What is Chemistry??? The study of the composition and structure of materials and the changes that material undergo

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1 What is Chemistry??? The study of the composition and structure of materials and the changes that material undergo

2 Chemistry Unit 1: Properties of Matter Mrs. White

3 Matter What is it? Anything that has mass and takes up space. What do you think? Are the following examples of matter? A rock in a garden? A drop of water? Smoke from a fire? A beam of light from a flashlight? The air inside a balloon? The steam from a tea kettle? Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

4 Physical and Chemical Properties

5 Physical and Chemical Changes

6 Chemical Change Production of a new substance one or more substances with new & different properties Evolution of light and heat. temperature change, or flame Production of gas. Formation of a precipitate (precipitate = a solid that separates from a solution). Color change Examples of chemical changes around us: Hydrocarbons (fuels) burn, iron rusts, food spoils, leaves change colors, deposits form in pipes.

7 Answer: Physical Physical or Chemical change? 1. rusting iron Answer: Chemical 2. dissolving in water Answer: Physical 3. burning a log Answer: Chemical 4. melting ice Answer: Physical 5. grinding spices

8 Properties of Matter: Extensive -vs- Intensive Depends on the amount of matter that is present. Do not depend on the amount of matter present. Examples: Volume Mass Length Amount of energy in a substance Examples: Melting point Boiling point Density Ability to conduct electricity & heat

9 Intensive or Extensive? 1. Boiling point Answer: Intensive 2. Melting point Answer: Intensive 3. Color Answer: Intensive 4. Odor Answer: Intensive 5. Mass Answer: Extensive

10 MIXTURE Is there uniform composition? YES YES HOMOGENOUS Solutions mixed thoroughly and are the same throughout MATTER Can it be easily separated? NO HETEROGENOUS Parts are different and easily separated Separated by physical means PURE SUBSTANCE More than one type of matter? YES COMPOUND Molecules contain atoms of two or more elements NO NO ELEMENT Atoms are the same Described by a Chemical Formula

11 Mixtures In Model Form Homogenous Mixture: a mixture that has a uniform composition. i.e.: salt water mixture Heterogenous Mixture: a mixture with a non-uniform composition. i.e.: mixture of clay and water NaCl in water Rice Krispies in Milk

12 Pure Substances in Model Form Compound : a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. i.e.: sucrose, water Element: a pure substance made of only one kind of atom Any single element off the periodic table (could also be diatomic): Na, K, C, or O 2, H 2, I 2, Water

13 Particles in a: --solid vibrate (jiggle) but generally do not move from place to place. --liquid vibrate, move about, and slide past each other. -- gas vibrate and move freely at high speeds. States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Particles in a: --solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern. --liquid are close together with no regular arrangement. -- gas are well separated with no regular arrangement. Very Low KE Click this link to see molecule movement More KE than Solid Very High KE

14 Kinetic Molecular Theory A theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. Gas molecules spread far apart from one another. No energy is lost when gas particles hit each other or the walls of a container. Gas particles are in continuous, rapid motion. When gas particles combine, they are neither attracted or repelled. The average kinetic energy of a gas depends on temperature.

15 Kinetic Molecular Theory Explains: Sublimation Melting Evaporation endothermic exothermic Freezing Condensation Deposition

16 Phase Change Diagram Each slope represents changing kinetic energy. (click)

17 Reactions: Endothermic vs Exothermic Endothermic: A reaction that requires the input of energy. Often makes the container feel cold because energy is absorbed. Exothermic: A reaction that releases energy. Often makes the container feel warm because energy is released as heat.

18 Endothermic & Exothermic Reaction Graphs

19 Review of Math Terms Scientific Notation 80,000 = 8 x = 7.65 x 10-3 Significant Figures Zeros between nonzero digits are sig. Zeros in front of all nonzero digits are not sig. Zeros at the end and to the right of a decimal point are sig. Zeros at the end of a number but to the left of a decimal point are sig. Examples 40.7 = 3 sig fig, 87,009 = 5 sig fig = 5 sig fig, = 1 sf = 4 sf; = 10 sf 2000 = 1 sf; = 4 sf

20 More Math Terms Review Density is a measure of how much mass is in a given amount of space Less dense objects FLOAT, denser objects SINK Density = Mass/Volume or D=m/V M=DV V=m/D Metric Conversions Kilo, Hecta, Deca, BASE, deci, centi, milli Remember: King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk

21 Accuracy and Precision Accuracy The closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value Precision The closeness of a set of measurements to each other

22 Accuracy and Precision

23 Is it accurate? Is it precise?

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