# Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Reactions

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Slide 1 / 33 Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Reactions The Nucleus Slide 2 / 33 Proton: The charge on a proton is +1.6x10-19 C. The mass of a proton is x10-27 kg. Neutron: The neutron is neutral. The mass of a neutron is x10-27 kg. The Nucleus Slide 3 / 33 Proton and neutrons are collectively called nucleons. The number of protons in a nucleus is called the atomic number and it is designated by the letter Z. The number of nucleons in a nucleus is called the atomic mass number and it is designated by the letter A. The neutron number, N, is given by N = A - Z. To specify a nuclide we use the following form: where X is the chemical symbol for the element.

2 The Nucleus Slide 4 / 33 Nuclei with the same number of protons are the same element but if they have different numbers of neutrons they are called isotopes. For many elements, there are a few different isotopes that occur naturally. Natural abundance is the percentage of a certain element that occurs as a certain isotope in nature. Many isotopes that do not occur in nature can be created in a laboratory with nuclear reactions. The Nucleus Slide 5 / 33 The approximate size of nuclei was originally determined by Rutherford. We say approximate because of waveparticle duality. The size of nuclei is a little fuzzy. We can get a rough size of a nucleus by scattering high speed electrons off of it. The approximate radius of a nucleus is given by: r # (1.2 x m)(a 1/3 ) Where A is the number of nucleons (not the area). The Nucleus Slide 6 / 33 Nuclear masses are specified in unified atomic mass units (u). On this scale a neutral carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons has a mass of u. 1 u = x kg = MeV/c 2 Rest Mass Object kg u MeV/c 2 Electron x Proton x Hydrogen Atom x Neutron x

3 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Slide 7 / 33 The total mass of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons. Where has all this mass gone? It has become energy! (Energy, such as radiation or kinetic energy.) The difference between the total mass of the nucleons and the mass of the nucleus is called the total binding energy of the nucleus. In energy units, the total binding energy is given by: E = Δmc 2 This binding energy is the amount of energy needed to be put into the nucleus in order to break it apart into protons and neutrons. Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Slide 8 / 33 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. From Meyerhof. Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Slide 9 / 33 The force that binds the nucleons together is called the strong nuclear force. This is a very strong but a close range force. It is nearly zero if the distance between nucleons is more that m. The Coulomb (Electric) Force is a long range force. Since protons repel at larger distances, neutrons are needed in nuclei with a large number of protons. There is another nuclear force called the weak nuclear force which governs radioactive decay.

4 Radioactivity Slide 10 / 33 Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation by an atom. It was first observed by Henri Becquerel. Marie and Pierre Curie also studied it. Radioactivity Slide 11 / 33 Three types of radiation were discovered by Ernest Rutherford: a particles b particles g rays Radioactivity Slide 12 / 33 a particles accelerate with the E-field, so they are positive b particles accelerate against the E-filed, so they are negative g rays are unaffected by the E-field, so they have no charge

5 Radioactivity Slide 13 / 33 a particles turned out to be the same as Helium nuclei, having two protons and two neutrons b particles turned out to be electrons, the same particle as found in the cathode ray tube experiments. g rays turned out to be electromagnetic radiation, like light but with much greater energy (higher frequency) Alpha Decay Slide 14 / 33 Alpha decay happens when a nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium with two neutrons). This decay is written as: Beta Decay Slide 15 / 33 Beta decay happens when a nucleus emits a beta particle (an electron or positron). This decay is written as:

6 Gamma Decay Slide 16 / 33 Gamma decay happens when a nucleus in an excited state emits a Gamma particle (a high energy photon). This decay is written as: Conservation of Nucleon Number Slide 17 / 33 In addition to the other conservation laws, there is the law of conservation of nucleon number. This law states that the total number of nucleons (A) remains constant in any process. However, one type can change into the other type. Half Life and Rate of Decay Slide 18 / 33 A macroscopic sample of any radioactive substance consists of a great number of nuclei. These nuclei do not decay at one time. Actually, the decay is random and the decay of one nuclei has nothing to do with the decay of any other nuclei. Then number of decays during a short time period is proportional to the number of nuclei as well as the time period. #N = -#N #t Where # is the decay constant.

7 Half Life and Rate of Decay Slide 19 / 33 The rate of decay is usually given by its half life rather than its decay constant. A half life of an isotope is defined as the amount of time it takes for half of the original amount of the isotope to decay. A half life is given by: Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation of Elements A nuclear reaction takes place when a nucleus (or particle) collides with another nucleus (or particle). Slide 20 / 33 This process is called transmutation if the original nucleus is transformed into a new nucleus. For Example: Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation of Elements Slide 21 / 33 Energy and momentum must be conserved in nuclear reactions. General Reaction: a + X Y + b The reaction energy, or Q-value, is the sum of the initial masses minus the sum of the final masses, multiplied by c 2 : Q = (M a + M X - M b - M Y ) c 2

8 Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation of Elements Since energy is conserved, Q is equal to the change in kinetic energy: Q = KE b + KE Y - KE a - KE X Slide 22 / 33 If Q is positive, the products have more kinetic energy (energy is released in the reaction). The reaction is exothermic, and will occur no matter how small the initial kinetic energy is. If Q is negative, the reactants have more kinetic energy (energy is absorbed in the reaction). The reaction is endothermic and there is a minimum kinetic energy that must be available before the reaction can occur. Threshold energy is the minimum energy necessary for the reaction to occur. Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation of Elements Slide 23 / 33 Neutrons are very effective in nuclear reactions. They have no charge, so they are not repelled by the nucleus. Scientists were able to create transuranic elements by neutron bombardment. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 24 / 33 After absorbing a neutron, a U-235 nucleus will split into two parts. This can be visualized as a kind of liquid drop. As the nucleus splits, neutrons are released. A typical reaction is: Although others may occur.

9 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 25 / 33 The energy release in a fission reaction is quite large. The smaller nuclei are stable with fewer neutrons, so multiple neutrons emerge from each fission. The neutrons can be used to induce fission in surrounding nuclei, causing a chain reaction. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 26 / 33 The chain reaction needs to be self sustaining in order to create a nuclear reactor. The reaction must continue indefinitely in a controlled manner. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 27 / 33 Neutrons that escape from the uranium do not contribute to fission. There is a critical mass below which a chain reaction will not occur because too many neutrons escape.

10 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 28 / 33 Control rods, usually made from cadmium or boron, absorb neutrons and are used for fine control of the reaction. They keep the reaction just barely critical. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Reactors Slide 29 / 33 Atomic bombs use fission as well. The core is deliberately designed to undergo a massive uncontrolled chain reaction. This releases huge amounts of energy. Nuclear Fusion Slide 30 / 33 The lightest nuclei can fuse to form heavier nuclei, releasing energy in the process. An example is the sequence of fusion processes that change hydrogen into helium in the Sun, as shown below.

11 Nuclear Fusion Slide 31 / 33 The net effect is to transform four protons into a helium nucleus plus two positrons, two neutrinos and two gamma rays. More massive stars can fuse elements as heavy as iron in their cores. Nuclear Fusion Slide 32 / 33 There are three fusion reactions that are being considered for power reactors: These reactions use relatively common fuels (deuterium or tritium) and release much more energy than fission does. Slide 33 / 33 Nuclear Fusion A successful fusion reactor has not yet been achieved. Fusion (or thermonuclear) bombs have been built.

### Lecture 14, 8/9/2017. Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Fusion

Lecture 14, 8/9/2017 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements A nuclear reaction takes place

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Nucleus is made of protons and neutrons Proton has positive charge: Neutron is electrically neutral: Neutrons and protons are collectively

### Nuclear Physics. Slide 1 / 87. Slide 2 / 87. Slide 3 / 87. Table of Contents.

Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87 Nuclear Physics www.njctl.org Table of Contents Slide 3 / 87 Click on the topic to go to that section Nuclear Structure Binding Energy and Mass Defect Radioactivity Nuclear Half-life

### Nuclear Physics

Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87 Nuclear Physics www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 87 Table of Contents Click on the topic to go to that section Nuclear Structure Binding Energy and Mass Defect Radioactivity Nuclear Half-life

### Nuclear Physics. Slide 1 / 87. Slide 2 / 87. Slide 3 / 87. Table of Contents.

Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87 Nuclear Physics www.njctl.org Table of Contents Slide 3 / 87 Click on the topic to go to that section Nuclear Structure Binding Energy and Mass Defect Radioactivity Nuclear Half-life

### Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Structure. Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87. Slide 4 / 87. Slide 3 / 87. Slide 6 / 87. Slide 5 / 87. Table of Contents.

Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87 Nuclear Physics www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 87 Slide 4 / 87 Table of Contents Click on the topic to go to that section Nuclear Structure Binding Energy and Mass Defect Radioactivity

### Nuclear Physics

Slide 1 / 87 Slide 2 / 87 Nuclear Physics www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 87 Table of Contents Click on the topic to go to that section Nuclear Structure Binding Energy and Mass Defect Radioactivity Nuclear Half-life

### Lecture PowerPoint. Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoint Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the

### Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

### Thursday, April 23, 15. Nuclear Physics

Nuclear Physics Some Properties of Nuclei! All nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons! Exception is ordinary hydrogen with just a proton! The atomic number, Z, equals the number of protons in the

### Phys102 Lecture 29, 30, 31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

Phys10 Lecture 9, 30, 31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Key Points Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Alpha, Beta and Gamma Decays References 30-1,,3,4,5,6,7. Atomic Structure Nitrogen (N) Atom

### Chapter 12: Nuclear Reaction

Chapter 12: Nuclear Reaction A nuclear reaction occurs when a nucleus is unstable or is being bombarded by a nuclear particle. The product of a nuclear reaction is a new nuclide with an emission of a nuclear

### NUCLEI. Atomic mass unit

13 NUCLEI Atomic mass unit It is a unit used to express the mass of atoms and particles inside it. One atomic mass unit is the mass of atom. 1u = 1.660539 10. Chadwick discovered neutron. The sum of number

### Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 30.1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Nucleus is made of protons and neutrons Proton has positive charge: Neutron is electrically neutral: 30.1 Structure

### NJCTL.org 2015 AP Physics 2 Nuclear Physics

AP Physics 2 Questions 1. What particles make up the nucleus? What is the general term for them? What are those particles composed of? 2. What is the definition of the atomic number? What is its symbol?

### UNIT 13: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

UNIT 13: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY REVIEW: ISOTOPE NOTATION An isotope notation is written as Z A X, where X is the element, A is the mass number (sum of protons and neutrons), and Z is the atomic number. For

### H 1. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics. 1. Parts of Atom. A. Nuclear Structure. 2b. Nomenclature. 2. Isotopes. AstroPhysics Notes

AstroPhysics Notes Nuclear Physics Dr. Bill Pezzaglia Nuclear Physics A. Nuclear Structure B. Nuclear Decay C. Nuclear Reactions Updated: 0Feb07 Rough draft A. Nuclear Structure. Parts of Atom. Parts of

### Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry

Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry A nuclear reaction involves changes in the nucleus of an atom Nuclear chemistry the study of nuclear reactions, with an emphasis in their uses

### Nuclear Physics Questions. 1. What particles make up the nucleus? What is the general term for them? What are those particles composed of?

Nuclear Physics Questions 1. What particles make up the nucleus? What is the general term for them? What are those particles composed of? 2. What is the definition of the atomic number? What is its symbol?

CHAPTER 19 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS NUCLEAR STRUCTURE The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A protonis a positively charged particle having mass 1.6726 x 10(-27) kg and charge 1.6 x 10(-19) coulomb.

### H 1. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics. 1. Parts of Atom. 2. Isotopes. AstroPhysics Notes. Dr. Bill Pezzaglia. Rough draft. A.

AstroPhysics Notes Tom Lehrer: Elements Dr. Bill Pezzaglia Nuclear Physics Updated: 0Feb Rough draft Nuclear Physics A. Nuclear Structure A. Nuclear Structure B. Nuclear Decay C. Nuclear Reactions. Parts

### Fiesta Ware. Nuclear Chemistry. 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Fiesta Ware 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Measuring Radioactivity One can use a device like this Geiger counter to measure the amount of activity present in a radioactive sample. The ionizing radiation creates

### Chapter 20: Phenomena. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Chapter 20: Phenomena Phenomena: Below is a list of stable isotopes of different elements. Examine the data and see what patterns you can identify. The mass of a electron is 0.00055 u, the mass of a proton

### Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Unit 1 Atomic Structure Defining the Atom I. Atomic Theory A. Modern Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms 2. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike 3. Individual

### Fission and Fusion Book pg cgrahamphysics.com 2016

Fission and Fusion Book pg 286-287 cgrahamphysics.com 2016 Review BE is the energy that holds a nucleus together. This is equal to the mass defect of the nucleus. Also called separation energy. The energy

### Alta Chemistry CHAPTER 25. Nuclear Chemistry: Radiation, Radioactivity & its Applications

CHAPTER 25 Nuclear Chemistry: Radiation, Radioactivity & its Applications Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry deals with changes in the nucleus The nucleus of an atom contains Protons Positively Charged

### Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation

Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements A nuclear reaction takes place when a nucleus is struck by another nucleus or particle. Compare with chemical

### Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Topic 7.3 Nuclear Reactions

Atomic and Nuclear Physics Topic 7.3 Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Reactions Rutherford conducted experiments bombarding nitrogen gas with alpha particles from bismuth-214. He discovered that fast-moving particles

### = : K A

Atoms and Nuclei. State two limitations of JJ Thomson s model of atom. 2. Write the SI unit for activity of a radioactive substance. 3. What observations led JJ Thomson to conclusion that all atoms have

### Unit 1 Atomic Structure

Unit 1 Atomic Structure 3-1 The Atom: From Philosophical Idea to Scientific Theory I. Atomic Theory A. Modern Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms 2. Atoms of the

### Nuclear 2. Fission and Fusion

Nuclear 2 Fission and Fusion History 1896: Becquerel discovers radioactivity 1898: Marie & Pierre Curie discover radium 1911: Rutherford discovers nucleus 1932: Chadwick discovers neutrons 1933: Hitler

### Slide 1 / 57. Nuclear Physics & Nuclear Reactions Practice Problems

Slide 1 / 57 Nuclear Physics & Nuclear Reactions Practice Problems Slide 2 / 57 Multiple Choice Slide 3 / 57 1 The atomic nucleus consists of: A B C D E Electrons Protons Protons and electrons Protons

### Matter and Energy. Previous studies have taught us that matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed We balance equations to obey this law.

Fission & Fusion Matter and Energy Previous studies have taught us that matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed We balance equations to obey this law. 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 We now need to understand

### Nuclear Reactions. Fission Fusion

Nuclear Reactions Fission Fusion Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements A nuclear reaction takes place when a nucleus is struck by another nucleus or particle. Compare with chemical reactions!

### Physics 3204 UNIT 3 Test Matter Energy Interface

Physics 3204 UNIT 3 Test Matter Energy Interface 2005 2006 Time: 60 minutes Total Value: 33 Marks Formulae and Constants v = f λ E = hf h f = E k + W 0 E = m c 2 p = h λ 1 A= A T 0 2 t 1 2 E k = ½ mv 2

### Chapter 22. Preview. Objectives Properties of the Nucleus Nuclear Stability Binding Energy Sample Problem. Section 1 The Nucleus

Section 1 The Nucleus Preview Objectives Properties of the Nucleus Nuclear Stability Binding Energy Sample Problem Section 1 The Nucleus Objectives Identify the properties of the nucleus of an atom. Explain

### Atoms and Nuclear Chemistry. Atoms Isotopes Calculating Average Atomic Mass Radioactivity

Atoms and Nuclear Chemistry Atoms Isotopes Calculating Average Atomic Mass Radioactivity Atoms An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all of the properties of that element. Composition

### There are 82 protons in a lead nucleus. Why doesn t the lead nucleus burst apart?

Question 32.1 The Nucleus There are 82 protons in a lead nucleus. Why doesn t the lead nucleus burst apart? a) Coulomb repulsive force doesn t act inside the nucleus b) gravity overpowers the Coulomb repulsive

### : When electrons bombarded surface of certain materials, invisible rays were emitted

Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions 1. Occur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays. 2. Atoms are often converted into atoms of another element. 3. May involve protons, neutrons, and electrons 4. Associated

### Chemistry 52 Chapter 11 ATOMIC STRUCTURE. The general designation for an atom is shown below:

ATOMIC STRUCTURE An atom is composed of a positive nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons in a nucleus are referred

### turbine (a) (i) Which part of the power station provides thermal (heat) energy from a chain reaction?

Nuclear fission and radiation 1 The diagram shows parts of a nuclear power station. control rods boiler steam generator electricity out turbine condenser nuclear reactor (a) (i) Which part of the power

### Preview. Subatomic Physics Section 1. Section 1 The Nucleus. Section 2 Nuclear Decay. Section 3 Nuclear Reactions. Section 4 Particle Physics

Subatomic Physics Section 1 Preview Section 1 The Nucleus Section 2 Nuclear Decay Section 3 Nuclear Reactions Section 4 Particle Physics Subatomic Physics Section 1 TEKS The student is expected to: 5A

### da u g ht er + radiation

RADIOACTIVITY The discovery of radioactivity can be attributed to several scientists. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895 and shortly after that Henri Becquerel observed radioactive behavior while

### Nicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 30. Nuclear Physics. Marilyn Akins, PhD Broome Community College

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics Marilyn Akins, PhD Broome Community College Atomic Nuclei Rutherford s discovery of the atomic nucleus caused scientists

### Fission & Fusion Movie

Fission & Fusion Movie Matter and Energy Previous studies have taught us that matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed We balance equations to obey this law. 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 We now need to

### Ch05. Radiation. Energy and matter that comes from the nucleus of an atom. version 1.6

Ch05 Radiation Energy and matter that comes from the nucleus of an atom. version 1.6 Nick DeMello, PhD. 2007-2016 Ch05 Radiation The Discovery of Radioactivity Phosphorescence Radioactive history Antoine

### Nuclear Reactions A Z. Radioactivity, Spontaneous Decay: Nuclear Reaction, Induced Process: x + X Y + y + Q Q > 0. Exothermic Endothermic

Radioactivity, Spontaneous Decay: Nuclear Reactions A Z 4 P D+ He + Q A 4 Z 2 Q > 0 Nuclear Reaction, Induced Process: x + X Y + y + Q Q = ( m + m m m ) c 2 x X Y y Q > 0 Q < 0 Exothermic Endothermic 2

### Chapter 22 - Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter - Nuclear Chemistry - The Nucleus I. Introduction A. Nucleons. Neutrons and protons B. Nuclides. Atoms identified by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus 8 a. radium-8 or 88 Ra II.

### Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 24

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 24 Radioactivity Radioisotopes are isotopes that have an unstable nucleus. They emit radiation to attain more stable atomic configurations in a process called radioactive decay.

### Nuclear Chemistry. In this chapter we will look at two types of nuclear reactions.

1 1 Nuclear Chemistry In this chapter we will look at two types of nuclear reactions. Radioactive decay is the process in which a nucleus spontaneously disintegrates, giving off radiation. Nuclear bombardment

### Radioactivity & Nuclear. Chemistry. Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School. Chemistry

Radioactivity & Nuclear Chemistry Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School Chemistry The Discovery of Radioactivity Antoine-Henri Becquerel designed an experiment to determine if phosphorescent minerals also

### General Physics (PHY 2140)

General Physics (PHY 2140) Lecture 20 Modern Physics Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles Fission, Fusion and Reactors Elementary Particles Fundamental Forces Classification of Particles Conservation

### Nuclear fission and fusion are processes that involve extremely large amounts of energy.

Nuclear Reactions & Energy Nuclear fission and fusion are processes that involve extremely large amounts of energy. Fission = the splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei, subatomic particles

### Term 3 Week 2 Nuclear Fusion & Nuclear Fission

Term 3 Week 2 Nuclear Fusion & Nuclear Fission Tuesday, November 04, 2014 Nuclear Fusion To understand nuclear fusion & fission Nuclear Fusion Why do stars shine? Stars release energy as a result of fusing

### Chapter 10 - Nuclear Physics

The release of atomic energy has not created a new problem. It has merely made more urgent the necessity of solving an existing one. -Albert Einstein David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 214 Ernest

### Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactivity. In this chapter we will look at two types of nuclear reactions.

1 Nuclear Chemistry In this chapter we will look at two types of nuclear reactions. Radioactive decay is the process in which a nucleus spontaneously disintegrates, giving off radiation. Nuclear bombardment

### Chapter 44. Nuclear Structure

Chapter 44 Nuclear Structure Milestones in the Development of Nuclear Physics 1896: the birth of nuclear physics Becquerel discovered radioactivity in uranium compounds Rutherford showed the radiation

### Nuclear & Particle Physics

AstroPhysics Notes Nuclear Physics Dr. Bill Pezzaglia A. Nuclear Structure Nuclear & Particle Physics B. Nuclear Decay C. Nuclear Reactions D. Particle Physics Updated: 0Aug8 Rough draft A. Nuclear Structure

### Nuclear Physics. Radioactivity. # protons = # neutrons. Strong Nuclear Force. Checkpoint 4/17/2013. A Z Nucleus = Protons+ Neutrons

Marie Curie 1867-1934 Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable isotope. Antoine Henri Becquerel 1852-1908 Wilhelm Roentgen 1845-1923 Nuclear Physics A Z Nucleus =

### Unit 3: Chemistry in Society Nuclear Chemistry Summary Notes

St Ninian s High School Chemistry Department National 5 Chemistry Unit 3: Chemistry in Society Nuclear Chemistry Summary Notes Name Learning Outcomes After completing this topic you should be able to :

### Students ScoreBooster Video Tutorials. JAMB (UTME), WAEC (SSCE, GCE), NECO, and NABTEB EXAMS. Chemistry.

Students ScoreBooster Video Tutorials on JAMB (UTME), WAEC (SSCE, GCE), NECO, and NABTEB EXAMS Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry-II (JAMB (UTME)) Presented by Saheed Adewale Lateef [B.Eng. (ChE)] Learning Outcomes

### Atomic Structure. INSIDE the Nucleus: OUTSIDE the Nucleus:

Nuclear Chemistry 1 Atomic Structure INSIDE the Nucleus: Protons (+) Neutrons (no charge) 99.9% of the mass of the atom (Rutherford central dense nucleus) OUTSIDE the Nucleus: Electrons (-) Little mass

Topic 9: Nuclear Physics Ch. 10 pp.244-249 results from radioactive decay, which is the process in which unstable atomic nuclei transform and emit radiation. has existed longer than the human race. Unstable

### CH 222 Chapter Twenty-one Concept Guide

CH 222 Chapter Twenty-one Concept Guide 1. Terminology Alpha Radiation (α): Beta Radiation (β): Gamma Radiation (γ): Nuclear Reaction: Nucleons: Radioactive Decay Series: Positrons: Nuclear Binding Energy:

### Absorber Alpha emission Alpha particle Atom. Atomic line spectra Atomic mass unit Atomic number Atomic structure. Background radiation

Material that prevent radioactive emission from passing through it Release of alpha particle from unstable nucleus(a 2+ helium ion or a helium nucleus) The nucleus of a helium atom (two protons and two

### Ch Radioactivity. Henry Becquerel, using U-238, discovered the radioactive nature of elements in 1896.

Ch. 10 - Radioactivity Henry Becquerel, using U-238, discovered the radioactive nature of elements in 1896. Radioactivity the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus emits charged particles and energy

### Chapter 29. Nuclear Physics

Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics Ernest Rutherford 1871 1937 Discovery that atoms could be broken apart Studied radioactivity Nobel prize in 1908 Some Properties of Nuclei All nuclei are composed of protons

### Activity 12: Energy from Nuclear Reactions

Name Section Activity 12: Energy from Nuclear Reactions 12.1 A Model of the Composition of Nucleons 1) Formation of Nucleons Nucleons consist of quark trios. a) Place orange or green quarks into the metal

### Chapter 25. Nuclear Chemistry. Types of Radiation

Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry Chemical Reactions 1. Bonds are broken and formed 2. Atoms may rearrange, but remain unchanged 3. Involve only valence electrons 4. Small energy changes 5. Reaction rate is

### Section 2: Nuclear Fission and Fusion. Preview Key Ideas Bellringer Nuclear Forces Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction Nuclear Fusion

: Nuclear Fission and Fusion Preview Key Ideas Bellringer Nuclear Forces Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction Nuclear Fusion Key Ideas What holds the nuclei of atoms together? What is released when the nucleus

### Chapter 21

Chapter 21 http://youtu.be/kwasz59f8ga Nuclear reactions involve the nucleus The nucleus opens, and protons and neutrons are rearranged. The opening of the nucleus releases a tremendous amount of energy

### Multiple Choice Questions

Nuclear Physics & Nuclear Reactions Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B 1. The atomic nucleus consists of: (A) Electrons (B) Protons (C)Protons and electrons (D) Protons and neutrons (E) Neutrons and electrons

### Populating nucleon states. From the Last Time. Other(less stable) helium isotopes. Radioactivity. Radioactive nuclei. Stability of nuclei.

Nucleus: From the Last Time System of and neutrons bound by the strong force Proton number determines the element. Different isotopes have different # neutrons. Stable isotopes generally have similar number

### Table O: Symbols Used in Nuclear Chemistry

Packet 12: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY STABLITY OF NUCLEI Most nuclei are stable and don t change. They are found within the belt of stability. Some nuclei are unstable and break down spontaneously giving off rays

### Chapter 28 Lecture. Nuclear Physics Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 28 Lecture Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics How are new elements created? What are the natural sources of ionizing radiation? How does carbon dating work? Be sure you know how to: Use the right-hand

### MockTime.com. Ans: (b) Q6. Curie is a unit of [1989] (a) energy of gamma-rays (b) half-life (c) radioactivity (d) intensity of gamma-rays Ans: (c)

Chapter Nuclei Q1. A radioactive sample with a half life of 1 month has the label: Activity = 2 micro curies on 1 8 1991. What would be its activity two months earlier? [1988] 1.0 micro curie 0.5 micro

Question 13.1: Two stable isotopes of lithium and have respective abundances of 7.5% and 92.5%. These isotopes have masses 6.01512 u and 7.01600 u, respectively. Find the atomic mass of lithium. Boron

### [2] State in what form the energy is released in such a reaction.... [1]

(a) The following nuclear reaction occurs when a slow-moving neutron is absorbed by an isotope of uranium-35. 0n + 35 9 U 4 56 Ba + 9 36Kr + 3 0 n Explain how this reaction is able to produce energy....

### The Atomic Nucleus & Radioactive Decay. Major Constituents of an Atom 4/28/2016. Student Learning Outcomes. Analyze radioactive decay and its results

The Atomic Nucleus & Radioactive Decay ( Chapter 10) Student Learning Outcomes Analyze radioactive decay and its results Differentiate between nuclear fission and fusion Major Constituents of an Atom U=unified

### Nuclear Physics. Chapter 43. PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman

Chapter 43 Nuclear Physics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 43 To understand some key properties

### Nuclear Chemistry. The Nucleus. Isotopes. Slide 1 / 43. Slide 2 / 43. Slide 3 / 43

Slide 1 / 43 Nuclear Chemistry The Nucleus Slide 2 / 43 Remember that the nucleus is comprised of the two nucleons, protons and neutrons. The number of protons is the atomic number. The number of protons

### Recap I Lecture 41 Matthias Liepe, 2012

Recap I Lecture 41 Matthias Liepe, 01 Recap II Nuclear Physics The nucleus Radioactive decay Fission Fusion Particle Physics: What is the Higgs? Today: Nuclear Physics: The Nucleus Positive charge and

### Chapter 10 Section 4 Notes

Chapter 10 Section 4 Notes This painting of an alchemist s laboratory was made around 1570. For centuries, these early scientists, known as alchemists, tried to use chemical reactions to make gold. The

### A is called the mass number gives, roughly, the mass of the nucleus or atom in atomic mass units = amu = u

5/5 A is called the mass number gives, roughly, the mass of the nucleus or atom in atomic mass units = amu = u The number of neutrons in the nucleus is given by the symbol N. Clearly, N = A Z. Isotope:

### Nice Try. Introduction: Development of Nuclear Physics 20/08/2010. Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity. SPH4UI Physics

SPH4UI Physics Modern understanding: the ``onion picture Nuclear Binding, Radioactivity Nucleus Protons tom and neutrons Let s see what s inside! 3 Nice Try Introduction: Development of Nuclear Physics

### Unit 2: Atomic Theory Notes

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Notes The changing of a substance into one or more new substances is known as a chemical reaction. Law of conservation of mass: mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary

### 1.1 ALPHA DECAY 1.2 BETA MINUS DECAY 1.3 GAMMA EMISSION 1.4 ELECTRON CAPTURE/BETA PLUS DECAY 1.5 NEUTRON EMISSION 1.6 SPONTANEOUS FISSION

Chapter NP-3 Nuclear Physics Decay Modes and Decay Rates TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 RADIOACTIVE DECAY 1.1 ALPHA DECAY 1.2 BETA MINUS DECAY 1.3 GAMMA EMISSION 1.4 ELECTRON CAPTURE/BETA

### Nuclear & Particle Physics

AstroPhysics Notes Nuclear Physics Dr. Bill Pezzaglia A. Nuclear Structure Nuclear & Particle Physics B. Nuclear Decay C. Nuclear Reactions D. Particle Physics Updated: 03Aug9 (for physics 700) A. Nuclear

### Class XII Chapter 13 - Nuclei Physics

Question 13.1: (a) Two stable isotopes of lithium and have respective abundances of 7.5% and 92.5%. These isotopes have masses 6.01512 u and 7.01600 u, respectively. Find the atomic mass of lithium. (b)

### By Tim, John, Shane, Owen

By Tim, John, Shane, Owen A few refreshers Atoms of the same element, which always have an identical number of protons, that have different numbers of neutrons, is an isotope. Protons and neutrons are

### Structure of the Nuclear Atom

Structure of the Nuclear Atom I. The II. A. The is the smallest particle of an element that retains its of the element. History of the Atom A. Democritus 1. Democritus (460 B.C. 370 B.C) was the first

### Nobel prizes in nuclear and reactor physics. Szabolcs Czifrus Institute of Nuclear Techniques BME

Nobel prizes in nuclear and reactor physics Szabolcs Czifrus Institute of Nuclear Techniques BME Nuclear physics in everyday life Electricity: production in nuclear power plants Sterilization by the application

### NUCLEI, RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS

NUCLEI, RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q-1. Which of the two is bigger 1 kwh or 1 MeV? Q-2. What should be the approximate minimum energy of a gamma ray photon for pair

### Lecture Presentation. Chapter 21. Nuclear Chemistry. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Presentation Chapter 21, Inc. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Energy: Chemical vs. Chemical energy is associated with making and breaking chemical bonds. energy is enormous in comparison.

### CHAPTER 7 TEST REVIEW

IB PHYSICS Name: Period: Date: # Marks: 94 Raw Score: IB Curve: DEVIL PHYSICS BADDEST CLASS ON CAMPUS CHAPTER 7 TEST REVIEW 1. An alpha particle is accelerated through a potential difference of 10 kv.

### A. Incorrect! Do not confuse Nucleus, Neutron and Nucleon. B. Incorrect! Nucleon is the name given to the two particles that make up the nucleus.

AP Physics - Problem Drill 24: Nuclear Physics 1. Identify what is being described in each of these statements. Question 01 (1) It is held together by the extremely short range Strong force. (2) The magnitude