1 Laboratory Chemical Safety Pathology Training
2 Objectives Explain the OSHA standard for chemical safety as it relates to laboratory workers Explain Chemical labeling requirements Explain the NFPA diamond Explain the need for Material Data Safety Sheets and their contents
3 Chemical Safety Responsibilities Chemical manufacturers, employers, and employees all share in the responsibilities of ensuring the safe handling of all chemicals used in the laboratory.
4 Manufacturers responsibilities All chemical manufacturers must determine the physical and health hazards of each product they make Manufacturers communicate these potential hazards to end users through the use of: Container labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
5 Employers responsibilities Each employer must: Identify and list all hazardous chemicals in the workplace (chemical inventory) Ensure there is a MSDS for each chemical and make them available to all employees Supply training to all staff regarding chemical hazards and safety procedures
6 Employees responsibilities It is the responsibility of each staff member to: Read the manufacturer s labels prior to handling any chemical Know how to access all MSDS s Follow all instructions and warnings Access all appropriate safety information with the help of the Risk Management Coordinator and/or supervisor Contact the Risk Management Coordinator or appropriate supervisor of any potential safety hazards you may detect
7 OSHA Regulations OSHA standard sets the minimum requirements regulating workplace exposure to chemicals. This regulation is titled Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories and is more commonly known as the Right-to Know Law.
8 OSHA Regulations This Standard sets requirements for: Chemical labeling and MSDS Employee exposure determination Each laboratory to develop a written Chemical Hygiene Plan Training of each employee regarding the contents of the Chemical Hygiene Plan
9 Chemical Hygiene Plan The Chemical Hygiene Plan defines the safety procedures for all hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory. Each laboratory s Chemical Hygiene Plan must include: Responsibilities of the Laboratory Director and supervisors Designation of a qualified Chemical Hygiene Officer For the Pathology Department, the Supervisor of the Reagent Laboratory fill this role
10 Chemical Hygiene Plan Items included (continued): Policies for all operations that involve hazardous chemicals Criteria for the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) which may include safety goggles, nitrile or rubber gloves, and fluid-resistant gowns or aprons Criteria for exposure monitoring when permissible levels are exceeded Provisions for medical consultations and examinations
11 Chemical Hygiene Plan Items included (continued): Provision for the training of all employees in the elements of the plan Access to all employees of the OSHA Laboratory Standard, Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories : 29CFR
12 Chemical Safety Policies In addition to the Chemical Hygiene Plan ( ), the Risk Management section of the Departmental Policies and Procedures (located on-line on the Pathology intranet) contains other policies related to chemical safety. Each employee must familiarize themselves with all Departmental safety policies.
13 Chemical Safety Policies Related Departmental chemical safety policies include: Chemical Right to Know Law Chemical Inventory Chemical Labeling and Storage Handling Chemical Spills Particularly Hazardous Substances
14 Chemical Labels Although formatting may differ, all chemical labels must contain similar types of information in order to meet OSHA and DOT guidelines. Chemical labels provide information on the potential hazards a particular chemical presents, and includes the basic steps to protect against these hazards.
15 Manufacturer s labels Manufacturer s are required to put the following information of the chemical label: Name of the chemical, indicated by words or symbols Company s name, address, and emergency phone number Physical hazards Reactivity Flammability
16 Manufacturer s Labels In addition, manufacturer s labels may also describe: Any important storing or handling instructions The personal protective equipment that must be worn when working with the chemical
17 In-house Labels To meet requirements of the College of American Pathologists (CAP), all in-house chemicals must be labeled with: Content and quantity, concentration or titer Storage requirements Date prepared or reconstituted by the laboratory Expiration date Type of hazard and accidental contact information
18 In-house Labels If the in-house chemicals are considered hazardous, both the primary and secondary labels must include: Name of the hazardous chemical (no abbreviations) Health hazard Route of entry (e.g. eye, nose, mouth, skin) Physical hazard Target organ affected and accidental contact information
19 NFPA Diamond The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ranks chemicals numerically according to the hazards associated with them and displays these numbers in colored sections of a diamond (NFPA symbol). The hazards that are assessed are: Health hazards (blue) Fire hazards (red) Reactivity (yellow) Special hazards (white)
20 NFPA Diamond Health Hazards are represented by the blue diamond on the left side of the NFPA symbol 0 = no health hazard 1 = a slight health hazard 2 = a dangerous health hazard 3 = indicates extreme danger 4 = the chemical is deadly
21 NFPA Diamond Fire hazards are represented by the red diamond on the top of the NFPA symbol 0 = the chemical will not burn and thus has no flash point 1 = the flash point is greater than 200 degrees F. 2 = the flash point is less than 200 degrees F. 3 = the flash point is less than 100 degrees F. 4 = the flash point is less than 73 degrees F.
22 NFPA Diamond Reactivity is symbolized by the yellow diamond on the right side of the NFPA symbol 0 = the chemical is stable 1 = the chemical is normally stable 2 = the chemical is unstable 3 = the chemical is explosive 4 = the chemical may detonate
23 NFPA Diamond The white diamond at the bottom of the NFPA symbol represents special hazards If the chemical reacts with water, a strike-out W will appear in this section OX means the chemical is an oxidizer COR means the chemical is corrosive The radioactivity symbol indicated that the chemical is radioactive
24 MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are required for each chemical and must be made available in each laboratory section MSDS inform employees of any potential hazards a particular chemical may present Each employees is responsible to know the exact location of the MSDS in their laboratory section
25 MSDS sections MSDS are divided into sections to assist users in locating pertinent information Every MSDS will not contain exactly the same amount of information in the same format All MSDS will contain all necessary information needed to work safety with a particular chemical
26 MSDS sections The Identification section will list specific information related to the chemical Chemical name Name under which the chemical is shipped Manufacturer s name, address, and phone number Manufacturer product number Emergency phone number
27 MSDS sections Identification section (cont.) CAS identification number The DOT shipping name and hazard class The chemical family mane and synonyms The chemical s formula and molecular weight
28 MSDS sections The Hazardous Ingredients section will include: The components that make up the chemical The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL 8 hour occupational exposure limit) of the chemical, if applicable The Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL 15 minute occupational exposure limit) of the chemical, if applicable
29 MSDS sections The Physical and Chemical Data section will include: Boiling point Specific Gravity Solubility Appearance Odor
30 MSDS sections The Fire and Explosive Hazard Data section will include: Any special precautions which should be taken during fire fighting procedures Whether the chemical is still flammable when diluted, and if the fire can be extinguished by an ABC extinguisher (the preferred extinguisher for chemical fires)
31 MSDS sections The Reactivity Data section will: Describe the stability of the chemical, or how it reacts with other substances List which substances and situations should be avoided to prevent chemical reactions
32 MSDS sections The Health Hazard Data section will provide the following information: If the chemical is carcinogenic How the chemical could enter the body The signs and symptoms of any overexposure to the chemical The first aid procedures required in case of an accident
33 MSDS sections The Spill and Disposal Data section includes: Procedures for cleaning spills Proper disposal of the chemical The Handling and Storage Data section includes: Information concerning the required personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used while using the chemical Any special ventilation that might be required when using the chemical
34 Conclusion It is each employee s right to know the hazards any chemical might present in the workplace Each employees should familiarize themselves with the potential hazards of a particular chemical prior to using it. Each employee should know how and where to access information and get help if necessary
35 Review Test Click the Review Test link and answer the question to record your participation Review Test