1 Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria
2 At equilibrium, the rate of a forward process or reaction and that of the reverse process are equal. 9A The chemical composition of aqueous solutions Classifying Solutions of Electrolytes Electrolytes form ions when dissolved in solvent and thus produce solutions that conduct electricity. Strong electrolytes ionize almost completely in a solvent, but weak electrolytes ionize only partially.
3 Among the strong electrolytes listed are acids, bases, and salts. A salt is produced in the reaction of an acid with a base. Ex., NaCl, Na SO 4, and NaOOCCH (sodium acetate). Acids and bases According to the Brønsted-Lowry theory, an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor. For a molecule to behave as an acid, it must encounter a proton acceptor (or base) and vice versa. Conjugate Acids and Bases A conjugate base is formed when an acid loses a proton. For example, acetate ion is the conjugate base of acetic acid. A conjugate acid is formed when a base accepts a proton.
4 acid 1 base 1 proton base proton acid acid 1 base base 1 acid Acid 1 and base 1 act as a conjugate acid/base pair, or just a conjugate pair. Similarly, every base accepts a proton to produce a conjugate acid. When these two processes are combined, the result is an acid/base, or neutralization reaction. This reaction proceeds to an extent that depends on the relative tendencies of the two bases to accept a proton (or the two acids to donate a proton).
5 In an aqueous solution of ammonia, water can donate a proton and acts as an acid with respect to the solute NH. NH 4 H O NH OH Ammonia (base1) reacts with water (acid) to give the conjugate acid ammonium ion (acid1) and hydroxide ion (base) of the acid water. On the other hand, water acts as a proton acceptor, or base, in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid. H O NO HNO H O The conjugate base of the acid HNO is nitrite ion. The conjugate acid of water is the hydrated proton written as H O 1. This species is called the hydronium ion, and it consists of a proton covalently bonded to a single water molecule.
6 Figure 9-1 Possible structures for the hydronium ion. Higher hydrates such as H 5 O 1, H 9 O 41, having a dodecahedral cage structure may also appear in aqueous solutions of protons.
7 Amphiprotic species Species that have both acidic and basic properties are amphiprotic. Ex., dihydrogen phosphate ion, H PO 4-, which behaves as a base in the presence of a proton donor such as H O. H PO4 H O H PO4 H O Here, H PO 4 is the conjugate acid of the original base. - In the presence of a proton acceptor, such as hydroxide ion, however, H PO 4 - behaves as an acid and donates a proton to form the conjugate base HPO 4 -. H PO4 OH HPO4 H O
8 The simple amino acids are an important class of amphiprotic compounds that contain both a weak acid and a weak base functional group. When dissolved in water, an amino acid, such as glycine, undergoes a kind of internal acid/base reaction to produce a zwitterion a species that has both a positive and a negative charge. NH CH COOH NH CH COO Water is the classic example of an amphiprotic solvent. Common amphiprotic solvents include methanol, ethanol, and anhydrous acetic acid.
9 Autoprotolysis Autoprotolysis (also called autoionization) is the spontaneous reaction of molecules of a substance to give a pair of ions. The hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in pure water are only about 10-7 M. Strengths of Acids and Bases Figure 9- Dissociation reactions and relative strengths of some common acids and their conjugate bases.
10 - The common strong acids include HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, HNO, the first proton in H SO 4, and the organic sulfonic acid RSO H. - The common strong bases include NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH), and the quaternary ammonium hydroxide R 4 NOH, where R is an alkyl group such as CH or C H 5. -The tendency of a solvent to accept or donate protons determines the strength of a solute acid or base dissolved in it. For example, perchloric and hydrochloric acids are strong acids in water. If anhydrous acetic acid, a weaker proton acceptor than water, is substituted as the solvent, neither of these acids undergoes complete dissociation. Instead, equilibria such as the following are established: base 1 acid acid1 base CH COOH HClO 4 CH COOH ClO 4 - Perchloric acid is, however, about 5000 times stronger than hydrochloric acid in this solvent. Acetic acid thus acts as a differentiating solvent toward the two acids by revealing the inherent differences in their acidities. -In a differentiating solvent, such as acetic acid, various acids dissociate to different degrees and have different strengths. - Water, on the other hand, is a leveling solvent for perchloric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids because all three are completely ionized in this solvent and
11 9B Chemical equilibrium Many reactions never result in complete conversion of reactants to products. They proceed to a state of chemical equilibrium in which the ratio of concentrations of reactants and products is constant. Equilibrium-constant expressions are algebraic equations that describe the concentration relationships among reactants and products at equilibrium. The Equilibrium State The final position of a chemical equilibrium is independent of the route to the equilibrium state. This relationship can be altered by applying stressors such as changes in temperature, in pressure, or in total concentration of a reactant or a product. These effects can be predicted qualitatively by the Le Châtelier s principle. This principle states that the position of chemical equilibrium always shifts in a direction that tends to relieve the effect of an applied stress. Ex., an increase in temperature of a system alters the concentration relationship in the direction that tends to absorb heat.
12 The mass-action effect is a shift in the position of an equilibrium caused by adding one of the reactants or products to a system. Equilibrium is a dynamic process. At equilibrium, the amounts of reactants and products are constant because the rates of the forward and reverse processes are exactly the same. Chemical thermodynamics is a branch of chemistry that concerns the flow of heat and energy in chemical reactions. The position of a chemical equilibrium is related to these energy changes.
13 Equilibrium-Constant Expressions The influence of concentration or pressure on the position of a chemical equilibrium is described in quantitative terms by means of an equilibrium-constant expression. They allow us to predict the direction and completeness of chemical reactions. An equilibrium-constant expression yields no information concerning the rate of a reaction. Some reactions have highly favorable equilibrium constants but are of little analytical use because they are slow. This limitation can often be overcome by the use of a catalyst.
14 w moles of W react with x moles of X to form y moles of Y and z moles of Z. The equilibrium-constant expression becomes ww K = xx yy y z [ Y ] [ Z ] [ W ] w [ X ] x zz The square-bracketed terms are: 1. molar concentrations if they represent dissolved solutes.. partial pressures in atmospheres if they are gas-phase reactants or products. [Z] z is replaced with pz (partial pressure of Z in atmosphere). No term for Z is included in the equation if this species is a pure solid, a pure liquid, or the solvent of a dilute solution. K = [ ] y Y [ W ] w [ X ] x
15 The constant K in is a temperature-dependent numerical quantity called the equilibrium constant. By convention, the concentrations of the products, as the equation is written, are always placed in the numerator and the concentrations of the reactants are always in the denominator. The exact equilibrium-constant expression takes the form: K = a a y Y w W a a z Z x X where a Y, a Z, a W, and a X are the activities of species Y, Z, W, and X.
16 Types of Equilibrium Constants in Analytical Chemistry
17 9B-4 Applying the Ion-Product Constant for Water Aqueous solutions contain small concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions as a result of the dissociation reaction. The dissociation constant can be written as H K = O H O [ H O ][. OH ] [ H O] OH The concentration of water in dilute aqueous solutions is enormous, however, when compared with the concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions. As a result, [H O] can be considered as constant and we write [ ] [ ][ ] H O = K = H O OH K w the new constant K w is called the ion-product constant for water. Negative logarithm of the equation gives log K w = log [ H O ] log[ OH ] By definition of p function, we have pk w = ph poh
18 At 5 C, the ion-product constant for water is x For convenience, we use the approximation that at room temperature K w 1.00 x Table 9- shows how Kw depends on temperature. The ion-product constant for water permits us to easily find the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations of aqueous solutions.
20 The equation shows that the position of this equilibrium is independent of the amount of Ba(IO ) as long as some solid is present. Using Solubility-Product Constants Most sparingly soluble salts are completely dissociated in saturated aqueous solution, which means that the very small amount that does go into solution dissociates completely. When an excess of barium iodate is equilibrated with water, the dissociation process is adequately described as [ ] [ ] Ba IO Ba( IO ) ( s) Ba ( aq) IO ( aq) K = [ Ba( IO ) ( s) ] An excess of barium iodate is equilibrated with water means that more solid barium iodate is added to a portion of water than would dissolve at the temperature of the experiment. Some solid BaIO is in contact with the saturated solution. The concentration of a compound in its solid state is, however, constant. In other words, the number of moles of Ba(IO) divided by the volume of the solid Ba(IO ) is constant no matter how much excess solid is present. Therefore, the previous equation can be rewritten in the form K[ Ba( IO ) ( s)] [ ][ ] Ba = K = IO sp solubility-product constant
21 The Solubility of a Precipitate in Pure Water
23 The Effect of a Common Ion on the Solubility of a Precipitate The common-ion effect is a mass-action effect predicted from Le Châtelier s principle and is demonstrated by the following examples.
24 The solubility of an ionic precipitate decreases when a soluble compound containing one of the ions of the precipitate is added to the solution. This behavior is called the common-ion effect.
26 The uncertainty in [IO - ] is 0.1 part in 6.0 or 1 part in 60. thus, (1/60) , and we round to M. A 0.0 M excess of Ba decreases the solubility of Ba(IO) - by a factor of about 5; this same excess of IO - lowers the solubility by a factor of about 00.
27 Using Acid/Base Dissociation Constants When a weak acid or a weak base is dissolved in water, partial dissociation occurs. HNO H O H O NO Ka is the acid dissociation constant for nitrous acid. K a = [ H O ][ NO ] [ HNO ] In an analogous way, the base dissociation constant for ammonia is NH H O NH 4 OH K b = [ NH ][ OH ] 4 [ NH ] For both, [H O] does not appear in the denominator because the concentration of water is very large relative to the concentration of the weak acid or base that the dissociation does not alter [H O] appreciably.
28 Dissociation Constants for Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs Consider the base dissociation-constant expression for ammonia and the acid dissociation-constant expression for its conjugate acid, ammonium ion: NH H K K a w O K b = H O NH NH H O = [ H O ][. OH ] [ H O ][. OH ] 4 OH K a = K b = [ NH ][. OH ] [ NH ] [ NH ][. H O ] [ NH ] 4 4 K w = K a K b
29 Hydronium Ion Concentration of Solutions of Weak Acids When the weak acid HA is dissolved in water, two equilibria produce hydronium ions: [ ][ ] HO A HA H O HO A Ka = HA H O H O OH [ ] [ ] H O K w = [ ] [ ][ ] H O OH Normally, the hydronium ions produced from the first reaction suppress the dissociation of water to such an extent that the contribution of hydronium ions from the second equilibrium is negligible. Under these circumstances; - one H O ion is formed for each A - ion, and we write A
30 The sum of the molar concentrations of the weak acid and its conjugate base must equal the analytical concentration of the acid c HA Thus, we get the mass-balance equation c HA = [ ] [ ] A HA Substituting [H O ] for [A - ] yields c HA = [ ] H O [ HA] Which rearranges to Thus, the equilibrium-constant expression becomes Which rearranges to K a [ ] [ ] HA = c H O HA [ ] HO [ ] H O [ ] [ ] H O K H O K c = 0 = c HA a ( Eqn ) a HA
31 The positive solution to this quadratic equation is [ ] Ka Ka 4 Ka cha HO = This can be simplified by making the additional assumption that dissociation does not appreciably decrease the molar concentration of HA. Thus, if [H O ] << C HA, C HA - [H O ] C HA, and Equation 9-18 reduces to K a [ ] H O c HA H O = [ ] = HA K a c
32 Figure 9- Relative error resulting from the assumption that [HO] << cha
35 The method of Succesive approximations
36 Hydronium Ion Concentration of Solutions of Weak Bases Aqueous ammonia is basic as a result of the reaction NH H O NH 4 OH The equilibrium constant of the reaction is K b = [ NH ][ OH ] 4 [ NH ]
39 9C Buffer solutions A buffer solution resists changes in ph when it is diluted or when acids or bases are added to it. Bsolutions are prepared from a conjugate acid/base pair. Buffers are used in chemical applications whenever it is important to maintain the ph of a solution at a constant and predetermined level. Calculating the ph of Buffer Solutions A solution containing a weak acid, HA, and its conjugate base, A, may be acidic, neutral, or basic, depending on the positions of two competitive equilibria: HA H O H O A K a = [ H O ][ A ] [ HA]
40 [ OH ][ HA] H O OH HA K b = w [ A ] K a A = These two equilibrium-constant expressions show that the relative concentrations of the hydronium and hydroxide ions depend not only on the magnitudes of K a and K b but also on the ratio between the concentrations of the acid and its conjugate base. K The equilibrium concentrations of HA and NaA are expressed in terms of their analytical concentrations, cha and cnaa. [ HA] = c [ H O ] [ OH ] [ A ] = c [ H O ] [ OH ] [ HA] c HA NaA HA [ A ] cnaa
41 The dissociation-constant expression can then be expressed as: [ O ] H = K c HA a cnaa The hydronium ion concentration of a solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base depends only on the ratio of the molar concentrations of these two solutes. Furthermore, this ratio is independent of dilution because the concentration of each component changes proportionally when the volume changes.
45 Properties of Buffer Solutions Figure 9-4 The effect of dilution of the ph of buffered and unbuffered solutions. The Effect of Added Acids and Bases Buffers do not maintain ph at an absolutely constant value, but changes in ph are relatively small when small amounts of acid or base are added.
47 The Composition of Buffer Solutions as a Function of ph: Alpha Values The composition of buffer solutions can be visualized by plotting the relative equilibrium concentrations of the two components of a conjugate acid/base as a function of the ph of the solution. These relative concentrations are called alpha values. If c T is the sum of the analytical concentrations of acetic acid and sodium acetate in a typical buffer solution, we can write: c = c T HOAc c NaOAc
48 α 0 the fraction of the total concentration of acid that is undissociated is α 0 = [ HOAc] c T α 1, the fraction dissociated is α 1 = [ ] OAc c T Alpha values are unitless ratios whose sum must equal unity. These values depend only on [H O ] and K a. α 0 α 1 = 1 [ OAc ] = K [ HOAc] a [ H O ] c T = [ HOAc] [ OAc ] c T = [ HOAc] K [ HOAc] a [ H O ] = [ ] [ [ ] H O HOAc ( H O ] K )
49 The re-arranged equation becomes [ HOAc] [ H O ] = ct [ H O ] K a [HOAc]/c T = α 0 Thus, α 0 [ HOAc] [ H O ] = ct [ H O ] K a = Similarly, α 1 [ OAc ] K = = c T a [ H O ] K a
50 Figure 9-5 Graph shows the variation in a with ph. Note that most of the transition between a 0 and a 1 occurs within ±1 ph unit of the crossover point of the two curves. The crossover point where α 0 = α 1 = 0.5 occurs when ph = pk HOAc = 4.74.
51 The buffer capacity, b, of a solution is defined as the number of moles of a strong acid or a strong base that causes 1.00 L of the buffer to undergo a 1.00-unit change in ph. Mathematically, dcb dca β = = dph dph where dc b is the number of moles per liter of strong base, and dc a is the number of moles per liter of strong acid added to the buffer. Since adding strong acid to a buffer causes the ph to decrease, dc a /dph is negative, and buffer capacity is always positive. The pka of the acid chosen for a given application should lie within ±1 unit of the desired ph for the buffer to have a reasonable capacity.
52 Figure 9-6 Buffer capacity as a function of the logarithm of the ratio cnaa/cha.
53 Preparation of Buffers
54 Suggested problems to solve from Ch:9 9.1, to 9.0 You are advised to solve each question at the ends of the chapter 9.
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