Urban micrometeorological flux observations and surface characterization State of art observational techniques and use of data in urban modeling"

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Urban micrometeorological flux observations and surface characterization State of art observational techniques and use of data in urban modeling""

Transcription

1 Urban micrometeorological flux observations and surface characterization State of art observational techniques and use of data in urban modeling" Sue Grimmond 1,2 1 Atmospheric Science Program, Geography, Indiana University 2 From January 1, 2006 Environmental Monitoring & Modelling Group, Geography, Acknowledgements: NSF King s College, University of London, UK

2 Scope Modelling Land surface schemes (LSS) Applicable for Meso-scale or larger scale models Other models Observations Input data for models Output data for models Analysis for understanding processes Surface characterization Parameters that are to be used in the LSS with observations

3 Examples HPDM (Hanna & Chang 1992) LUMPS (Grimmond & Oke 2002) UKMO-MOSES (Best 1998, 2005) SM-2U (Dupont et al. 2003) Meteo-France: TEB (Masson 2000) / ISBA Otte et al. (2004) Kusaka et al. (1999) Harman et al. (2004a,b) Brown and Williams (1998) Martilli et al. (2002) Urban Land Surface Schemes Many developed recently Expect this to continue Range in their: level of complexity Slab Single layer Multi layer incorporation of urban features heat partitioning 3-D urban surface data requirements computational demands

4 Evaluation of LSS with observations Considerations What are the required forcing data? (i.e. the inputs) What data are passed to the MM 1? (i.e. the outputs) Are there other variables calculated that can be evaluated? What parameters need to be assigned? Where are the model outputs representative of? Time step of model Offline vs dynamic link Spatial scale of model Obviously, answers are not the same for all LSS/models 1 This could be to any model. It does not need to be a Meso-scale Model (MM).

5 What are the required forcing data? Some that are reasonably universal Incoming solar (shortwave) radiation Incoming longwave radiation Air temperature Humidity (some measure) Wind (some measure) Important these are both collected also Commonly collected What height?

6 What data are passed to the MM? (i.e. LSS outputs) Fluxes Net all-wave radiation Outgoing longwave radiation Outgoing short wave radiation Turbulent Sensible heat flux Latent heat flux Momentum

7 Are there other variables calculated that can be evaluated? Storage heat flux Soil heat flux (a component of net storage heat flux) Anthropogenic heat flux Surface temperatures By facet? By orientation Wind profile Within canopy/canyon

8 Where are the LSS outputs representative of? What height above the surface? LSS model Masson et al. 2002: JAM

9 Masson (2000) BLM MM grid Martilli et al. (2002) BLM LSS grid Oke (2004) WMO

10 How does the model treat the surface? Integrated response Each component of the surface (impervious, vegetated) separately [Tiles] Grimmond & Oke 2002: JAM Best 2005: BLM e.g. LUMPS e.g. TEB/ISBA Masson et al JAM

11 Scales Oke, 1997,2005

12 Local Scale Flux Measurements Measurements need to be > 2 x height of the roughness elements Grimmond and Oke 2002: JAM Christien & Vogt (2004) IJoC Field Observations of Q H Kastner-Klein & Rotach 2004: BLM Wind tunnel observations

13 Impact of the Height of Observations u* L1 Ratio L1/L2 L2 L1/L2 observations U - lowest 2.22 z H D - lowest 1.83 z H Q H Carbon Dioxide each level Grimmond et al. 2004: JGR Grimmond et al JGR

14 Voogt and Grimmond 2000: JAM Tower Turbulence Source Areas Function of: z s /L σ V /u* z s /z 0m wind direction Footprint models (numerous, for example) Schmid (1994, 1997), Kljun et al. (2004) Horst & Weil (1992), Rannik et al. (2000) Oklahoma City

15 Fetch David Karnosky Tower Wind direction Tower Area influencing measurements Spatial consistency at the local scale to minimize Q A More towers (etc) to determine Q A

16 Radiation Flux Source Areas Offerle, Grimmond, Oke 2003: JAM

17 What do the instruments see of the surface? Radiation source area isopleths Turbulence footprint isopleths Turbulence and radiation instruments Remote sensor FOV Oke (2004) WMO IOM81 Soux et al. 2004: BLM

18 To Investigate Surface Controls use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Database: Land Cover Marseille, France example: Building Fraction Heightsof plan area tile roofs 100 x 100 m grid Lemonsu, Grimmond, Masson (2004) JAM

19 Characteristics associated with observations: Lodz, Poland (Offerle et al. JAM 2005 in press)

20 Definition of the Surface Complex Characterization requires recognition of methods used Voogt and Oke (1997) JAM

21 Characterization of the Surface (2005) Grimmond (2005) TAC

22 Christien and Vogt (2004) IJoC

23 Surface characterization: Lodz, Poland Offerle et al. (2005) JAM in press

24 Urban Climate Zones (Oke/WMO, 2004)

25 Observations in North America Site Code LU Bld Imp. UM TR GR WT Period Mexico City, D.F. Me93 D Dec 93 Vancouver, B.C. Vl92 LI Aug 92 Chicago, IL C95u Sub Jun/Aug 95 Chicago, IL C Tucson, AZ T90u Sub June 90 Miami, FL Mi95 Sub May/Jun 95 San Gabriel, LA, CA Sg94 Sub July 94 Vancouver, B.C. Vs92 Sub Jul/Sept 92 Sacramento, CA S91u Sub Aug 91 Arcadia, LA, CA A94 Sub July 94 Arcadia, LA, CA A93 Sub July/Aug 93 Arcadia, Los Angeles Increasing fraction of vegetation LU: Landuse Downtown (D) Mexico City Light Industrial Vancouver Residential (Sub) Los Angeles (Arcadia & San Gabriel) Sacramento Vancouver Tucson Chicago Miami Grimmond and Oke, 2002: JAM

26 Q E : Observed Spatial and Temporal Patterns Q E (W m -2 ) A93 A94 C95 Me93 Mi95 S91 Sg94 T90 Vl92 Vs C95 A CBD RES IND RES ET (mm h -1 ) Q E (W m -2 ) ET (mm h -1 ) Grimmond and Oke, 1999: IAHS Time LAT (h)

27 Convective Flux Partitioning β Surface Cover: Vegetation Grimmond and Oke 2002: JAM

28 Ensemble Diurnal Fluxes: Lodz, Poland 17 Aug 2 Sept 2002 Offerle et al. (2005) IJoC CBD Q* Q H Q E RES Flux density (W m -2 ) IND Q H RUR Time (h)

29 Controls on flux partitioning: vegetation Within a city: Lodz, Poland Bowen Ratio LUMPS CV (2004) CBD IND RES RUR site mean Log fit Vegetation Coverage of Source Area (fraction of plan area) Offerle et al. (2005) IJoC

30 Spatial variability across a city and the surface characteristics: Basel, Switzerland Christien and Vogt (2004) IJoC

31 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: ASTER surface reflectance Jan 2001 S29 Tower Belle Vue RURAL.276 (.023) DOWNTOWN.210 (.020) SECTOR (.024) Albedo RURAL DOWNTOWN SECTOR (.8) 309 (1.6) 312 (.6) Surface Temperature (K) Offerle et al JC in press

32 Methods Storage Heat Flux Measurements Residual SEB Surface Temperature measurements + Model (ESTM, TMS) LSS (e.g. TEB) Net all wave radiation + model (OHM) Components Lodz Offerle et al. (2005) IJoC Marseille Roberts et al. (2005) in prep.

33 Surface temperatures

34 Marseille Measurements Tower (S. Grimmond, B. Offerle, J. Salmond) T, RH, U, V, K, L Q*, Q H, Q E Albedo measurements (S. Roberts, P. Jackson, T. Oke) Surface temperatures of walls, roads and roofs (J. Voogt, S. Roberts) Internal building temperatures (J. Voogt) Canyon temperatures (G. Pigeon) Scintillometry (JP. Lagouarde, M. Irvine)

35 Surface Temperature T s wall (averaged) Model comparison with surface temperature measurements Walls 5 sites (1N,2S,1W,1E) Roads 3 sites Roofs 1 gravel roof 4 tile roofs (1EW,1N,2S) T s road (averaged) Statistical results ( o C) bias (TEB-obs) T s wall = bias (TEB-obs) T s road = bias (TEB-obs) T s roof = T s roof (averaged) Lemonsu, Grimmond, Masson 2004: JAM

36 TEB Modeled vs Measured Energy Fluxes Net radiation (Q*) Sensible heat flux (Q H ) Time (d) Time (d) Latent heat flux (Q E ) Storage heat flux ( Q S ) Lemonsu, Grimmond, Masson, 2004: JAM

37 Averaged Fluxes (21 days): Marseille Scintillometer Path Q* Q H Mistral Days Q E Q S Sea Breeze Days Lemonsu et al JAM

38 Downtown Lodz, Poland (LTM) CBD

39 Long-Term Surface Energy Balance Observations: Seasonal Variability (Lodz, Poland) Offerle et al., 2005: TAC

40 Lodz, Poland: Downtown Data 2002 TEB/ISBA LUMPS Offerle, 2003

41 Final Comments Observations Important to include some of the simple measurements Incoming radiation (short, long- wave) Outgoing radiation (short, long- wave) Locations/Siting of Measurements Care is needed using the data for different applications Need to understand the model and the observation technique Site Characterization Critical for explaining observations (and for model parameters) Need care in definition Surface means many different things Dynamic Urban areas vary in surface morphology, cover and anthropogenic emissions Need to take this into account when we model or describe surface-atmosphere exchanges Need long term flux observations to understand processes/ controls and to evaluate models Very few worldwide compared to other environments (e.g. forests - FLUXNET) Like other environments observations are biased to dry conditions Important implications for understanding of Heat storage, Latent heat flux

MODELING URBAN THERMAL ANISOTROPY

MODELING URBAN THERMAL ANISOTROPY MODELING URBAN THERMAL ANISOTROPY J. A. Voogt a, *, E. S. Krayenhoff a a Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London ON N6A 5C2 Canada -javoogt@uwo.ca KEY WORDS: surface temperature,

More information

Overview and first results of the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment (MUSE) 2005

Overview and first results of the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment (MUSE) 2005 Overview and first results of the Montreal Urban Snow Experiment (MUSE) 2005 A. LEMONSU 1 Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Dorval, Canada S. BÉLAIR Environment Canada, Meteorological

More information

Environmental Fluid Dynamics

Environmental Fluid Dynamics Environmental Fluid Dynamics ME EN 7710 Spring 2015 Instructor: E.R. Pardyjak University of Utah Department of Mechanical Engineering Definitions Environmental Fluid Mechanics principles that govern transport,

More information

A R C T E X Results of the Arctic Turbulence Experiments Long-term Monitoring of Heat Fluxes at a high Arctic Permafrost Site in Svalbard

A R C T E X Results of the Arctic Turbulence Experiments Long-term Monitoring of Heat Fluxes at a high Arctic Permafrost Site in Svalbard A R C T E X Results of the Arctic Turbulence Experiments www.arctex.uni-bayreuth.de Long-term Monitoring of Heat Fluxes at a high Arctic Permafrost Site in Svalbard 1 A R C T E X Results of the Arctic

More information

Multi site evaluation of an urban landsurface model: intra urban heterogeneity, seasonality and parameter complexity requirements

Multi site evaluation of an urban landsurface model: intra urban heterogeneity, seasonality and parameter complexity requirements Multi site evaluation of an urban landsurface model: intra urban heterogeneity, seasonality and parameter complexity requirements Article Published Version Loridan, T. and Grimmond, C.S.B. (2012) Multi

More information

A PHYSICALLY-BASED SCHEME FOR THE URBAN ENERGY BUDGET IN ATMOSPHERIC MODELS

A PHYSICALLY-BASED SCHEME FOR THE URBAN ENERGY BUDGET IN ATMOSPHERIC MODELS A PHYSICALLY-BASED SCHEME FOR THE URBAN ENERGY BUDGET IN ATMOSPHERIC MODELS VALÉRY MASSON Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Toulouse, France (Received in final form 29 September 1999) Abstract.

More information

Mapping coherent structures responsible for heat exchange between land-surfaces and atmosphere using time-sequential thermography

Mapping coherent structures responsible for heat exchange between land-surfaces and atmosphere using time-sequential thermography Mapping coherent structures responsible for heat exchange between land-surfaces and atmosphere using time-sequential thermography Andreas Christen (1), Anirban Garai (2), Atsushi Inagaki (6), Jan Kleissl

More information

5. General Circulation Models

5. General Circulation Models 5. General Circulation Models I. 3-D Climate Models (General Circulation Models) To include the full three-dimensional aspect of climate, including the calculation of the dynamical transports, requires

More information

Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration

Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Climatological and hydrological field work Figure 1: Estimate of the Earth s annual and global mean energy balance. Over the long term, the incoming

More information

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF ENERGY FLUXES IN SUBURBAN TERRAIN

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF ENERGY FLUXES IN SUBURBAN TERRAIN SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF ENERGY FLUXES IN SUBURBAN TERRAIN H.P. SCHMID, H.A. CLEUGH, C.S.B. GRIMMOND3 and T.R. OKE Atmospheric Science Programme, Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia,

More information

RADIATIVE EXCHANGE IN AN URBAN STREET CANYON

RADIATIVE EXCHANGE IN AN URBAN STREET CANYON RADIATIVE EXCHANGE IN AN URBAN STREET CANYON IAN N. HARMAN Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB, U.K. MARTIN J. BEST Met Office, Hadley Centre for

More information

Case study of an urban heat island in London, UK: Comparison between observations and a high resolution numerical weather prediction model

Case study of an urban heat island in London, UK: Comparison between observations and a high resolution numerical weather prediction model Case study of an urban heat island in London, UK: Comparison between observations and a high resolution numerical weather prediction model Siân Lane, Janet Barlow, Humphrey Lean With thanks to Christos

More information

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt )

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt 5.1-5.2) The balance of energy at the earth s surface is inextricably linked to the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. In this lecture, we consider the energy

More information

SURF Progresses Contents

SURF Progresses Contents SURF Progresses Contents 1 5th Workshop: June 21-23, 2017 2 SURF-2016 Summer Experiment 3 Preliminary results 4 Future plan (1) 5 th Workshop: June 21-23, 2017 SURF WS-5: Structure I. New Science Reports

More information

A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: ATMOSPHERES, VOL. 118, 1 15, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50803, 2013 A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model Yang Yang, 1 Theodore A. Endreny, 1 and

More information

How can flux-tower nets improve weather forecast and climate models?

How can flux-tower nets improve weather forecast and climate models? How can flux-tower nets improve weather forecast and climate models? Alan K. Betts Atmospheric Research, Pittsford, VT akbetts@aol.com Co-investigators BERMS Data: Alan Barr, Andy Black, Harry McCaughey

More information

Research Article Impact of a Detailed Urban Parameterization on Modeling the Urban Heat Island in Beijing Using TEB-RAMS

Research Article Impact of a Detailed Urban Parameterization on Modeling the Urban Heat Island in Beijing Using TEB-RAMS Advances in Meteorology, Article ID 602528, 11 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/602528 Research Article Impact of a Detailed Urban Parameterization on Modeling the Urban Heat Island in Beijing Using

More information

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun

Insolation and Temperature variation. The Sun & Insolation. The Sun (cont.) The Sun Insolation and Temperature variation Atmosphere: blanket of air surrounding earth Without our atmosphere: cold, quiet, cratered place Dynamic: currents and circulation cells June 23, 2008 Atmosphere important

More information

The PRECIS Regional Climate Model

The PRECIS Regional Climate Model The PRECIS Regional Climate Model General overview (1) The regional climate model (RCM) within PRECIS is a model of the atmosphere and land surface, of limited area and high resolution and locatable over

More information

Local Meteorology. Changes In Geometry

Local Meteorology. Changes In Geometry Energy Balance Climate Local Meteorology Surface Mass And Energy Exchange Net Mass Balance Dynamic Response Effect on Landscape Changes In Geometry Water Flow Climate Local Meteorology Surface Mass And

More information

Remote sensing data assimilation in WRF-UCM mesoscale model: Madrid case study

Remote sensing data assimilation in WRF-UCM mesoscale model: Madrid case study Air Pollution XVIII 15 Remote sensing data assimilation in WRF-UCM mesoscale model: case study R. San José 1, J. L. Pérez 1, J. L. Morant 1 & R. M. González 2 1 Environmental Software and Modelling Group,

More information

Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles

Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles Warming Earth and its Atmosphere The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles Or, what happens to the energy received from the sun? First We Need to Understand The Ways in Which Heat Can be Transferred in the Atmosphere

More information

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College

ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES. Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College ATMOSPHERIC ENERGY and GLOBAL TEMPERATURES Physical Geography (Geog. 300) Prof. Hugh Howard American River College RADIATION FROM the SUN SOLAR RADIATION Primarily shortwave (UV-SIR) Insolation Incoming

More information

Urban-rural humidity and temperature differences in the Beijing area

Urban-rural humidity and temperature differences in the Beijing area Theor Appl Climatol (9) 9:1 7 DOI 1.17/s7 ORIGINAL PAPER Urban-rural humidity and temperature differences in the Beijing area Weidong Liu & Huanling You & Junxia Dou Received: 5 June 7 /Accepted: 7 March

More information

Atmospheric Processes

Atmospheric Processes Atmospheric Processes Atmospheric prognostic variables Wind Temperature Humidity Cloud Water/Ice Atmospheric processes Mixing Radiation Condensation/ Evaporation Precipitation Surface exchanges Friction

More information

Lecture notes: Interception and evapotranspiration

Lecture notes: Interception and evapotranspiration Lecture notes: Interception and evapotranspiration I. Vegetation canopy interception (I c ): Portion of incident precipitation (P) physically intercepted, stored and ultimately evaporated from vegetation

More information

Mesoscale meteorological models. Claire L. Vincent, Caroline Draxl and Joakim R. Nielsen

Mesoscale meteorological models. Claire L. Vincent, Caroline Draxl and Joakim R. Nielsen Mesoscale meteorological models Claire L. Vincent, Caroline Draxl and Joakim R. Nielsen Outline Mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology Meteorological models Dynamics Parametrizations and interactions

More information

Heating the Atmosphere (Chapter 14, with material from Chapter 2)

Heating the Atmosphere (Chapter 14, with material from Chapter 2) Heating the Atmosphere (Chapter 14, with material from Chapter 2) 1. Reflection on Prior Knowledge: What process in Earth s early history resulted in the formation of an atmosphere? What gases characterized

More information

RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE OVER SOUTH AMERICA DERIVED FROM MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS

RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE OVER SOUTH AMERICA DERIVED FROM MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS 2nd Workshop on Remote Sensing and Modeling of Surface Properties 9-11 June 2009, Toulouse, France Météo France Centre International de Conférences RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE OVER SOUTH AMERICA DERIVED

More information

Lecture 3a: Surface Energy Balance

Lecture 3a: Surface Energy Balance Lecture 3a: Surface Energy Balance Instructor: Prof. Johnny Luo http://www.sci.ccny.cuny.edu/~luo Surface Energy Balance 1. Factors affecting surface energy balance 2. Surface heat storage 3. Surface

More information

Urban boundary layer modeling and infrastructure issues. Jason Ching

Urban boundary layer modeling and infrastructure issues. Jason Ching Joint Region 10 + States Meeting NW AIRQUEST Annual and MM5 Consortium meeting Seattle, Washington October 23-25, 2007 Urban boundary layer modeling and infrastructure issues Jason Ching ARL/NOAA NERL/USEPA

More information

MONITORING THE SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX OVER URBAN AREAS USING LARGE APERTURE SCINTILLOMETRY: CASE STUDY OF MARSEILLE CITY DURING THE ESCOMPTE EXPERIMENT

MONITORING THE SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX OVER URBAN AREAS USING LARGE APERTURE SCINTILLOMETRY: CASE STUDY OF MARSEILLE CITY DURING THE ESCOMPTE EXPERIMENT Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2005) Springer 2005 DOI 10.1007/s10546-005-9001-0 MONITORING THE SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX OVER URBAN AREAS USING LARGE APERTURE SCINTILLOMETRY: CASE STUDY OF MARSEILLE CITY DURING

More information

Remote Sensing ISSN

Remote Sensing ISSN Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 2773-2784; doi:10.3390/rs2122773 Letter OPEN ACCESS Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing Estimating Urban Heat Island Effects on the Temperature Series

More information

EVAPORATION GEOG 405. Tom Giambelluca

EVAPORATION GEOG 405. Tom Giambelluca EVAPORATION GEOG 405 Tom Giambelluca 1 Evaporation The change of phase of water from liquid to gas; the net vertical transport of water vapor from the surface to the atmosphere. 2 Definitions Evaporation:

More information

Generating and Using Meteorological Data in AERMOD

Generating and Using Meteorological Data in AERMOD Generating and Using Meteorological Data in AERMOD June 26, 2012 Prepared by: George J. Schewe, CCM, QEP BREEZE Software 12770 Merit Drive Suite 900 Dallas, TX 75251 +1 (972) 661-8881 breeze-software.com

More information

Lecture 3A: Interception

Lecture 3A: Interception 3-1 GEOG415 Lecture 3A: Interception What is interception? Canopy interception (C) Litter interception (L) Interception ( I = C + L ) Precipitation (P) Throughfall (T) Stemflow (S) Net precipitation (R)

More information

AREA-AVERAGED SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX AND A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE ZERO-PLANE DISPLACEMENT LENGTH OVER AN URBAN SURFACE USING SCINTILLOMETRY

AREA-AVERAGED SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX AND A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE ZERO-PLANE DISPLACEMENT LENGTH OVER AN URBAN SURFACE USING SCINTILLOMETRY AREA-AVERAGED SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX AND A NEW METHOD TO DETERMINE ZERO-PLANE DISPLACEMENT LENGTH OVER AN URBAN SURFACE USING SCINTILLOMETRY MANABU KANDA and RYO MORIWAKI Department of International Development

More information

MESOSCALE MODELLING OVER AREAS CONTAINING HEAT ISLANDS. Marke Hongisto Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O.Box 503, Helsinki

MESOSCALE MODELLING OVER AREAS CONTAINING HEAT ISLANDS. Marke Hongisto Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O.Box 503, Helsinki MESOSCALE MODELLING OVER AREAS CONTAINING HEAT ISLANDS Marke Hongisto Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O.Box 503, 00101 Helsinki INTRODUCTION Urban heat islands have been suspected as being partially

More information

Atmospheric Sciences 321. Science of Climate. Lecture 14: Surface Energy Balance Chapter 4

Atmospheric Sciences 321. Science of Climate. Lecture 14: Surface Energy Balance Chapter 4 Atmospheric Sciences 321 Science of Climate Lecture 14: Surface Energy Balance Chapter 4 Community Business Check the assignments HW #4 due Today, HW#5 is posted Quiz Today on Chapter 3, too. Mid Term

More information

A FIRST INVESTIGATION OF TEMPORAL ALBEDO DEVELOPMENT OVER A MAIZE PLOT

A FIRST INVESTIGATION OF TEMPORAL ALBEDO DEVELOPMENT OVER A MAIZE PLOT 1 A FIRST INVESTIGATION OF TEMPORAL ALBEDO DEVELOPMENT OVER A MAIZE PLOT Robert Beyer May 1, 2007 INTRODUCTION Albedo, also known as shortwave reflectivity, is defined as the ratio of incoming radiation

More information

Spatial Variation of the Regional Wind Field with Land Sea Contrasts and Complex Topography

Spatial Variation of the Regional Wind Field with Land Sea Contrasts and Complex Topography SEPTEMBER 2009 H A E T A L. 1929 Spatial Variation of the Regional Wind Field with Land Sea Contrasts and Complex Topography KYUNG-JA HA AND SUN-HEE SHIN Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National

More information

Benchmarking Polar WRF in the Antarctic *

Benchmarking Polar WRF in the Antarctic * Benchmarking Polar WRF in the Antarctic * David H. Bromwich 1,2, Elad Shilo 1,3, and Keith M. Hines 1 1 Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar Research Center The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

More information

J-P. Lagouarde, M. Irvine. INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, 71 avenue E. Bourlaux, F Villenave d'ornon, France

J-P. Lagouarde, M. Irvine. INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, 71 avenue E. Bourlaux, F Villenave d'ornon, France Version définitive du manuscrit publié dans / Final version of the manuscript published in : LAGOUARDE J.-P., IRVINE M. Directional anisotropy in thermal infrared measurements over Toulouse city centre

More information

Ice sheet climate in CESM

Ice sheet climate in CESM CESM winter meeting Boulder, February 9, 2016 Ice sheet climate in CESM Jan Lenaerts & many CESM community members! 2 Exciting CESM land ice science in 2015 Impact of realistic GrIS mass loss on AMOC (Lenaerts

More information

Characteristics of the night and day time atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C, Antarctica

Characteristics of the night and day time atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C, Antarctica Characteristics of the night and day time atmospheric boundary layer at Dome C, Antarctica S. Argentini, I. Pietroni,G. Mastrantonio, A. Viola, S. Zilitinchevich ISAC-CNR Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100,

More information

Solar Radiation and Environmental Biophysics Geo 827, MSU Jiquan Chen Oct. 6, 2015

Solar Radiation and Environmental Biophysics Geo 827, MSU Jiquan Chen Oct. 6, 2015 Solar Radiation and Environmental Biophysics Geo 827, MSU Jiquan Chen Oct. 6, 2015 1) Solar radiation basics 2) Energy balance 3) Other relevant biophysics 4) A few selected applications of RS in ecosystem

More information

Surface Energy Budget

Surface Energy Budget Surface Energy Budget Please read Bonan Chapter 13 Energy Budget Concept For any system, (Energy in) (Energy out) = (Change in energy) For the land surface, Energy in =? Energy Out =? Change in energy

More information

The Arctic Energy Budget

The Arctic Energy Budget The Arctic Energy Budget The global heat engine [courtesy Kevin Trenberth, NCAR]. Differential solar heating between low and high latitudes gives rise to a circulation of the atmosphere and ocean that

More information

The Atmosphere. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems

The Atmosphere. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems. Topic 3: Global Cycles and Physical Systems The Atmosphere 1 How big is the atmosphere? Why is it cold in Geneva? Why do mountaineers need oxygen on Everest? 2 A relatively thin layer of gas over the Earths surface Earth s radius ~ 6400km Atmospheric

More information

Sensitivity Tests of the Surface Characteristics in the GABLS4 Experiment

Sensitivity Tests of the Surface Characteristics in the GABLS4 Experiment Sensitivity Tests of the Surface Characteristics in the GABLS4 Experiment P. Le Moigne, Eric Bazile, Fleur Couvreux, Guylaine Canut, William Maurel Météo-France / CNRM. GABLS4 LSM intercomparison 2. Sensitivity

More information

Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons. Part II: Model

Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons. Part II: Model Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons. Part II: Model Ian N. Harman, Janet F. Barlow and Stephen E. Belcher Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB,

More information

Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled?

Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? 1 NAME Investigation 2 Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? Introduction As you learned from the reading, the balance between incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy

More information

Local Climate Zones. Origins, development, and application to urban heat islands. Iain Stewart and Tim Oke

Local Climate Zones. Origins, development, and application to urban heat islands. Iain Stewart and Tim Oke Local Climate Zones Origins, development, and application to urban heat islands Iain Stewart and Tim Oke Department Geography University of British Columbia Vancouver CANADA Annual Meeting of the American

More information

Radiation balance of the Earth. 6. Earth radiation balance under present day conditions. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Radiation balance

Radiation balance of the Earth. 6. Earth radiation balance under present day conditions. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Radiation balance Radiation balance of the Earth Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance 6. Earth radiation balance under present day conditions Atmospheric radiation balance: Difference between TOA and surface radiation

More information

The Atmosphere. Importance of our. 4 Layers of the Atmosphere. Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate. What makes up the atmosphere?

The Atmosphere. Importance of our. 4 Layers of the Atmosphere. Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate. What makes up the atmosphere? The Atmosphere Introduction to atmosphere, weather, and climate Where is the atmosphere? Everywhere! Completely surrounds Earth February 20, 2010 What makes up the atmosphere? Argon Inert gas 1% Variable

More information

Paper 1 Physical Core UNIT 2 Atmosphere and weather

Paper 1 Physical Core UNIT 2 Atmosphere and weather Paper 1 Physical Core UNIT 2 Atmosphere and weather Recommended Prior Knowledge Students require little prior knowledge although some fundamental principles of systems and processes such as condensation,

More information

The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy

The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Energy Balance The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Balance Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic

More information

Boundary Layer Parametrization for Atmospheric Diffusion Models by Meteorological Measurements at Ground Level.

Boundary Layer Parametrization for Atmospheric Diffusion Models by Meteorological Measurements at Ground Level. IL NUOVO CIMENTO VOL. 17 C, N. 2 Marzo-Aprile 1994 Boundary Layer Parametrization for Atmospheric Diffusion Models by Meteorological Measurements at Ground Level. R. BELLASIO('), G. LANZANI('), M. TAMPONI(2)

More information

The impact of urban geometry on the radiant environment in outdoor spaces

The impact of urban geometry on the radiant environment in outdoor spaces ICUC9 9 th International Conference on Urban Climate 20 th -24 th July 2015, Toulouse, France The impact of urban geometry on the radiant environment in outdoor spaces Christina Chatzipoulka*, Marialena

More information

Development of the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) and the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS)

Development of the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) and the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS) Development of the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) and the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS) Marco L. Carrera, Vincent Fortin and Stéphane Bélair Meteorological Research Division Environment

More information

Characterizing Urbanization Processes in West Africa using Multi-temporal Earth Observation Data

Characterizing Urbanization Processes in West Africa using Multi-temporal Earth Observation Data Characterizing Urbanization Processes in West Africa using Multi-temporal Earth Observation Data Sebastian van der Linden 1,2 Franz Schug 2 Akpona Okujen 2 Patrick Hostert 1,2 Jonas Ø. Nielsen 1,2 Janine

More information

Comprehensive Analysis of Annual 2005/2008 Simulation of WRF/CMAQ over Southeast of England

Comprehensive Analysis of Annual 2005/2008 Simulation of WRF/CMAQ over Southeast of England Comprehensive Analysis of Annual 2005/2008 Simulation of WRF/CMAQ over Southeast of England The 13 th International Conference on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes

More information

BMKG Research on Air sea interaction modeling for YMC

BMKG Research on Air sea interaction modeling for YMC BMKG Research on Air sea interaction modeling for YMC Prof. Edvin Aldrian Director for Research and Development - BMKG First Scientific and Planning Workshop on Year of Maritime Continent, Singapore 27-3

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 70 (2014 ) 23 30

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 70 (2014 ) 23 30 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 7 (214 ) 23 3 12th International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI213 Early warning systems to

More information

Variability of Evaporation from Lake Taihu and its Response to Climate Change. GAO Yaqi YNCenter Weekly Video Conference

Variability of Evaporation from Lake Taihu and its Response to Climate Change. GAO Yaqi YNCenter Weekly Video Conference Variability of Evaporation from Lake Taihu and its Response to Climate Change GAO Yaqi YNCenter Weekly Video Conference 2017.05.05 Outline Background Data and Method Results Conclusion Background The evaporation

More information

way and atmospheric models

way and atmospheric models Scale-consistent consistent two-way way coupling of land-surface and atmospheric models COSMO-User-Seminar 9-11 March 2009 Annika Schomburg, Victor Venema, Felix Ament, Clemens Simmer TR / SFB 32 Objective

More information

Interaction of North American Land Data Assimilation System and National Soil Moisture Network: Soil Products and Beyond

Interaction of North American Land Data Assimilation System and National Soil Moisture Network: Soil Products and Beyond Interaction of North American Land Data Assimilation System and National Soil Moisture Network: Soil Products and Beyond Youlong Xia 1,2, Michael B. Ek 1, Yihua Wu 1,2, Christa Peters-Lidard 3, David M.

More information

Characterization of the Present-Day Arctic Atmosphere in CCSM4

Characterization of the Present-Day Arctic Atmosphere in CCSM4 Characterization of the Present-Day Arctic Atmosphere in CCSM4 Gijs de Boer 1, Bill Chapman 2, Jennifer Kay 3, Brian Medeiros 3, Matthew Shupe 4, Steve Vavrus, and John Walsh 6 (1) (2) (3) (4) ESRL ()

More information

Instruction: proposal to class project

Instruction: proposal to class project Instruction: proposal to class project (Hongjie Xie, 10/20/2008) A project proposal is the first step to us to get funding from anywhere. You need to write a proposal to your advisor, your university,

More information

Offline experiments with externalized ISBA (cycle0.2)

Offline experiments with externalized ISBA (cycle0.2) Report of stay (14 29 Oct. 24) at Meteo France, Toulouse Supervisor: P. LeMoigne, MC2 Offline experiments with externalized ISBA (cycle.2) B. Ahrens Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik, Universität

More information

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

More information

ECMWF. ECMWF Land Surface Analysis: Current status and developments. P. de Rosnay M. Drusch, K. Scipal, D. Vasiljevic G. Balsamo, J.

ECMWF. ECMWF Land Surface Analysis: Current status and developments. P. de Rosnay M. Drusch, K. Scipal, D. Vasiljevic G. Balsamo, J. Land Surface Analysis: Current status and developments P. de Rosnay M. Drusch, K. Scipal, D. Vasiljevic G. Balsamo, J. Muñoz Sabater 2 nd Workshop on Remote Sensing and Modeling of Surface Properties,

More information

Predicting ectotherm disease vector spread. - Benefits from multi-disciplinary approaches and directions forward

Predicting ectotherm disease vector spread. - Benefits from multi-disciplinary approaches and directions forward Predicting ectotherm disease vector spread - Benefits from multi-disciplinary approaches and directions forward Naturwissenschaften Stephanie Margarete THOMAS, Carl BEIERKUHNLEIN, Department of Biogeography,

More information

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg )

Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg ) Name: Block: Surface Processes and the Hydrosphere Unit Heating the Earth s Atmosphere Chapter 11 (pg. 352 385) 11.1: Focus on the Atmosphere: Weather and Climate What is the difference between the weather

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Local Climates - N.V. Kobysheva UNESCO EOLSS

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Local Climates - N.V. Kobysheva UNESCO EOLSS LOCAL CLIMATES N.V. Kobysheva Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: albedo, atmospheric boundary layer, bora, facies, foehn, macroclimate, nanoclimate, superadiabatic gradient

More information

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 3. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions 1. In the case of electromagnetic energy, an object that is hot: a. radiates much more energy than a cool object b. radiates much less energy than a cool object c. radiates

More information

Evaluation of scintillometery measurements of fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in the roughness sublayer

Evaluation of scintillometery measurements of fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in the roughness sublayer Theor Appl Climatol DOI 1.17/s74-15-1556-1 ORIGINAL PAPER Evaluation of scintillometery measurements of fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in the roughness sublayer Hirofumi Sugawara 1 & Atsushi Inagaki

More information

Effects of transfer processes on marine atmospheric boundary layer or Effects of boundary layer processes on air-sea exchange

Effects of transfer processes on marine atmospheric boundary layer or Effects of boundary layer processes on air-sea exchange Effects of transfer processes on marine atmospheric boundary layer or Effects of boundary layer processes on air-sea exchange Ann-Sofi Smedman Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden Effect of transfer process

More information

Simulation of surface radiation balance on the Tibetan Plateau

Simulation of surface radiation balance on the Tibetan Plateau Click Here for Full Article GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35,, doi:10.1029/2008gl033613, 2008 Simulation of surface radiation balance on the Tibetan Plateau Jinkyu Hong 1 and Joon Kim 2 Received 12

More information

Thermal Crop Water Stress Indices

Thermal Crop Water Stress Indices Page 1 of 12 Thermal Crop Water Stress Indices [Note: much of the introductory material in this section is from Jackson (1982).] The most established method for detecting crop water stress remotely is

More information

Heat and Health: Reducing the Impact of the Leading Weather-Related Killer

Heat and Health: Reducing the Impact of the Leading Weather-Related Killer Heat and Health: Reducing the Impact of the Leading Weather-Related Killer Laurence S. Kalkstein, Ph.D. Department of Public Health Sciences Miller School of Medicine University of Miami June, 2017 Quick

More information

ENERGY IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: USE OF TERRA/ASTER IMAGERY AS A TOOL IN URBAN PLANNING N. CHRYSOULAKIS*

ENERGY IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: USE OF TERRA/ASTER IMAGERY AS A TOOL IN URBAN PLANNING N. CHRYSOULAKIS* ENERGY IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: USE OF TERRA/ASTER IMAGERY AS A TOOL IN URBAN PLANNING N. CHRYSOULAKIS* Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics,

More information

Dust storm variability over EGYPT By Fathy M ELashmawy Egyptian Meteorological Authority

Dust storm variability over EGYPT By Fathy M ELashmawy Egyptian Meteorological Authority WMO WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE MONITORING INCLUDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLIMATE WATCH SYSTEMS FOR ARAB COUNTRIES IN WEST ASIA, AMMAN, JORDAN, 27-29 MAY 2013 Dust storm variability over EGYPT By Fathy M ELashmawy

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 7: Water Cycle and Climate

Regents Earth Science Unit 7: Water Cycle and Climate Regents Earth Science Unit 7: Water Cycle and Climate Name Section Coastal and Continental Temperature Ranges Lab # Introduction: There are large variations in average monthly temperatures among cities

More information

NCEP non-hydrostatic regional model and surface scheme LAPS: A dynamical scaling tool for use in agricultural models

NCEP non-hydrostatic regional model and surface scheme LAPS: A dynamical scaling tool for use in agricultural models NCEP non-hydrostatic regional model and surface scheme LAPS: A dynamical scaling tool for use in agricultural models D.T. Mihailović and B. Lalić Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad,

More information

Glaciology HEAT BUDGET AND RADIATION

Glaciology HEAT BUDGET AND RADIATION HEAT BUDGET AND RADIATION A Heat Budget 1 Black body radiation Definition. A perfect black body is defined as a body that absorbs all radiation that falls on it. The intensity of radiation emitted by a

More information

Lech GAWUC, Joanna STRUZEWSKA. Meteorology Division Faculty of Environmental Engineering Warsaw University of Technology Warsaw, Poland

Lech GAWUC, Joanna STRUZEWSKA. Meteorology Division Faculty of Environmental Engineering Warsaw University of Technology Warsaw, Poland Analysis of the impact of different temporal aggregation techniques of land surface temperature on SUHI indicators and the relationship of surface temperature with population density and night lighting

More information

A Study of the Relations between Soil Moisture, Soil Temperatures and Surface Temperatures Using ARM Observations and Offline CLM4 Simulations

A Study of the Relations between Soil Moisture, Soil Temperatures and Surface Temperatures Using ARM Observations and Offline CLM4 Simulations Climate 2014, 2, 279-295; doi:10.3390/cli2040279 Article OPEN ACCESS climate ISSN 2225-1154 www.mdpi.com/journal/climate A Study of the Relations between Soil Moisture, Soil Temperatures and Surface Temperatures

More information

Aquarius/SAC-D Soil Moisture Product using V3.0 Observations

Aquarius/SAC-D Soil Moisture Product using V3.0 Observations Aquarius/SAC-D Soil Moisture Product using V3. Observations R. Bindlish, T. Jackson, M. Cosh November 214 Overview Soil moisture algorithm Soil moisture product Validation Linkage between Soil Moisture

More information

A multi-layer plant canopy model for CLM

A multi-layer plant canopy model for CLM A multi-layer plant canopy model for CLM Gordon Bonan National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado, USA Mat Williams School of GeoSciences University of Edinburgh Rosie Fisher and Keith Oleson

More information

Temperature Change. Heat (Q) Latent Heat. Latent Heat. Heat Fluxes Transfer of heat in/out of the ocean Flux = Quantity/(Area Time) Latent heat

Temperature Change. Heat (Q) Latent Heat. Latent Heat. Heat Fluxes Transfer of heat in/out of the ocean Flux = Quantity/(Area Time) Latent heat Heat (Q) 1 calorie = 4.18 Joule Heat : Total Kinetic Energy Temperature: Average Kinetic Energy Heat that causes a change in temperature: Sensible Heat Temperature Change ΔQ = m c water ΔT Q in Joules

More information

Study of wind variability over Moscow city by sodar

Study of wind variability over Moscow city by sodar IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Study of wind variability over Moscow city by sodar To cite this article: V P Yushkov 2008 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 1 012046 View the article

More information

JRA-55 Product Users' Handbook

JRA-55 Product Users' Handbook Climate Prediction Division Global Environment and Marine Department Japan Meteorological Agency September 2013 Change record Version Date Remarks 1.0 30 September 2013 First version 2.0 3 March 2014 Corrected

More information

Urban heat island in the metropolitan area of São Paulo and the influence of warm and dry air masses during summer

Urban heat island in the metropolitan area of São Paulo and the influence of warm and dry air masses during summer Urban heat island in the metropolitan area of São Paulo and the influence of warm and dry air masses during summer Flavia N. D. Ribeiro1, Arissa S. umezaki1, Jhonathan F. T. de Souza1, Jacyra Soares2,

More information

GEO1010 tirsdag

GEO1010 tirsdag GEO1010 tirsdag 31.08.2010 Jørn Kristiansen; jornk@met.no I dag: Først litt repetisjon Stråling (kap. 4) Atmosfærens sirkulasjon (kap. 6) Latitudinal Geographic Zones Figure 1.12 jkl TØRR ATMOSFÆRE Temperature

More information

PAPER 1 PHYSICAL: UNIT 2 Atmosphere and Weather.

PAPER 1 PHYSICAL: UNIT 2 Atmosphere and Weather. PAPER 1 PHYSICAL: UNIT 2 Atmosphere and Weather Recommended Prior Knowledge: Students require little prior knowledge although some fundamental principles of systems and processes such as condensation etc

More information

Consistent Parameterization of Roughness Length and Displacement Height for Sparse and Dense Canopies in Land Models

Consistent Parameterization of Roughness Length and Displacement Height for Sparse and Dense Canopies in Land Models 730 J O U R N A L O F H Y D R O M E T E O R O L O G Y S P E C I A L S E C T I O N VOLUME 8 Consistent Parameterization of Roughness Length and Displacement Height for Sparse and Dense Canopies in Land

More information

Mean radiant temperature. Tmrt. Temperature of a standing man in radiative balance (short- and longwave) with his surrounding

Mean radiant temperature. Tmrt. Temperature of a standing man in radiative balance (short- and longwave) with his surrounding Mean radiant temperature Tmrt Temperature of a standing man in radiative balance (short- and longwave) with his surrounding Lindberg et al. 2008 (model and obs) The problem Mayer et al. 2008 (obs) A local

More information

Aerodynamic Properties of Urban Areas Derived from Analysis of Surface Form

Aerodynamic Properties of Urban Areas Derived from Analysis of Surface Form 1262 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Aerodynamic Properties of Urban Areas Derived from Analysis of Surface Form C. S. B. GRIMMOND Climate and Meteorology Program, Department of Geography, Indiana University

More information

ONE DIMENSIONAL CLIMATE MODEL

ONE DIMENSIONAL CLIMATE MODEL JORGE A. RAMÍREZ Associate Professor Water Resources, Hydrologic and Environmental Sciences Civil Wngineering Department Fort Collins, CO 80523-1372 Phone: (970 491-7621 FAX: (970 491-7727 e-mail: Jorge.Ramirez@ColoState.edu

More information