Near-Field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology

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1 M. Ohtsu (Ed.) Near-Field Nano/Atom Optics and Technology With 189 Figures / Springer

2 Preface List of Contributors V VII XIII 1. Introduction Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies History of Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies Basic Features of an Optical Near Field Optically "Near" System EfFective Field and Evanescent Field Near-Field Detection of EfFective Fields Role of a Probe Tip Building Blocks of Near-Field Optical Systems Comments on the Theory of Near-Field Optics Compositum of This Book 13 References Principles of the Probe Basic Probe Optical Fiber Probe for the Near-Field Optical Microscope Principle of the Imaging Mechanism: Dipole-Dipole Interaction Resolution Contrast Sensitivity Functional Probe: New Contrast Mechanisms Signal Conversion by Functional Probes Absorption and Emission: Radiative and Nonradiative j Energy Transfer Resonance, Nonlinearity, and Other Mechanisms 27 References 29

3 VIII 3. Probe Fabrication Introduction Selective Etching of a Silica Fiber Composed of a Core and Cladding f Geometrical Model of Selective Etching Pure Silica Fiber with a Fluorine Doped Cladding Ge0 2 Doped Fiber Tapered Fibers for Optical Transmission Systems Selective Etching of a Dispersion Compensating Fiber Shoulder-Shaped Probe Shoulder-Shaped Probe with a Controlled Cladding Diameter Shoulder-Shaped Probe with a Nanometric Flattened Apex Double-Tapered Probe Pencil-Shaped Probe Pencil-Shaped Probe with an Ultra-Small Cone Angle Pencil-Shaped Probe with a Nanometric Apex Diameter Protrusion-Type Probe Selective Resin Coating Method Chemical Polishing Method Hybrid Selective Etching of a Double-Cladding Fiber Triple-Tapered Probe Geometrical Model of Selective Etching of a Double- Cladding Fiber Application-Oriented Probes: Pencil-Shaped Probe and Triple-Tapered Probe Probe for Ultraviolet NOM Applications UV Single-Tapered Probe UV Triple-Tapered Probe Advanced Method Based on Hybrid Selective Etching of a Double Core Fiber Geometrical Model 67 References High-Throughput Probes Introduction Excitation of the HE-Plasmon Mode Mode Analysis Edged Probes for Exciting the HE-Plasmon Mode Multiple-Tapered Probes Double-Tapered Probe Triple-Tapered Probe 82

4 IX References Functional Probes Introduction Methods of Fixation Selecting a Functional Material Probe Characteristics and Applications Dye-Fixed Probes Chemical Sensing Probes Future Directions 98 References Instrumentation of Near-Field Optical Microscopy Operation Modes of NOM c-mode NOM i-mode NOM Comparative Features of Modes of NOM Scanning Control Modes Constant-height Mode Constant-Distance Mode Shear-force Feed Back Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback 111 References Basic Features of Optical Near-Field and Imaging Resolution Characteristics Longitudinal Resolution Lateral Resolution Factors Influencing Resolution Influence of Probe Parameters Dependence on Sample-Probe Separation Polarization Dependence Influence of Polarization on the Images of an Ultrasmooth Sapphire Surface Influence of Polarization on the Images of LiNbOs Nanocrystals 130 References Imaging Biological Specimens Introduction Observation of Flagellar Filaments by c-mode NOM Imaging in Air Imaging in Water Observation of Subcellular Structures of Neurons by i-mode NOM 136 \

5 X Imaging in Air Under Shear-Force Feedback Imaging of Neurons Without Dye Labeling Imaging of Neurons Labeled with Toluidine Blue Imaging in Water Under Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback Imaging in Air Imaging in PBS Imaging of Microtubules by c-mode NOM Imaging of Fluorescent-Labeled Biospecimens Imaging DNA Molecules by Optical Near-Field Intensity Feedback 148 References Diagnosing Semiconductor Nano-Materials and Devices Fundamental Aspects of Near-Field Study of Semiconductors Near-Field Spectroscopy of Semiconductors Optical Near Field Generated by a Small Aperture and Its Interaction with Semiconductors Operation in Illumination-Collection Hybrid Mode Multidiagnostics of Lateral p-n Junctions Sample and Experimental Set-up Spatially Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Two-Dimensional Mapping of Photoluminescence Intensity Collection-Mode Imaging of Electroluminescence Multiwavelength Photocurrent Spectroscopy Low-Temperature Single Quantum Dot Spectroscopy Near-field single quantum dot spectroscopy Low-Temperature NOM Sample and Experimental Set-up Fundamental Performance of the System Physical Insight of Single Quantum Dot Photoluminescence Observation of Other Types of Quantum Dots Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Polysilane Molecules Polysilanes Near-Field Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Imaging and Spectroscopy of Polysilane Aggregates Raman Spectroscopy of Semiconductors Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Raman Imaging and Spectroscopy of Polydiacetylene and Si Diagnostics of AI Stripes in an Integrated Circuit Principle of Detection 186

6 XI Heating with a Metallized Probe Heating by an Apertured Probe 188 References Toward Nano-Photonic Devices Introduction Use of Surface Plasmons Principles of Surface Plasmons Observation of Surface Plasmons Toward Two-Dimensional Devices Toward Three-Dimensional Devices A Protruded Metallized Probe with an Aperture Application to High-Density Optical Memory Problems to Be Solved Approaches to Solving the Problems Structure of the Read-Out Head Storage Probe Array Track-less Read-out Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Planar Probe Array 212 References Near-Field Optical Atom Manipulation: Toward Atom Photonics Introduction Control of Gaseous Atoms: From Far Field to Near Field Dipole Force Atomic Quantum Sheets: Atom Reflection Using a Planar Optical Near Field Atomic Quantum Wires: Atom Guidance Using a Cylindrical Optical Near Field Atomic Quantum Dots: Atom Manipulation Using a Localized Optical Near Field Cylindrical Optical Near Field for Atomic Quantum Wires Exact Light-Field Modes in Hollow Optical Fibers Approximate Light-Field Modes in Hollow Optical Fibers Field Intensity of the LP Modes Atomic Quantum Wires Near-Field Optical Potential Laser Spectroscopy of Guided Atoms with Two-Step Photoionization Observation of Cavity QED Effects in a Dielectric Cylinder Atomic Quantum Wires with a Light Coupled Sideways Optically Controlled Atomic Deposition 240

7 XII Spatial Distribution of Guided Atoms Precise Control of Deposition Rate In-line Spatial Isotope Separation Near-Field Optical Atomic Funnels Atomic Funnel with Atomic Quantum Sheet Sisyphus Cooling Induced by Optical Near Field Monte Carlo Simulations Atomic Quantum Dots Phenomenological Approach to the Interaction Between Atoms and the Localized Optical Near Field Atom Deflection Atom Trap with a Sharpened Optical Fiber Three-Dimensional Atom Trap Future Outlook 261 References Related Theories Comparison of Theoretical Approaches Semi-microscopic and Microscopic Approaches Basic Equations Example of an Evanescent Field Direct and Indirect Field Propagators Electric Susceptibility of Matter Numerical Examples Weak vs. Strong Coupling Near-Field- and Far-Field-Propagating Signals Scanning Methods Possibility of Spin-Polarization Detection Effective Field and Massive Virtual Photon Model Future Direction 290 References 290 Index 295

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