petroleum-producing country.

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15 Lesson 2: Human Geography of Canada History and Government Indigenous groups, like the Inuit and First Nations peoples, along with the French and British colonists, became the foundation for Canadian cultures. Originally a British colony, Canada became a dominion and ultimately gained independence in Today Canada is a constitutional monarchy with power divided into three branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial.

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19 Lesson 2: Human Geography of Canada Population Patterns Ethnicity of Canadians varies from province to province, with 25 percent of the population identifying themselves as from mixed origins. About 90 percent of the population lives within 100 miles of the U.S. border, where there is a more temperate climate and easy access to commerce. Approximately 81 percent of Canada's 34 million people live in urban areas such as in Montreal and Vancouver, or in the capital, Ottawa.

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22 Lesson 2: Human Geography of Canada Society and Culture Immigration has helped to create a multicultural society in Canada. English and French are Canada s two official languages. Today s average family has decreased to three members as more women enter the workforce. The arts, especially theater and music, are highly regarded in Canada, with Toronto ranking as the third-largest production center in the Englishspeaking world.

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24 Lesson 2: Human Geography of Canada Economic Activities Natural resources are essential to the Canadian economy, accounting for more than 58 percent of its exports. The advancement of technology and reliable transportation systems has helped spur economic growth across the country. Canada is faring better than the United States since the 2008 recession due to more conservative lending in the real estate market. Canada has greater stability in housing prices and lower unemployment rates than the United States or Europe.

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26 Lesson 3: People & Their Environment: Canada Managing Resources Canada s many natural resources have suffered due to the activities of fishing, logging, and mineral and oil and gas extraction. Calls for federal protection and greater conservation efforts have increased to protect existing resources and to develop renewable ones. Without conservation, rare ecosystems such as the boreal forest could be destroyed.

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29 Lesson 3: People & Their Environment: Canada Human Impact Acid rain contaminates lakes, streams, and rivers. Pollution in the United States can also negatively affect the environment in Canada. Industrial pollution in waterways can harm water supplies and all who depend on them. The Canadian and United States governments continue to work together to improve water quality and to encourage the resurgence of some fish populations.

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32 Lesson 3: People & Their Environment: Canada Addressing the Issues The provinces individually take action to address climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Ontario s Green Energy and Green Economy Act promotes green energy through conservation and financial incentives. The Canadian government is exploring alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power. Initial reports are positive, but time is needed to see which methods of alternative energy will be successful.

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