ISO/TR TECHNICAL REPORT. Geographic information Imagery and gridded data. Information géographique Imagerie et données quadrillées

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1 TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR First edition Geographic information Imagery and gridded data Information géographique Imagerie et données quadrillées Reference number ISO/TR 19121:2000(E) ISO 2000

2 PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below. ISO 2000 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel Fax Web Printed in Switzerland ii ISO 2000 All rights reserved

3 Contents Page Foreword...iv Introduction...v 1 Scope References Review of existing standards The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO/IEC JTC 1 Information technology standards ISO/TC 130 Graphic technology DIGEST (DIgital Geographic Exchange STandard) Spatial Data Transfer Standard: Part 5: Raster Profile IHO S-57 - International Hydrographic Organization Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data CEOS Committee on Earth Observation Satellites CEOS Superstructure CEOS Superstructure and the Catalogue Interoperability Protocol (CIP) Overview of CIP Architecture CIP Features EOSDIS/HDF Conceptual Data Models Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) HDF-EOS The HDF Implementation of the EOSDIS Conceptual Models International Telegraphic Union Telecommunications ITU-T SG VIII - T.4 and T Open GIS Consortium (OGC) - Coverages Private formats Fractal Transform Coding The Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) Photo Compact Disk Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Tag Image File Format (TIFF) GeoTIFF Mapping of existing imagery and gridded data standards to geographic information standards Components of image and gridded data Picture elements of cells Metadata Spatial registration Encapsulation and coding Interaction with other standards Subcomponents Profiles Alignment with overlapping standards Plan to address imagery and gridded data in ISO/TC 211 work items Impact on existing work items New work required...22 Annex A (informative) Cell organization...23 Annex B (informative) Metadata...25 Annex C (informative) New areas of work supporting imagery and gridded data...29 Annex D (informative) Acronyms...31 Bibliography...34 ISO 2000 All rights reserved iii

4 Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard ("state of the art", for example), it may decide by a simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no longer valid or useful. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of ISO/TR may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO/TR 19121, was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/geomatics, in collaboration with: Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Digital Geographic Information Working Group (DGIWG) International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Open GIS Consortium, Inc. (OGC) ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 iv ISO 2000 All rights reserved

5 Introduction This Technical Report is intended to identify the manner by which ISO/TC 211 should handle imagery and gridded data in the context of its standards. A natural image is a radiometric representation of the real world, as seen by an optical or other sensor. A synthetic image is a generated depiction of spatial data in a visual form. Both natural and synthetic image data are being used increasingly in the area of geographic information/geomatics. Gridded data is the representation of attribute values in terms of a spatial grid. All three of these forms of spatial information can be handled in a similar manner by representation in terms of a raster or matrix structure. Both a raster and a matrix are array structures that may be coded somewhat differently due to the characteristics of the data. An increasingly large volume of natural and synthetic image and gridded data is being produced. For example, current imaging satellites include LandSAT, RADARSAT, SPOT, ERS, MOS, JERS and NOAA. Also, there are military satellite images and other public and private domain image sources. There are current plans to launch more than one hundred Earth observing satellites by the year 2005, with 60 of those scheduled for launch by the end of 1999, with some of these satellites generating as many as scenes per day. Digital orthophoto mapping is another field in which major financial investment is being made and in which a large volume of raster data is being produced. Obviously, there will be great demand for this imagery to be in a standard format in order to be useful with other sources of data. Large volumes of synthetic imagery are being produced by the scanning of the current large inventory of paper maps and charts, and it is expected that the volume of this data will exceed the production of vector based data sets for a long time. Synthetic raster maps include scanned paper map products, such as topographic maps, nautical charts, soil and vegetation maps and other such products. They also include raster data sets generated directly from vector data sets. Since the demand for image and gridded data is large and will be rapidly increasing in the near future, it is necessary to address this form of data in ISO/TC 211. Many countries and international organizations are producing Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Many other forms of gridded data such as georeferenced socio-economic data including land use data, meteorological and bathymetric data are being compiled in large volumes. Earth observation networks and information infrastructures are being developed in many countries to further improve the access and use of remote sensing data, products and services, with the objective to provide state-ofthe-art interfaces between the data archives and their users. The interoperability between data archives an important element of which is interoperable standards will greatly facilitate a more effective operation by government bodies and the value-added sector. The specific aim of this work item is to analyse the characteristics of imagery and gridded data and make recommendations with respect to how this data can be handled in ISO/TC 211. There is a significant overlap between many of the current ISO/TC 211 work items and those areas that require standardization to support imagery and gridded data. For example, it is possible to share many metadata elements between vector and raster representations, but some unique metadata will be required to handle particular raster related aspects. The main interests that will benefit from the standardization of raster and matrix data formats will be the distributors and end-users of raster data. Currently, each satellite effectively defines its own "standard" based on the characteristics of its sensors. There also exists a large number of "standard" formats for the exchange and distribution of synthetic raster data such as scanned paper maps. Integration of data is difficult at best. Although there are some aspects of sensor characteristics that are unique to particular data sources, there is a high degree of commonality underlying the basic parameters. In addition, many of the aspects of the existing ISO/TC 211 work on vector standards, such as geographic referencing, quality, metadata, positioning services, and portrayal are applicable to raster and matrix data. ISO 2000 All rights reserved v

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7 TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 19121:2000(E) Geographic information Imagery and gridded data 1 Scope This Technical Report reviews the manner in which raster and gridded data is currently being handled in the Geomatics community in order to propose how this type of data should be supported by geographic information standards. This Technical Report identifies those aspects of imagery and gridded data that have been standardized or are being standardized in other ISO committees and external standards organizations, and that influence or support the establishment of raster and gridded data standards for geographic information. It also describes the components of those identified ISO and external imagery and gridded data standards that can be harmonized with the ISO series of geographic information/geomatics standards. A plan is presented for ISO/TC 211 to address imagery and gridded data in an integrated manner, within the ISO series of geographic information standards. 2 References ISO 19101: 1), Geographic information Reference model. ISO 19102: 1), Geographic information Overview. ISO/TS 19103: 1), Geographic information Conceptual schema language. ISO 19104: 1), Geographic information Terminology. ISO 19105: 1), Geographic information Conformance and testing. ISO 19106: 1), Geographic information Profiles. ISO 19107: 1), Geographic information Spatial schema. ISO 19108: 1), Geographic information Temporal schema. ISO 19109: 1), Geographic information Rules for application schema. ISO 19110: 1), Geographic information Feature cataloguing methodology. ISO 19111: 1), Geographic information Spatial referencing by coordinates. ISO 19112: 1), Geographic information Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. ISO 19113: 1), Geographic information Quality principles. 1) To be published. ISO 2000 All rights reserved 1

8 ISO 19114: 1), Geographic information Quality evaluation procedures. ISO 19115: 1), Geographic information Metadata. ISO 19116: 1), Geographic information Positioning services. ISO 19117: 1), Geographic information Portrayal. ISO 19118: 1), Geographic information Encoding. ISO 19119: 1), Geographic information Services. ISO/TR 19120: 1), Geographic information Functional standards. 3 Review of existing standards Currently there exist several other efforts at standardizing aspects of imagery and gridded data in different related fields or application areas. For example the DIGEST Functional Standard addresses raster and matrix data. The IHO is currently beginning work on handling synthetic scanned charts as raster data. Of particular importance is the work ongoing in ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 on Computer Graphics and Image Processing. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 has published the Basic Image Interchange Format (BIIF) which provides a standard image interchange format for a wide variety of imagery applications, including medical imaging and other non-geospatial applications. There has been extensive work done by DGIWG to harmonize the DIGEST standard with the work of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24. Annex D of DIGEST is an encapsulation of DIGEST in terms of BIIF components. Also there is compatibility with the NATO Secondary Imagery Format (NSIF). It is urgent that the formal study of raster and matrix standards begins in ISO/TC 211 to ensure alignment between the suite of ISO base standards and these external standards. Parallel efforts are also underway in JTC 1/SC 32/WG 4 SQL/MM to create supporting data types and operators to manage, query, and disseminate image data. The Open GIS Consortium has recently released an RFP study document on "Coverages" that is of importance for imagery and gridded data. The following subsections present the status of each of the external standards efforts related to imagery and gridded data. Primarily international and public domain or open standards developments are addressed. Subsection 3.9 also lists some of the more important industrial or private developments. 3.1 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) The International Organization for Standardization is the principal world standardization organization. It establishes international standards in a broad range of disciplines. In addition to the work in ISO/TC 211 there are several committees within ISO that are of interest with respect to the standardization of raster data ISO/IEC JTC 1 Information technology standards The International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Committee Joint Technical Committee 1 is responsible for the standardization of information technology. Several of its subcommittees are of particular importance to the study of raster data. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 The subcommittee of JTC 1 which deals with computer graphics and image processing. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 JTC 1 subcommittee responsible for the coded representation of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32/WG 3 JTC 1 subcommittee responsible for data base languages. 2 ISO 2000 All rights reserved

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