BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE

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1 INlS-nif -12,'> r ;0 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE Nb, Sci annual report 1988 DECEMBER 1989

2 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE Annual Report 1988

3 Published by Library & Information Services, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay S. Printed at, Sudarshan An Printing Press, Bombay

4 PREFACE The year 1988 saw the completion of the Medium Energy Heavy Ion Accelerator (MEHIA) facility that was set up jointly by BARC and TIER at TIFR premises at Colaba. The facility became fully operational in September 1988 and was formally inaugurated in December, Another noteworthy achievement during the year was the installation and commissioning of the integrated service digital exchange in BARC. This facility makes it possible for simultaneous transmission of data and voice along telephone line within Trombay. Work on high temperature superconducting materials was continued during the year 1988, and a number of new compositions were synthesized. The highest transition temperature achieved during this year was 125 K. The computer controlled neutron powder diffractometer with position sensitive detectors installed at Dhruva reactor was very useful in conducting diffraction studies on a variety of superconducting materials. Research carried out in basic chemistry during this year had resulted in improving quality of sintered uranium oxide pellets. Considerable work was also done on making nuclear fuel using sol-gel process. In the area of reactor engineering, substantial R & D work was done for the 235 MWe and for the 500 MWe PHWR units. Besides, conceptual design of the fuel handling system for the prototype fast breeder reactor was also finalised. Fabrication of U Al alloy fuel for Kamini reactor was also successfully achieved. A number of important contributions were also made in the area of life science with ramifications both in the understanding of basic phenomena and in industrial applications of enzymes. Considerable progress has been made during the year in the use of radioisotopes in a variety of applications. Some of the R & D work has culminated in the transfer of certain special technologies and processes to commercial agencies for large scale exploitation. This annual report gives a brief summary of the research and development work carried out in BARC during the year Detailed results on various activities have been published either as BARC reports or in scientific and technical journals. The list of publications given at the end of each section in this report will enable those who are interested to find out more about any particular aspect of the work. P.K.Iyengar Director Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

5 CONTENTS 1. PHYSICAL SCIENCES Nuclear Physics Accelerator Programme Reactor Physics Fusion Related Research Condensed Matter Physics Theoretical Physics Lasers and Spectroscopy Computers Seismology Nuclear Research Laboratory, Srinagar and High Altitude Research Laboratory, Gulmarg Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Plasma Physics MHD Generation Pulse Power and Particlel Beam Technology Electron Beam Technology Industrial Design High Temperature Superconductors 10 Publications CHEMICAL SCIENCES Basic Chemistry Water Chemistry Fuel Chemistry Radiochemistry Analytical Chemistry 37 Publications MATERIALS & MATERIALS SCIENCE Metallurgy Materials Science Rare Earths and Other Materials Beryllium Technology Heavy Water Desalination and Hydrogen Production 62 Publications RADIOISOTOPES Radioisotope Production Radiation Sources and Radiochemicals Radiation Technology Radio-pharmaceMjticals Labelled Compounds Tracer Applications in Industry and Hydrology Radiation Sterilisation of Medical Products 69 Publications 70

6 5. REACTORS Reactor Engineering Reactor Analysis Experimental Reactor Physics Reactor Control Reactor Operations, Services and Maintenance 77 Publications FUEL CYCLE Ore Dressing Uranium Metal Production Fuel Fabrication Quality Assurance Post Irradiation Examination Fuel Reprocessing Radioactive Waste Management 84 Publications RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND PROTECTION Health Physics Radiological Protection Occupational Health and Industrial Safety 90 Publications ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION Electronics Instrumentation Computer Based Instrumentation 102 Publications ENGINEERING SERVICES Civil Engineering Electrical & Mechanical Services Central Workshops Remote Handling and Robotics Scientific and Technical Information 108 Publications LIFE SCIENCES Molecular Biology Biochemistry Bio-Organic Chemistry Nuclear Agriculture 115 '/.5 Biotechnology 116 '(0.6 Food Technology 117

7 10.7 Radiobiology Radiation Medicine 119 Publications GENERAL Contributory Health Service Scheme Technology Transfer Human Resources Development Landscaping 137 Publications 138

8 PHYSICAL SCIENCES 1.1 Nuclear Physics Investigations were carried out in the areas of basic nuclear physics, with charged particle beams from the Trombay Van de Graaff Accelerator, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron at Calcutta. For fission physics studies, Trombay reactor beams were utilised. With 3 He beam from the Van de Graaff Accelerator, the reaction 13 C ( 3 He, 4 He) 12 C has been studied with surface barrier charged particle detectors at sub-coulomb energies below 2 MeV. This investigation has given significant evidence for the direct cluster transfer mechanism in the reaction at low energies. The elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles at 35,50 and 70 MeV energies from ^Bi and at 70 MeV energy from ^Co have been measured. These measurements have enhanced the understanding of the optical potential parameters. The nature of the oscillatory behaviour of the cross sections has been ascribed to the interference of the nearside and the farside amplitudes giving rise to the Fraunhofer scattering. An experiment to study neutron emission in alpha-induced fission of B38 U was also carried out. Analysis is in progress to obtain the pre-scission and post-scission neutron multiplicities and temperatures from the experimental data. Detailed studies of the correlations in fragment mass, charge and kinetic energy were carried out in spontaneous fission of SK Cf and thermal induced fission of 235 U using E- AE gas detector telescope and back-to-back gridded ionization chamber, which have yielded new results on the odd-even effects and their variation with excitation energy. Another experiment was carried out to deduce nuclear level densities of the excited fission fragments from measured neutron spectra in thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. The neutron energy was measured by the time of flight met detector. A 90 cm diameter scattering chamber for nuclear reaction studies has been fabricated and installed in one of the beam ports of the Pelletron Accelerator. A large area ionisation chamber, having multiple anodes for mass charge and energy measurements and having two dimensional position sensitivity, has also been fabricated for use in nuclear reaction studies with the Pelletron Accelerator. For measurement of total gamma ray energy and multiplicity, a twenty element BGO detector system has been set up and is under test. A separator for heavy recoil Ions (SHRI) has been designed and is being fabricated for installation at a beam port of the Pelletron Accelerator. For studying the spin-isospin response of the nucleus to 3 He and proton at intermediate energies, a comprehensive theory has been developed which includes the nucleon excitations to delta isobars explicitly. A fully relativistic treatment of the PP AN reaction was also developed. A "strong adsorption" model has been developed to explore the reason for the anomalies shown by (p,d) reaction around 100 MeV. An analytical model has been developed for the heavy-ion reaction cross section taking into account the Coulomb field in the framework of the Glauber theory. This model describes successfully the data from above the Coulomb barrier to the relativistic energies. Theoretical models have been developed for describing the forward and the tranverse energy flows in the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at 60 GeV/nucleon and 200 GeV/nucleon energies. Basic nuclear data in the neutron energy range upto 20 MeV have been generated for structural elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni and Nb and actinide nuclides of Pa, Am, Cm, Cf using approximate nuclear models Accelerator Programme The Medium Energy Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (MEHIA) set up at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, jointly by BARCand TIFR, became fully operational during September 1988 and was inaugurated on 30th December The facility is based on a 14 UD Pelletron accelerator which is a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator with 14 million volts terminal voltage. After the hardware installation, a test beam of silicon ions was accelerated for the first time in September 1987 after attaining a voltage of 7.75 million volts at the central terminal of the accelerator. Since then, the accelerating tube has been progressively conditioned against high voltage break down. All safety monitors and interlocks were also installed and tested.

9 In the early part of this year, trial beams of the order of a microampere, of several different ion species ranging from protons to silicon and copper ions were accelerated with the terminal voltage of about 12 million volts. With further conditioning of the accelerating tubes, the machine finally attained the maximum rated terminal voltage of 14 million volts in September All the performance tests on the machine were satisfactorily completed, and protons, alpha particles and heavy ions like chlorine ions were accelerated with the terminal at 14 million volts. The corresponding final energies of the accelerated particles are 28 MeV for protons, 42 MeV for alpha particles and 140 MeV for chlorine ions of the 9 * charge state. The components of the Pelletron Accelerator were supplied by Electrostatic International Inc., USA. The accelerating column is housed inside a large pressure vessel of about 25 m length, 5.5 m diameter and 120 tons weight filled with sulfur hexafluoride gas at a pressure of nearly 6 to 7 bars. This pressure vessel is an important indigenous item of the Pelletron Accelerator and a number of new technological achievements were realised during its fabrication, transportation and erection. Other important indigenous components are the four gas storage tanks, computer-controlled beamline equipments, health and safety systems, etc. This is the first accelerator facility in the country to accelerate heavy ion beams to sufficiently high energies suitable for advanced research in nuclear physics. A variety of experimental facilities have been built to undertake research with the facility in the newly emerging areas of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. The major facilities include a general purpose scattering chamber, gamma ray multiplicity and total energy spectrometer and large area deep ionisation chamber. A variety of hybrid gas detector telescopes were also developed for measurement of the reaction products in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Some of the research programmes planned with the accelerator are nuclear structure studies at high angular momentum; elastic-inelastic scattering and transfer reactions; heavy-ion fusion and fusionfission reactions; spectroscopic studies of exotic nuclei far from stability line and hyperfine interaction studies. This accelerator facility will also be useful for research in some areas of atomic physics and solid state physics. In parallel with the setting up of the Pelletron Accelerator, work has also been started to construct a superconducting LI NAC booster. Work of fabrication of RF resonators for the booster has been progressing and one resonator is in the final stage of fabrication. A lead plating laboratory has been set up for plating the resonators after fabrication. A test cryostat has been set up along with the necessary RF equipment for testing the performance of the lead plated resonators. A resonator of the split loop type has been plated with lead and tested for satisfactory RF performance. This resonator will be used for the super-buncher of the LINAC. The design of a liquid helium cryostat for housing the super-buncher is completed. A cryostat module to accommodate four RF resonators of the LINAC is being designed. The layout of the LINAC has been finalised. A 150 kev deuteron RFQ accelerator having the capability of delivering upto 45 ma of beam has also been designed. The electrodes and the RF stem structure have been fabricated and the RF tank, ion source, one quarter-wave resonator for the booster accelerator and the other parts of the accelerator are under fabrication. 1.3 Reactor Physics The technique to measure the amount of U- 233 produced from absorption of neutrons in Th-232 has been standardised. The method is based on the detection of the 312 kev gamma rays in the decay of Pa-233, an intermediate product during the formation of U-233. An experiment has been set-up to measure U-233 breeding in a thorium oxide assembly exposed toa14mev neutron source. Monte Carlo calculations have been done to optimise U-233 breeding and for comparison with measurements. Based on a statistical correlation technique, a novel method for the measurement of k e(( of highly subcritical enriched fissile units has been developed. The method can be used for the direct on-line measurement of the degree of sub-criticality of process plant equipment, fuel storage systems etc. to ensure

10 safety against inadvertent criticality. In the field of nuclear data, the multigroup cross-section sets for the elements Vanadium-51, Manganese-55, Cobalt-59, Niobium-93, Thorium-232, Protactir,ium-233 and Uranium-233 were prepared and added to the existing data libraries. A number of new computational methods were developed to simulate reactivity devices in a PHWR. The main thrust of analysis work was the start-up and phase-b commissioning of NAPP-I. The reactor tank and other accessories needed for the Kamini reactor mock-up experiments have been installed and tested. U-233 aluminium alloy fuel plates have been fabricated and are undergoing rigorous acceptance tests. Control system modification and fuel sub-assembly fabrication are in progress. Criticality experiments are expected to start shortly. Major equipment erection work at Kalpakkam for the 30 kw U-233 fuelled Kamini reactor has been completed. Control panel and cabling work is in progress. Start-up experiments will begin after completion of the PUR- NIMA-III criticality experiments attrombay. 1.4 Fusion Related Research Foil plasma diagnostics like X-ray imaging including relevant computer codes, X-ray crystal spectrometer, K-edge filter spectrometer, vacuum X-ray photodiodes and plasma and X-ray calorimeters have been developed for the programme of laser produced plasmas. The first phase of construction of the 500 kj fast capacitor bank for Pinch experiments is nearing completion. A prototype rail gun and a 40 kj capacitor bank fordriving it have been fabricated. It is proposed to use these to accelerate a fraction-of-a-gram projectile to velocities of a few km/s for impact fusion related experiments. 1.5 Condensed Matter Physics High pressure phase transitions in titanium (Ti), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and tin-indium (Sn-ln) systems have been investigated using the diamond anvil based energy dispersive X-ray powder diffractor. Using energy band theory, it has been shown that (i) under s-d transition, the universal equation of state breaks down; (ii) use of shock derived isotherm of rhenium (Re) for pressure calibration is in error by about a Mbar, at3mbarsand (iii) the cause of shock discontinuity at 17 GPa in Ti is not related to any electronic transition. A ruby fluorescence spectrometer has been built and tested for pressure calibration in diamond cell high-pressure experiments. The gas-gun facility under construction is now in the final stages of fabrication. X-ray crystallographic techniques were used to study the structure of the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, complexed with a drug, methazolamide, to evaluate the biologial activity of this important enzyme. Very useful information regarding its immunology was obtained by analysing the highly refined structure of lysozyme, another enzyme, in connection with the interactions of antigens with antibodies. Model building studies using interactive graphics were carried out to understand the damage caused to the genetic material DNA by ultraviolet radiation and also the mechanisms of repair of this damage. Structures of protein molecules of an insect virus were determined by X-ray diffraction methods and computer graphics. Neutron scattering experiments have gathered considerable momentum. Neutron diffraction measurements on the disordered spinner system Zn^Co,^FeCrO^ were made over a large range of temperature to study the effect of diamagnetic dilution and frustration on its magnetic ordering. New information on spin ordering in this system has been obtained. Effective phonon density of states were measured in tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and (NH,,)., SbF 5. Lattice dynamical calculations on dispersion relation and density-of-states in the high temperature superconductor La 2 Cu0 4 and isostructural La 2 NiO 4 showed overall agreement with exist ng measurements, thus throwing light on the nature of interatomic potential in this material. Computer simulation studies using the molecular dynamics method were carried out on TCNE and YBajCUjCy The latter gives insight into oxygen motion as a function of temperature and also describes the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition. Small angle neutron scattering measurements were carried out on gel forming systems D 2 O - cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide - (KBr or Nametahydroxy benzoate (MHB)) for different KBr and Na-MHB concentrations. Experimental results suggest that details of gelling process are different in thein these two systems.

11 Raman Scattering studies in p-hgte have revealed the presence of coupling between holes and optic phonon modes. A new feature has been observed in the Raman spectrum of germanium. Its frequency is sensitive to exciting laser wavelength and it has been interpreted in terms of two phonon processes contributing to the Raman cross-section. X-ray and electron diffraction studies have indicated the occurrence of a new quasicrystalline phase in the rapidly solidified Al-Mg system. To understand the growth of pentagonal quasi crystals in two dimensions, it has been established theoretically that there can be only eight building blocks. Time resolved Mossbauer spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on quinone-complexes which contain photosynthetic reaction centres to assess the time duration of illumination required for achieving photo-reactions. To elucidate the nature of drug-membrane interaction, DSC and X-ray diffraction studies in the model membrane systems, drug-doped and pure DPPEwater, were carried out to reveal the characteristics of metastable-gel to stable-ordered-state transformation. Studies in some smectic-c type binary liquid crystalline mixtures show that short range order in them is nearly as strong as in pure liquid. X-ray and neutron position sensitive detectors have been developed. A superconducting magnet with a 10 cm bore and a field of 4.5 Tesla has been fabricated and tested. Anew method has been developed for the reconstruction of electron momentum density from directional positron annihilation data. Theoretical studies were also carried out in the use of path integrals in the problem of doped semiconductors and of group theoretical methods in the study of acoustical activity. 1.6 Theoretical Physics In the area of quantum optics, the quantum nonlinear effects arising due to the propagation of light through an optical fibre we. 3 studied by modelling the fibre as a collection of anharmonic oscillators. The behaviour of a collection of two-level atoms driven by a single mode classical electromagnetic field and a broad band squeezed light field was investigated. It was shown that for some values of the parameters, the steady state of such a system may be an intelligent spin state. New theoretical signatures of quantum jumps experimentally observed in coupled transitions in a three level ion localized in an electromagnetic trap have been obtained. The time-dependent physical spectrum of fluorescence from a strongly driven threelevel atom was studied. In the area of quantum chaos, semiclassical quantization of pseudointegrable system showed the chaotic features of the quantum system. This investigation points out a new way of expecting quantum chaotic features in the space of quantum numbers and wave numbers. In the area of Feynman path integrals, a new approach of obtaining exact propagators was investigated. It is based on the possibility of exactly summing up the Feynman - Dyson perturbation series. 1.7 Lasers and Spectroscopy The oscillator stage of the CO., amplifier chain has been made ready. Two more amplifier stages in the Nd.glass laser chain have been implemented. Fine Faraday isolators to be used with the above chain have been tested and are being installed. A computer program for the beam propagation in the glass amplifier chain has been developed. Various schemes for spatial and temporal multiplexing of dye laser beams were tried out and fast flow dye cell systems are being developed for utilization in isotope separation techniques. The computer program for dye laser amplifiers have been improved to include nonlinear losses of dye laser intensity owing to ground state dosorption followed by excited state absorption. Preliminary studies of interaction of laser with tissues have been carried out using the compact continuous wave carbon dioxide (CWCO 2 ) laser developed for surgical applications. A technique for fabricating metallic mirrors of Cu-Ni-Au having high reflectivity and damage threshold to be used with high power lasers has been developed. The measured reflectivities were 96% and the damage threshold was 50 J/cm 2 for CO., laser pulses. Three photon laser ionization spectroscopy of uranium was further continued in order to probe various high lying levels of uranium. Three synchronised dye lasers pumped by three copper vapour lasers with 5 khz repetition rates were allowed to interact with a uranium atomic beam, and the photo-ion signal was

12 measured. A resistive heated low number density (10 8 /cm 3 ) uranium source in a quadrupolemass spectrometer, and an electron beam heated higher number density source (10"/cm 3 ) of uranium were used. Various new features of uranium were recorded and full spectroscopic assignments were made. Various parameteric studies of laser frequency, power, beam density and collector geometry were carried out to improve the photo-ion yield. Using a single dye laser pumped by a Nd-YAG laser, similar investigations were carried out with another source heated by electron-bombardment, to reveal various Rydberg and autoionisation features of uranium. A time-offlight technique was developed for such investigations. Polarisation spectroscopic technique was developed for high resolution spectroscopic studies. This method has the advantage of eliminating the usually observed pedestal of the Ooppler-broadened feature. Very high signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 1000 could be achieved by careful laser cam steering and design of the apparatus. This will be helpful in studying the hyperfine structure of Uranium- 235 and its oxide. A single hollow-cathode discharge lamp serving as a light source and an absorption cell were used to measure the electron temperature in U-discharge and atomic/ionic transition strengths of various uranium levels. Investigations on infra-red multiplephoton dissociation (MPD) studies of CTF 3 were undertakenforthe removal of tritium from heavy water or light water reactors. This is achieved by exchanging tritium from contaminated water to an appropriate organic phase (CTF 3 ) by catalytic isotope exchange reaction of CHF 3 or CDF 3, followed by selective dissociation of CTF 3 with multiple photon excitation using 100 ns TEA CO 2 laser. Dependence of dissociation yield and bulk selectivity factor on laser frequency and fluence, and substrate/buffer gas pressure was investigated. Instead of conventional single frequency, use of multiple frequency improved the yield and selectivity of the process quite appreciably. An indigenously built radio-gas chromatograph and multiple frequency operated CO 2 laser were developed for these studies. Selectivity factor of about 50 was achieved using quadruple frequency appropriate for each system. Such a technique is suitable for a practical separation scheme. Methods to determine cobalt concentration in cobalt steels and lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium concentration in plain carbon steels have been developed. In order to verify relativistic Dirac-Fock calculations, experimental studies on isotope shift have been taken up using Isotopic pairs Yb-170 and Yb-176, andyb-172andyb-176.the vibrational and rotational structure studies of band system of the Si-28/ Se-80 have been carried out. A comprehensive computer program for the simultaneous analysis of the data of diatomic and linear polyatomic molecules involving several states and several bands has baen developed. Theoretical expressions for the intensities of infrared transitions in solid hydrogen were compared with experimental intensities and a value of 64th (2 s ) multipole moment of hydrogen molecule has been derived. Intensities of 25 rotational lines of a band of PH 3 have been measured by Diode Laser Spectroscopy. Analysis of Fourier Transform (FT) spectra of O 'JF,, is completed, and high resolution FT spectra of CH 3 CCD and CD 3 CCH are being analysed. Infrared and Raman spectra of several model membranes and hydrotropes like DPPC and sodium butyl monoglycol sulphate have been obtained. As a part of the fabrication of FT spectrometer, a Michelson interferometer was set up. An Excimer Laser (EMG-201) and a Dye Laser (FL-3002) have been set up as an experimental facility for laser spectroscopic studies. Resonance ionisation studies of alkali elements, sodium (Na), potassium (K) and rubidium (Rb) were undertaken. Rydberg states upto n = 85 were observed using excimer laser pumped dye laser. A diaphragm enclosed pressure transducer system and a low temperature facility have been set up to study the opto acoustic spectra of high Tc superconductors and other materials, using a tunable dye laser. A 'Laser Level Monitor' has been fabricated to monitor and control liquid levels remotely. Systems with personal computers were developed for signal detection, processing and to estimate the concentration of several impurities in uranium samples. A direct reading spectrometer (polychromator) consisting of holographic type concave grating of 2160 grooves/mm and radius of curvature of 1 meter has been fabricated with the linear reciprocal dispersion of about 4.6 A /mm and a resolution of about 0.25 A. A scatter plate interferometer for measuring refractive indices with an accruacy of about 3 x 10'has been devised. A number of concave

13 mirrors, laser mirrors, quartz windows, CaR, windows and other optical components, a plasma chamber and RF shielding cages for ICP, a carrier assembly for FTS, a crossed heat pipe oven, etc. were designed and fabricated. About 1,800 samples, involving 12,000 determinations, were analysed using Optical Emission and X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy. 1.8 Computers Computing facilities consisting of a network of super mini-computers were being operated on round-the-clock basis, and were maintained in-house. Availability of these computer systems has been above 95%. Additional CAO systems were installed, and usage of these systems has grown rapidly. Computer-based Integrated Service Digitial Exchange (ISOX) was installed at BARC to replace the old telephone exchange (PABX). In addition to voice transmission, this exchange also facilitates simultaneous digital data exchange between a number of terminals and the network of computers. The new exchange can support upto 2500 lines including 300 data lines. An interactive molecular modelling graphics package for use in research in the areas of molecular biology and pharmacology has been developed. This package can handle upto 10,000 atoms and can display the molecular structures in 'stick' and 'solid' mode on high resolution colour graphics terminal. It is also possible to rotate the molecule in real-time in 'stick' mode. Work has been started on developing software support for splitting a large CPU bound Fortran job into independent modules, setting up communication between independently executing modules on different CPUs and on the development of Fortran libray for parallel processing and design of vectorising Fortran compiler. The hardware design for parallel processing, based on nodes of closely coupled 32-bit microprocessor systems, interconnected in a high speed network, is being finalised. A knowledge based system for seismic source identification based on the history of past events has been developed on personal computers. This system can be used for identification of new seismic events, and it is based on inductive inferencing approach for generating rules and decision trees. Another expert system for the selection of suitable analytical techniques for the detection of specific impurities in a given material has been developed. This is a rule-based user-friendly package developed in PROLOG langauge. Based on Newton Euler method, a dynamic model for the control of movements of a servo-controlled 5-axis robot has been developed. This method provides higher speed and accuracy. The information system for the management of patient records for Tata Memoral Hospital (TMH) has been operating satisfactorily for the last two years. This system is able to handle patient registration, clinical information, investigation reports, treatment procedures, post therapy evaluation and follow up on dayto-day basis for about two lakh cancer patients visiting Tata Memorial Hospital every year. Additional programs for management of ward library and information, appointments, retrospective analysis and prospective trials have been developed for providing further support to the Patient Record Management System. Another package for handling voluminous data related to patients in Intensive Care Unit has been developed. This is a personal computer based, userfriendly and menu-driven package providing easy retrieval and monitoring of vital information such as haemodynamic parameters, different investigations, clinical history examination, diagnosis, treatment etc. and provides facilities for plotting ventricular function curves. The package is being used at the ICU of Sir H.N. Hospital. For enhancing the scientific computational facilities provided on IBM PC compatible systems, a scientific subroutine library and a graphics support library for plotting and viewing three dimensional plot of scientific data have been implemented. A Window Annunciator Logger System has been developed and commissioned at MAPP, Kalpakkam. The system, based on 8085 processor, monitors 760 contact inputs associated with different equipment in the nuclear plant. Another PC based 8-parameter Data Acquisition System has been developed and installed at the

14 Pelletron Laboratory at TIFR. This system makes use of high speed interface employing dual memory bank scheme for handling very high speed and voluminous input data coming from Pelletron. The system is supported with a comprehensive user-friendly software package for supporting concurrent data acquisition and for providing online display of selected parameters. 1.9 Seismology Global seismicity was continuously monitored to detect promptly and identify seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions anywhere in the world. The computational facility at the Gauribidanur Seismic Array Station was augmented by installing an IMPACT 8650 system. An indigenously fabricated seismometer was installed at Narora to continuously measure the ground vibration and monitor the seismicity in that region. The wireless telemetered network established at Bhatsa to monitor seismotectonic status of the region became operational in April The network consists of 12 field stations spread over an area of 20x20 km 2. Data from these field stations are transmitted continuously over wireless to a central recording laboratory. The data is processed at selected intervals to detect seismic signals and to locate their source, if any. The rockburst monitoring system established for Bharat Gold Mines Limited operated continuously and gave valuable information of strata stability to mining engineers. A PC based monitoring system is being developed for expanding and augumenting the monitoring system at the request of the users Nuclear Research Laboratory, Srinagar and High Altitude Research Laboratory, Gulmarg A new technique has been evolved for using conventional optical telescopes in very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The technique offers the advantage of a greatly reduced field of view and a correspondingly higher sensitivity for detecting gammaray initiated extensive air showers. A pilot experiment was conducted with the 40" telescope at Nainital by employing a cluster of 7 photomultiplier detectors at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The optical Cerenkov pulses from extensive air showers were detected through the seven-fold coincidence pulse which effectively discriminates against the shot-noise fluctuations in the night sky background. About 25 hours >' observations on the Crab pulsar (PSR ?1) have been made with this system. While no bursts of gamma-ray emission was detected from the source, the potential of the technique was established by reproducing the well-known zenith angle dependence in the air shower rates. A number of improvements have been carried out in the Gulmarg gamma-ray telescope to increase its sensitivity and reliability. Anew shaft-encoder has been designed and incorporated in each mirror system for the visual monitoring of the right ascension and declination of the telescope line of sight during observations. The encoders also provide an alarm whenever the step synchronous motors, used for mirror motion, stop working or malfunction. A novel rate stabilization circuit has also been incorporated in the telescope for maintaining the single channel rates constant despite changes in background illumination and sky transparency. The circuit is expected to find wide application in multi-detector systems where the conventional padding lamp technique cannot be employed. The analysis of data collected with the Gulmarg telescope, on various sources like Cassopeia-1, Hercules X-1, Crab pulsar and AM-Hercules, has been continued. A phase modulated signal from Cassopeia-1 has been detected in the preliminary analysis of the data. Search for gamma-ray signals from the other sources is in progress. A Monte Carlo simulation study has been completed to bring out the distinguishing features of gamma-ray and proton-initiated showers. A detailed study of the basic physical processes involved in the production of TeV and PeV gamma-rays in X-ray binary systems, with particular emphasis on the X-ray binary Cygnus X-3, was started. It was shown that the considerable self-absorption of TeV gamma-rays from Cygnus X-3 in its own strong intra-red photon field is consistent with the model in which the infra-red photon source size is much smaller than the size of the binary orbit. For studies in atmospheric chemistry, especially the time variation of minor constituents, a microprocessor based sampler-analyser has been

15 designed and used for measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the presence of other oxidants like ozone (O 3 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) at concentrations even below parts per billion level. The microprocessor is used for controlling the various valves and pumps in a predetermined sequence and for simultaneous acquisition of data on solar actinic irradiance. An additional feature of the system is that it gives a warning signal beyond a preset ambient H 2 O 2 concentration level (> 10* ppb). A detailed study has been conducted on various types of wood grown in Himachal Pradesh for the production of wood-plastic composites through gamma-irradiation. The composite of maple wood with polymethylmethacrylate was found to be suitable for making shuttles and bobbins used in the textile industry. The commercial production of this product is being taken up by an industrial unit in Himachal Pradesh. The 2,960 TBq (80,000 Ci) panaromic batch irradiator facility was continued to be provided to various local hospitals for radiation sterilization of various medical products and for research work to scientists from various local organisations. The energy dispersive X-rayfluoresencetechnique (EDXRF) has been used for a variety of studies in forensic science, mineralogy, geochemistry and palaeoclimatology. The trace element analysis of fossil bone samples from Siwalik mountains was continued to identify uranium mineralization zones, and uranium concentrations of ppm were detected in several bone samples. An IBM-PC/XT based data acquisition system for the EDXRF spectrometer capable of accepting data simultaneously from a large number of multichannel analyzers was developed alongwith a software package for spectrum processing. A microprocessor-based thermoluminescence data acquisition system is being designed for the storage of TL glow curve and temperature data for dating archaeological and geochemical samples. A new microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been developed and utilized to study the Mossbauer spectra of poly (iron-nickel) acrylates with different concentrations of iron and nickel. Two indigenously built seismometers installed at Gulmarg and Srinagar have been operated continuously to study the seismicity of the two regions. A total of about ~ 200 seismic events with good signal to noise ratio have been detected during 1988 and are being analysed at present Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre The Variable Energy Cyclotron at Calcutta continued to operate round the clock and was utilised by users from about 33 major research institutions and universities spread all over the country. The cyclotron was operated for 5009 hours with an efficiency of over 70 per cent. A number of experiments were carried out in the basic and applied areas of science relevant to nuclear technology, besides machine development studies. Typical experiments are studies of angular momentum in fusion reactions, high spin states, alpha induced fission, alpha-heavy ion fragmentation, investigation of non-statistical structures in nuclei, one and two nucleon transfer reactions, yield of neutron-rich nuclei in (alpha.f) reations, measurement of neutron emission in 236 U(alpha, alpha') reaction, elastic scattering from '* e -* 8 Ti, alpha induced fissions, defect studies using positron annihilation technique in various materials, studies of blistering phenomenon, investigations of creep in reactor materials and short lived isotope production. Neutron depth dose and neutron yield measurements were also carried out to explore the possibilities of using the cyclotron for neutron therapy. Systematic studies and modifications of machine hardware resulted in improvement of the machine quality greatly. Work on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heavy ion source is progressing with some of the coils being manufactured at the Cyclotron Centre. The microwave generators have already been procured. ECR sources are expected to be installed in the cyclotron by Radio frequency pick up at high frequency has been eliminated to a great extent by shielding the open coils. Developmental work was carried out using the CAMAC interface to extend the capability of the on-line data acquisition system for multiparameter data analysis. The high resolution analysing magnet is ready and the various quadruples, the control and the control connections are being manufactured. The entire system is expected to be assembled during The ISOL facility for detection and study of short-lived isotopes is under development and is expected to be ready for use by New efforts are now being made to partici-

16 pate and collaborate meaningfully with the WA80 group at CERN. This has become particularly interesting because the theoretial studies indicate that the photons to be measured by WA80 can be directly from the plasma Plasma Physics Detailed investigations on the basic processes and technology associated with plasma jet devices were continued. Procurement and testing of components for the 1 MW underwater plasma cutting torch is in progress. A set-up for low-beam extraction from radio frequency plasma has been designed and assembled. Experiments aimed at improving the ionbeam optics are in progress MHD Generation A mercury-air two phase liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) system has been assembled and experiments have been carried out to investigate the interaction of liquid metal flows with magnetic field. A microprocessor based system for on-line determination of void fraction in two liquid metal flows using gamma ray spectrometry has been developed and used. Computer codes for the detailed loop calculations of a liquid metal MHD generator system has been developed. Detailed optimization studies for a 500 W prototype LMMHD system have been carried out. The designing of individual components is in progress Pulse Power and Particle Beam Technology Pulse ruagnetic field technique was developed for shifting garter springs in some of the coolant channels of NAPP 1. The shifting is produced by a non-contact aerial force resulting from an interaction between eddy current in the garter spring and a component of radial magnetic field. The equipment basically consists of a capacitor bank (45 kj, 20 kv) which energises an electromagnetic coil of high electrical and mechanical strength. The capacitor bank was indigenously fabricated using novel ideas of double triggered sparkgaps enclosed in a sound absorption box and specialised trigger pulse generators. This system worked very reliably. Development of a system having higher energy storage (120 kj, 10 kv) has been taken up. A new mechanism for the electrical breakdown of triggered spark gaps has been proposed. This is based on development of multiple spark channels due to interaction between main gap and trigger gaps. On the basis of this proposed breakdown mechanism, the features of fast rise time, small delay time, low jitter, large operating range and current growth pattern in a double triggered sparkgap have been successfully explained. A program has been initiated for the development of rested electromagnetic shields, miniature electromagnetic field sensors, and fast surge arrestors for the protection of electronic equipment against intense electromagnetic fields. A capacitor bank equipment having numerous applications in the fields of thermonuclear fusion, magnetoforming, magnetization and demagnetization of permanent magnets, remote shifting and repositioning of metallic parts in inaccessible areas, shock wave metal forming water etc. was developed and the technology is being offered to industries. An experiment to study the interaction of relativistic electron beam (REB) with mirror confined target plasma produced by a coaxial plasma gun has been carried out. The results will be useful for developing devices such as high-power microwave sources and free-electron lasers. The REB diode was operated in plasma-filled mode. Measurements of beam current profiles have been carried out after injecting the REB at various plasma densities by making use of delay and synchronising circuits. Microwave, spectroscopic and Langmuir probe diagnostics are employed to study beam-plasma interaction. The effect of scattering angle of REB on beamplasma interaction has been studied theoretically. The calculations, using a 240 kev, 3 ma/m 2, 70 ns beam, show that with scattering angle of 1.2 a peak electron temperature of 83 ev is attained, while with a beam scattered by a 12.5 micron titanium foil acquiring a 32 scattering angle, only a peak temperature of 42 ev is obtained. Results of a numerical study carried out on the effect of rise time and pulse width on the interaction

17 of a 1 MeV, 15 kareb with argon and hydrogen show that a rise time of 30 ns and pulse width of 100 ns are optimum for 90% charge transport for vacuum in the range Torr. The beam generates a plasma of to 10 s ' m 3 density with 4-20 ev electron temperature. REB technology has been used for a pulse neutron generation experiment. Using deuterium and tritium loaded electrodes in the REB diode, neutron yield of 3 x 10 6 neutrons per pulse of 50 ns was obtained, which is an order of magnitude higher than the yield obtained with D-D Electron Beam Technology A high vacuum EB welding machine with a small chamber of 10 litre volume has been designed. It is under fabrication. This will have total weld cycle time of less than five minutes, and can be used for welding components upto 150 mm diameter and 100 mm in length. There is a provision for inclusion of special purpose tooling, including tubular extensions. This is a low cost machine which can be profitably used for welding of components such as gear assemblies, transducers, sprockets etc. Feasibility studies were made for designing large capacity electron beam heated evaporators for generation of metal vapours for metal coating in vacuum on an industrial scale. The indigenously developed EB welding machine was used to weld a large number of components of Kamini reactor, and for Indian Rare Earths Ltd., and Defence Ministry Industrial Design The ultra high vacuum system at Gauribidanur test site for the gravitation experiment has been performing excellently. Consistent ultimate vacuum below 1 x 10 s Torr in the range 6-9 x 10 9 Torr is being achieved. A number of modifications on the ion pump feed lines have been successfully completed. A high vacuum chamber has been designed for the air craft experiments on gravitation. Fabrication of this chamber has already commenced High Temperature Superconductors Steady progress was maintained both in the fundamental and applied aspects of high temperature superconducting materials. Simple methods were developed for the synthesis of superconducting materials based on TI-Ca-Ba-Cu-0 and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-0 systems. A material based on the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-0 system gave a high transition temperature T c (R=0) of 125 K. Samples of Bi 16 Pb 0 4 Ca 2 Sr 2 Cu 3 O y with record high T C (R=0) of 120 K have been synthesized. Upto 50% Tl could be successfully replaced by K-substitution leading to TI 1 K,Ca,Ba 2 Cu 2 0 x superconductor with T c (R=0) of 103 K. Investigations on YBa a Cu 3 0 7)< and related systems were continued. A microcomputer controlled neutron diffractometer installed atdhruva reactor is being used for powder diffraction studies on a variety of high T c superconducting materials under development at BARC and other institutions. These studies include investigations on the aging effects, oxygen stoichiometry on vacancy ordering, and substitutions at the cationic sites in the first generation Y-Ba-Cu-0 type superconductors. Studies on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 (2212) systems indicated the presence of BiO 2 layers rather than BiO layers, as postulated earlier. The ferroelastic nature of the hight c superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-Owas experimentally demonstrated. A detailed symmetry analysis of twinning and disorientations occurring in it was carried out. A pointdefect model of its structural phase transitions has been formulated. Microwave absorption studies on high temperature oxide superconductors have led to the development of a new contactless method of detecting the presence of superconducting phases even in concentrations of about 5% and measurement of lower critical fields. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of Tl- Ba-Ca-Cu-0 has been carried out as a function of temperature from 77 to 300 K using Doppler broadened positron annihilation radiation line-shape analysis technique and the results show increase in electron momentum near T c> along with increase in electron density around the oxygen vacancy sites. Work on unravelling the properties of super- 10

18 conducting materials was continued. Several novel compounds were synthesized and characterized. Several techniques were employed towards these studies. Incorpcmtion of fluorine into superconducting compounds was successfully carried out, but with no change in transition temperature. Characterisation of high temperature superconducting oxides for precise stoichiometry with respect to metallic constituents, oxygen and fluorine, through comparative evaluation of different approaches, and for thermal stability with respect to reversible oxygen pick-up and melting characteristics, was carried out. Further progress was made in the development and fabrication of oxide superconductors of the type Y-Ba-Cu oxide using the powder-in-silver-tube.echnique. Wires and tapes of the compound superconducting material were made, starting from powder. Because of the large particle size of about 400 microns, difficulties were encountered in drawing silver sheathed wires. Heat treatment trials with these wires showed low critical current densities in the range of A/cm 2 at a temperature of 77 K in zero magnetic field. Work on drawing wires starting with powder of 5 micron particle size, and that on increasing the critical current density by optimising heat treatment is in progress. Substantial progress has been made in the development of rare earth-based high T c ceramic superconductors. A flow-sheet for the preparation of YBa 2 Cu by solid state reaction has been optimised and batches of the compound prepared and sintered under strictly controlled conditions have shown consistently reproducible superconducting properties. Work is in progress to study the influence of substitutions on the superconducting properties of yttrium and other rare earth based compounds. The mixed rare earth oxide produced from xenotime has been used to synthesize high T c superconductor materials which showed superconducting properties. Laser Raman spectra of a number of high T c superconductors and individual oxides used in their preparation have been obtained. Plasma sprayed superconducting films of yttrium based compounds have been prepared. The spray parameters and the post-spray treatment have been optimised to yield reproducible results with superconducting transition at 90 K, nearly equal to that of bulk materials. Role of the grain size on the oxygen stability of the high temperature superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-0 was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, conductivity and calorimetry. The magnetisation behaviour of high T c superconductors has been measured and results explained in terms of an extended critical state model. It has been shown that the critical current density decays sharply with magnetic field and that the lower critical field, H el cannot be estimated from the isothermal magnetisation curve. Thermomagnetic history effects have also been explained. Direct measurements of critical current density in pellet and wire samples have also been made, both with and without application of magnetic field. A modified thermogravimetric technique has been established for determination of oxygen stoichiometry of high temperature superconducting oxides. Oxygen stoichiometries of several oxides of the type YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7(S Y(Ba 1.,,La,) Cu 3 O 7<($ and YBa (Cu lx M i< ) 3 O 7tfi (where M = Mg, Zn, Al, Gaetc.) have been determined using this method both as functions of 'x' and temperature between 25 and 940 C. The results were utilised for understanding the role of copper and oxygen in controlling the superconducting behaviour of the oxides. 11

19 Publications Somayazulu, M.S., Sastry, P.U.M. and Wadhawan, V.K., 'Dielectric Response of Thallous Nitrate Crystals', Solid State Commun., 67,757 Wadhawan, V.K, Somayazulu, M.S. and Sastry, P.U.M., 'Assignment of Prototype Symmetry for the Y-Ba-Cu- O Superconductor and Some Predictions Based on This Assignment', Phys. Rev. B, 38,2509 Wadhawan, V.K, 'Epitaxy and Disorientations in the Ferroelastic Superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7K 1, Phys. Rev. B, 38, 8936 Somayazulu, M.S., Rao, S.M.D. and Wadhawan, V.K., 'Direct Observation of Ferroelastic Switching in Single Crystals of the Superconductor YBCO', DAE Solid State Phys. Symposium, Bhopal Wadhawan, V.K and Bhagwat, K.V., 'A Point-Defect Model of Structural Phase Transition in the Ferroelastic Superconductor YBCO', ibid. Sequeira, A., Rajagopal.H. andyakhmi.j.v., 'Ageing Effects in High-T e YBajCUjO,.,, Superconductor - A Neutron Study', Solid State Comm.65,989 Sequeira, A., Rajagopal, H., Ganapath, L and Rao, C.N.R., 'A Neutron Diffraction Study of LaBa 2 Cu )', Jour. Solid State Chem. 76,235 Sequeira, A., Rajagopal, H., Mazumder, S., Rajarajan, A.K., Ayyub, P., Gupta, L.C. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Structural and Electrical Properties of the Superconductor YBajJLa^UgO/, Prog, in High Temp. Superconductivity 16, 129 (1988): Proc. of Srinagar Workshop on High Temp. Superconductivity, Ed. A.K. Gupta, S.K. Joshi and C.N.R. Rao, World Scientifics. Sastry, P.V.P.S., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sequeira, A., Rajagopal, H., Gangadharan, K, Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'On the Preparation and Structure of the 81K Single Phase Superconductor in the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-0 System', Physica C156,230 Sequeira, A., Rajagopal, H., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S., Phatak, G.M., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., 'Evidence for K Substitution in the Tl-Sites of Superconducting TijjCaBaj.Cu.Og : Neutron Diffraction Studies', ibid, 156,599 Mazumdar, S. and Sequeira, A., 'On Multiple Small Angle Scattering', Pramana, 30,1 Mazumdar, S. and Sequeira, A., 'An Analytical Solution for Multiple Small Angle Scattering', Proc. Intl. Symp. Neutron Scattering-Advances and Applications, Sydney (1987). Dasannacharya, B.A. and Sequeira, A., 'Use of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutrons on Materials Characterisation', Proc. Indo/US Workshop on Material Characterisation, Bombay Housur, M.V., Verma, N.C., Hejmadi, V. and Kannan, K.K., 'Structure of UV-lrradiated DNA and Its Recognition by Photdase from E. Coli\ XX National Conference in Crystallography Chakravarty, S. and Kannan, K.K., 'A General Method to Determine the Orientation Matrix for Oscillation Films', XIX National Seminar on Crystallograph (1987). Chakravarty, S. and Kannan.KK., 'Pattern Recognition Algorithm in Macromolecular Crystallography', ibid. Ramanadham, M., TORLSP: Computation of Torsion Angles and LS-Planes with Standard Deviations', ibid. Vinay Kumar and Kannan, K.K., 'Refinement of Human Carbonic Anhydrase - I Au(CN) Complex : Inhibition Mechanism', ibid. Vinay Kumar and Kannan, K.K., 'Structural Domains in Proteins', ibid. Housur, M.V., 'Structure of Black Beetle Virus-Sub Unit Conformations', ibid. Ramanadham, M., Birknes, B.J., Sieker.LC. and Jensen.LH., 'Refinement of Copper-Lysozyme Complex', ibid. Chakravarty, S. and Kannan, K.K, 'Refinement of Human Carbonic Anhydrase I Enzyme with Aceta-Zolamide 12

20 Drug Inhibitor', ibid. Hema Sankaran, Sharma, S.M. and Sikka, S.K., 'An Orthorhombic Structure for the High Temperature Lock-in-Phase of LIKSO/, Solid State Communications, 66, 7 Hema Sankaran, Sikka, S.K., Sharma, S.M. and Chidambaram, Ft., 'Pressure Induced Non-Crystalline Phase of LiKSO/, Physical Review B38,170 Sikka, S.K. and Vijayakumar.V., Theoretical Isothermal Equation of State of Rhenium', ibid, B38,10926 Sikka, S.K., 's-d Transition and the Universal Equation of State', ibid, B38, 8463 Gyanchandani, J.S., Gupta.S.C, Sikka, S.K. and Chidambaram, R., 'On the Vaience Transition in Shocked Ytterbium', Shock Waves in Condensed Matter: Ed. Schmidt, S.C. and Holmes, N.C. Elsevier Sci. (1988) p Gupta, S.C., Gupta, Y.M. and Williams, M.,'Piezoresistance Response of Ytterbium Foils in Shocked Liquid CS 2 \ ibid. Hema Sankaran, Sikka, S.K., Sharma, S.M. and Chidambaram, R., 'A Ruby Fluorescence Spectrometer for Pressure Calibration in Diamond Anvil Cells', Proceedings of Solid State Phys. Symposium, 31C, 390 Gyanchandani, J.S., Vijayakumar, V., Gupta, S.C., Sikka, S.K. and Chidambaram, R., "On 17.5 GPa Shock Discontinuity in Titanium X-ray Diffraction Study', ibid, 31C, 280 Gyanchandani, J.S., Gupta, S.C., Sikka, S.K. and Chidambaram, R., 'On 17.5 GPa Shock Discontinuity in Titanium - Band Structure Calculations', ibid, 31C, 279 Vijayakumar, V. and Sikka, S.K.,'Primitive Hexagonal to Orthorhombic Structural Transition in the Alloy Sn.a 1 "* under Pressure', ibid, 281 Rao, K.R. and Dasannacharya, B.A., 'Neutron Beam Research in India and International Cooperation', Multipupose Research Reactors, IAEA, 23 Dande, Y.D., Dasannacharya, B.A., Paranjpe, S.K., Rakhecha, V.C., Rao, K.R., Deshpande, A.S., Vijayaraghavan, P.R. and Wagh, A.G., 'Neutron Instrumentation for Dhruva Untilization', IAEA Meeting on Neutron Scattering, Grenoble Goyal, P.S., Chakravarthy, R., Dasannacharya, B.A., Desa, J.A.E., Kelkar, V.K., Manohar, C, Narasimhan, S.L, Rao, K.R. and Valurikar, B.S., 'SANS from Micellar Solutions of CTAB and Sodium Salicylate', International Conference on Neutron Scattering, Grenoble Dasannacharya, B.A., Goyal, P.S. andthaper, C.L, "Dynamics of H 2 O in Ba(CIO 3 ).H 2 O', ibid. Jindal, G.D., Akalpita S. Paranjpe, Hari Singh, Subbanna, C.S., Babu, J.P., Deshpande, Alka K. and Goyal, J.P., 'Role of Non-Invasive Techniques in the Evaluation of Non-Conventional Medicines', Proceedings of National Symposium cum Workshop on Advances in Imaging and Image Processing and Xn Ail India Convention of Biomedical Engineering Society of India, (1988) S-Vi 9.1. Jindal, G.D., Paranjpe, A.S., Hari Singh, Subbanna, C.S., Babu, J.P., Deshpande, A.K. and Goyal, J.P., 'Role of Non-Invasive Techniques in the Evaluation of Non-Conventional Medicines', ibid. Dande, Y.D., 'Superconducting Wires', Workshop on High T c Superconductivity, Bangalore Goyal, P.S., 'Pulsed Neutron Spectroscopy', Regional Meeting on Radiation Physics, Calcutta (1988) (Talk). Manohar, C, Kelkar, V.K., Valaulikar, B.S., Goyal, P.S., Desa, J.AE., Narasimhna, S.L. and Dasannacharya, B.A., 'Sol-Gel Transition in Micellar System', 7th International Symposium on Surfactants in Solution, Ottawa, (1988)523. Bhagwat, K.V., Das, G.P. and Sahni, V.C.,'On the Reconstruction of Electron Momentum Density', 8th International Conference on Positron Annihilation, Gent, Belgium Gupta, S.K., 'Forward Energy Flow in Ultrarelativistic 13

21 Nuclear Collisions', Quark Matter 88, Lenox, USA Singh, P., Betigeri, M.G., Jhingan, M.L, Roy, A. and Nagaraj, S., 'Status Report of Separator for Heavy Recoil lons-shri', Int. Conf. on Mass Spectrometers, Bangalore SubhagaVidwans, Salvi, V.P., Rangwala, A.A., Arora, B.M., Jain, K. and Kuldeep, 'Anneal Behaviour of Compositional and Electrical Characteristics of Vanadium Implanted Silicon', Intl. Conf. on Ion Beam Modificiation of Materials, Osaka Sethi, R.C., Junior, P., Nimje, V.T., Bairi, B.R. and Kapoor, S.S., 'Development of an Experimental RFQ Accelerator', European Particle Accelerator Conf., Rome Jain, B.K., 'Delta Production in Nuclear Collisions', Int. Conference on Spin Observables of Nuclear Probes, Telluride (USA), (1988) Chaddah, P., 'Critical Current Densities in High Temperature Superconductors', International Workshop on High Temperature Superconductors, Srinagar (Invited) Chaddah, P., 'An Extension of Bean's Model and an Understanding of Magnetisation Behaviour in High T. Superconductors (Invited)', International Conference on Critical Currents in High Temperature Superconductors, Colarado Ravi Kumar, G. and Chaddah, P., 'History Effects in Magnetisation at Fields Above H cl \ ibid. Ravi Kumar, G., Rao, G.V., Grover, A.K., Radhakrishnarnurthy, C. and Chaddah, P., 'Magnetisation Hysteresis Measurements in Various RBa 2 Cu Supercon-ductors', ibid. Jain, A.K., 'Rutherford Back-scattering Spectrometry and Ion Channelling', Indo-USWorkshoponAdvanced Tehniques in Microstructural Characterization of Materials, Bombay MadanLal, Choudhury, R.K. and Joseph, D., 'Elemental Analysis of Indian Monazite Ores of Different Geological Origin by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Techniques', National Symp. on Analytical Applications in Earth Sciences, Shillong Choudhary, R.K., MadanLal, Joseph, D. andslddique, A.S., Trace Elemental Analysis of the Minerals of Orissa Beach Sand by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique', ibid. Mac'an Lai and Choudhury, R.K., 'Studies of Trace Elements in Biological Systems by Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Techniques', Seminar-cum-Workshop on Physical Techniques in Medical Sciences, Calcutta Nimje, V.T., Korgaonkar, A.V., Thakkur, N.M. and Sethi, R.C., 'Design of Vacuum System for the RFQ Accelerator', IVS National Symp. on Vacuum Science and Technology, Bombay Jain, B.K., 'Spin-isospin Responses in Nuclei', Nuclear Physics Symposium, Ahmedabad Jain, B.K., 'Exploring Propagation of Pions and Deltas in Nuclei', Seminar on Recent Trends in Nuclear Structure Physics, Kanpur Surendra Kumar, 'Interfacing Standards', Indian Physical Society Workshop on Camac Based Instrumentation and Data Acquisition in Research and Industry, Calcutta (1988) (Invited). Grover, A.K., Radhakrishnamurthy, C, Chaddah, P., Ravi Kumar, G. and Subba Rao, G.V., 'Anomalous Magnetic Hysteresis Loops and Small H cl Values in High T c Superconductors', Pramana-J. Phys., 30, L167 Chaddah, P., 'On the Pairing Interaction in High T. Superconductors', ibid, 30, L345 Grover, A.K., Radhakrishnamurthy, C, Chaddah, P., Ravi Kumar, G. and Subba Rao, G.V., 'Measurement and Understanding of Magnetization Behaviour in AC and DC Fields and the Determination of tntragrain H cl in High T c RBa Cu 3 O 7 Superconductors', ibid, 30, 569 ( Ravi Kumar, G. and Chaddah, P., Do We Really Need 14

22 a Superconducting Glass Model?', ibid, 31, L141 Choudhury, N., Chaplot, S.L, Rao, K.R. andghose, S., 'Lattice Dynamics of MgSiO 3 Perovskite', ibid, 30, 423 Ravi Kumar, G., Mishra, P.K., Chaddah, P., Dasannacharya, B.A. and Malik, M.K., 'Magnetic Field Dependence of Critical Current Density in YB^CiigO/, ibid, 31, L343 Ravi Kumar, G. and Chaddah, P., 'Low Field Anomaly in Magnetisation Curves', ibid, 31, 505 Chaddah, P., 'Critical Current Densities in High T c Superconductors', Rev. So). State Science, 2, 303 Malik, M.K., Nair, V.D., Biswas, A.R., Raghavan, R.V., Chaddah, P., Mishra, P.K., Ravi Kumar, G. and B.A. Dasannacharya, Texture Formation and Enhanced Critical Currents in YBa Cu 0 ', Appl. Phys. Lett., 52, 1525 Khandekar, D.C., Bhagwat, K.V. and Wiegel, F.W., 'On the Path-Integral with a Topological Constraint', Phys. Lett., A127, 379 Lawande, S.V. and Bhagwat, K.V., 'Feynman Propagator for the Delta-Function Potential', ibid, A131,8 Khandekar, DC, Bhagwat, K.V. and Lawande, S.V., Polaron Effective Mass', Phys. Rev., B37,3085 Bhagwat, K.V. and Subramanian, R., 'Acoustical Activity of Crystals: A Comparative Study of Three Descriptons', Acta Cryst., A44, 551 Rao, K.R., Chaplot, S.L, Choudhury, N., Ghose, S., Hastings, J.M., Corliss, LM. and Price, D.L, 'Lattice Dynamics and Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Forsterite Mg 2 SiO 4, Phonon Dispersion Relation, Density of States and Specific Heat', Phys. Chem. Minerals Chaplot, S.L, 'Potential Barriers for Molecular Rotations in Solids', Phys. Status Solidi (B), 145, K89 Singh, R.K., Gaur, N.K. and Chaplot, S.L, 'Lattice Dynamics of Divalent Metal Carbonates', Phys. Rev., B37, 3089 Chaplot, S.L., 'Phonon Disperson in YB^CUgO, 1, ibid, B37, 7435 Relation Narasimhan, S.L., Goyal, P.S. and Dasannacharya, B.A., Trap Avoiding Walk: A Model for Polymer Growth', J. Chem. Phys., 88, 2800 Goyal, P.S., Desa, J.A.E., Narasimhan, S.L, Dasanacharya, B.A., Valaulikar, B.S., Kelkar, V.K. and Manohar, C, 'SANS Measurements of Micelle to Gel Transition in Solutions of CTAB and Sodium Salicylate', Material Science Forum, 27,169 Gupta, S.K., Kailas.S. and Kerekatte, S.S., 'Alpha Scattering from ^Bi at 50.5 MeV, Phys. Rev., C37, 1420 Gupta, S.K., 'Eikonal Model Description of Forward Energy Distribution in Oxygen-Induced Reaction at 60 A GeV and 200 A GeV, Zeitschrift fur Physik A, Chatterjee, A., Gupta, S.K., Kailas, S. and Kerekatte, S.S., *4( II) Neutron Multiplicity Detector', Nuclear Instrumentation for Heavy Ion Laboratories, Ed. Choudhury, R.K., Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., p. 130 Sharma, S.K., Kuldeepand Jain, A.K., 'Diffusion of Sb in Amorphous and Crystallized Fe^B^', Mater. Sci. Engg., 100, 145 Sharma, S.K., Banerjee, S., Kuldeep and Jain, A.K., 'Diffusion of Au and Cu in Amorphous Fe^B^ and Fe^B,,, Alloys', Appl. Phys., A45, 217 Sharma, S.K., Banerjee, S., Kuldeep and Jain, A.K., 'Diffusion Measurements in the Fe^B^ Amorphous Alloy by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry', Acta Metall., 36, 1683 Sharma, S.K., Banerjee, S., Kuldeep and Jain, A. K., "A Comparative Study of Thin Film Diffusion Measurement 15

23 in Metallic Glasses by RBS and AES', Thin Solid Films, 164, 33 (1988) Madan Lai and Choudhury, R.K., 'Monitoring of Thin Layer Deposits of High Temperature Superconducting Materials by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF)', Pramana-J. Phys., 30(5), L463 Singh, P., Kailas, S. and Navin, A., 'Optical Model Analysis of <*>w&zr + *He Elastic Scattering at 35.4 MeV, Z. Phys. A-Atomic Nuclei, 331, 309 Mythili, R., Singh, P., Bhattacharya, P.K., Parui, A.B., Betigeri, M.G., Raja Rao, P.M., Krishnamurthy, G. and Raju.V.S., 'Measurements of Excitation Functions and Radiative Lifetimes of Oxygen Ions', Z. Phys., D7,311 Thoennessen, M., Chakrabarty, D.R., Butsch, R., Herman, M.G., Paul, P. and Sen, S., 'Onset of Deformation in Pb isotopes at High Excitation Energies', Phys. Rev., C37,1762 Chakrabarty, D.R., Thoennessen, M., Sen, S., Paul, P., Butsch, R. and Herman, M.G., 'Giant Dipole Resonances in Excited Er Isotopes', ibid, C37,1437 Mayer, H.O., Schwandt, P., Abegg, R., Miller, C.A., Jackson.KP., Yen, S., Gaillard, G., Hugi.M., Helmar, R., Frekers, D. and Saxena, A., 'Proton Elastic Scattering from 12 C at 250 MeV and Energy Dependent Potential', ibid, C37, 544 Sharma, N.R., Jain, B.K. and Shyam, R., 12O Ne(a 2a) ie O Reaction', ibid, C37, 873 Lacey, R., Ajitanand.N.N., Alexander, J.M., De, D.M., Castro Rizzo, Peaslee, G.F., Vaz, L.C., Kaplan, M., Kildir.M., LaRana.G., Moses, D.J., Parker, W.E., Logan, D., Zisman, M.S., De Young, P., and Kowalski, L, 'Large-Angle Correlation Between *He and 1A3 H or 4 He in the Reactions 247 and 337 MeV Ar40 + Nat.Ag: Unexpected Properties of the Nuclear Stratosphere', ibid, C37, 2561 Lacey, R., Ajitanand.N.N., Alexander, J.M., De Castro Rizzo, D.M., Peaslee, G.F., Vaz, L.C., Kaplan, M., Kildir, M., La Rana, G., Moses, D.J., Parker, W.E., Logan, D., Zisman, M.S., De Young, P. and Kowalski, L, 'Mechanisms for Light Charged Particle Emission in the Reactions 247 and 337 MeV Ar40 + Nat.Ag', ibid, C37, 2540 Jain, B.K., Londergan, J.T. and Walker, G.E., '(p,ph + ) Reaction at Energies Below 1 GeV, ibid, C37, 1564 (1988) Chakrabarty, D.R., 'Giant Dipole Resonance in Excited Heavy Nuclei', Nuci. Phys., A482, 81C (1988) Rao, K.R.P.M., 'Mossbauer Spectroscopy in Steel Industry', Industrial Applications of Mossbauer Effect, Eds. Long, G.J. and Stevens, J.G., Ch. IX., Plenum Press, (1987). Tomkinson, J., Goyal, P.S., Chakravarthy, R., Dasannacharya, B.A. and Kulshreshta, S.K., 'The Dynamics of NH 4 Ions in Alkali Metal Halide Lattices at High Concentrations', International Conference on Neutron Scattering, Grenoble Ota, SB., Varshney, L, Rao, T.v.C. and Sahni, V.C., 'Oxygen Stability in YBajCu 3 O 7 ', Pramana - J. Phys., 30, L443 Ota, S.B. and Rao, T.V.C., 'Order Disorder Transition in YBa 2 Cu0 7 ', Physica, 257,153 (1988) Ota. S.B., Rao, T.V.C., Viswanathan, Ch.S. and Sahni, V.C., 'The Maximum Sintering Temperature and Electrical Characteristics of High T c Superconductor YBa 2 Cu0 7x \ J. Phys. D, 21, 1308(1988) Sanyal, M.K., Sahni, V.C. and Chidambaram, R., 'X-ray Structural Study of AI 6 CuMg 4 ', Solid State Commun., 66,1043 Sahni, V.C. and Sanyal, M.K.,'On the Perfect Penrose Tiling and its Basic Building Blocks', Pramana-J. Phys., 32, L77 (1989). Sanyal, M.K., Sahni, V.C., Dey, G.K. and Banerjee, S., 'Crystallisation and Structural Relaxation in OuasicrystallineAI 6 CuMg 4 ',lnt. Conference on Modu- 16

24 lated Structures, Varanasi Polytypes and Quasicrystals, UshaDeniz, K., 'Defects in Liquid Crystals', Bull. Mater. ScL, 10, 61 Parvathanathan, P.S., Usha Deniz, K., Ramanathan, K.V., Khetrapal, C.L, Gurnani, S. and Geeta Datta, 'Proton Magnetic Resonance Investigation of the Antileprosy Drug, Dapsone with the Model Membrane Di Palmitoyl Phosphatidyl Choline-water', Moi. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Letters), 5,37 (1987). Usha Deniz, K., Parvathanathan, P.S., Geeta Datta and Mirza, E.B., 'Calorimetric Study of Drug - Model Membrane Interaction', Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Surfactants in Solution, New Delhi (1986). UshaDeniz, K., Parvathanathan, P.S., Mirza,E.B.and Geeta Datta, The Influence of the Anti Leprosy Drug, Dapsone, on the Phase Transitions in the Model Membrane DPPE-H 2 O', International Conference on Biomembranes in Health and Diseases, Lucknow Parvathanathan, P.S., Geeta Datta, Mirza, E.B. and Usha Deniz, K., 'Influence of the Anti Leprosy Drug Dapsone, on the Phase Transitions of the Model Membrane DPPC-K.O', ibid. Agarwal, Y.K., Baba, C.V.K., Dasgupta, M., Jain, H.C., Roy, A., Sharan, M.K., Chakrabarty, D.R. and Datar, V.M., 'High Energy Gamma Ray from a Au at E -40 MeV, Nucl. Phys. Symp., Bombay Kumar, S., Mirgule, E.T., Eswaran, M.A., Chakrabarty, D.R. and Ragoowansi, N.L, 'Direct Cluster Transfer at Sub-Coulomb Energies in the 3 He Bombardment of 13 C, ibid. VineetKumar, Parui, A.B. and Betigiri, M.G., 'A Proposal for Dynamic Control of the BARC Tandem Accelerator', ibid. Betigiri, M.G., Parui, A.B. and Singh, P.,'Status Report of the BARC - Tandem Accelerator", ibid. Singh, P. and Chatterjee, A., 'Optical Model Analysis of».«.". 7 «Ge + «He Elastic Scattering at 31.5 MeV', Ibid. Charagi, S.K. and Gupta, S.K.,'Modified Glauber Model for Heavy Ion Reaction Cross Section', ibid. Kerekatte, S.S., Chatterjee, A. and Gupta, S.K., The 9e Co + 4 He Optical Potential at 69.5 MeV Obtained from Elastic Scattering', ibid. Shanta, R. and Gupta, S.K., Transverse Energy Distributions for Collisions of 200A GeV Oxygen and Sulphur on Gold', ibid. Gautam, R.P., Singh, R.K.Y. 1 AfzarAnsari,M..Rizvi,IA, Chaubey.A.K. andkailas, S., 'Radiative Capture of Fast Neutrons in Mn-55', ibid. Thakur, N.M. and Sethi, R.C., 'Development of a High Current Duoplasmatron Ion Source', ibid. Nimje, V.T. and Sethi, R.C.,'Design of the R.F. System for the RFQ Accelerator', ibid. Alok Saxena, Nadkarni, D.M., Anand, R.P., Murthy, S.R.S., Choudhury, R.K, Ramamurthy, V.S. and Kapoor, S.S., 'Measurement of Neutron Emission in 238 U(a, f) at Moderate Excitation Energies', ibid. Mahesh Samant, Alok Saxena, Anand, R.P., Balla, B.R., Choudhury, R.K. and Kapoor, S.S., 'Measurement of Neutron Emission Spectrum in Thermal Neutron Induced Fission of 235 U', ibid. Arvind Jain, Bhathena, F.R., Shallom, E. and Jain, A.K., 'Backscattering Studies of Low Energy Heavy Ions', ibid. Arvind Jain, 'Feasibility of "RIGMA" Fusion Power Source', ibid. Surendra Kumar, Bhalerao, P.J., Hosangadi, R.R., Gopal, K. andkataria, S.K., 'Beam Line Control with PC-CAMAC Based Control System at Pelletron Accelerator', ibid. Gopal, K. and Surendra Kumar, 'Stepper Motor Drives 17

25 for Automation of Control of Spectrometer Movements', ibid. Kataria. S.K., Ramamurthy, V.S., Kapoor, S.S., Aruna Nijasure and Outta, A.K., 'Anomaly in the Nuclear Curvature Energy', ibid. Kataria. S.K., "Nuclear Fission Theory at Trombay', ibid. Bency John, Aruna Nijasure, Kataria, S.K., Gokhale, V.H., Rao, S.M.D. and Chougaonkar, M.P., 'Response of BaF 2 Scintillation Oetector with Pulse Shape Analysis', ibid. Ramamurthy, V.S., Togun, E.A. and Kataria, S.K., 'Effect of Fusion Dynamics on the Decay Widths and Branching Ratios of Composite Systems Formed in Heavy Ion Collisions', ibid. Ajitanand, N.N., Anand, R.P., Murthy, S.R.S. and lyengar, K.N., The Photovoltaic Cell: An Eminent Fission Fragment Detector', ibid. Ajitanand, N.N. and lyengar, K.N., 'Study of the Uranium on Lead Reaction at Deep Sub-Barrier Energies', ibid. Choudhury, R.K., 'Experimental Studies in Fission at Trombay', ibid. Datar, V.M., 'High Energy Photon in Heavy Ion Collisions', ibid. Ramamurthy, V.S. and Mohanty, A.K., 'Mechanism of Highly Asymmetric Binary Division', ibid. Navin, A., Dasgupta, M., Agarwal, Y.K., Baba, C.V.K., Jain, H.C., Jhingan, M.L and Roy, A., 'Angular Momentum in Fusion Reactions', ibid. Kiran Kumar and Ramamurthy, VS., Transitions in Nuclear Collective Dynamics', ibid. Ramamurthy, V.S. and Kapoor, S.S., 'On the Experimental Determination of Extra-Push Energies for Fusion', ibid. Sastry, S.V.S., Nayak, B.K., Choudhury, R.K. and Ramamurthy, V.S., 'High Energy Gamma Rays from Fragments In Fission of **Cr, ibid. Jain, A.K., 'Modified DWIA Calculations for Cluster Knock-Out Reactions', Ibid. Ratna Jadhav, Srikantiah, R.V. and Choudhury, R.K.,'A CaF z - NE213 based Phoswich Detector', ibid. Rao, K.R., 'Dhruva Reactor -A High Flux Neutron Beam Resarch Facility 1, Proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium, 31C, Bhopal Chakravarthy, R., 'Polarised Neutrons and Magnetism', ibid. Chaplot, S.L., 'Neutron Scattering in Dynamics of Condensed Matter', ibid. Rakhecha, V.C., 'New and Novel Techniques in Neutron Scattering', ibid. Ravi Kumar, G., 'Magnetisation Studies on Temperature Superconductors', ibid. High Soni, N.C., Ram Pradad, Arvind Jain, Tomy, C.V., Adroja, D.T. and Malik, S.K., 'Attempts of F and S Inplantation in YBajCu 3 O 7. y ', ibid. Goyal, PS., Dasannacharya, B.A., Kelkar, V.K., Manohar, C, Narasimhan, S.L., Rajagopalan, V. and Valaulikar, B.S., 'SANS from Micellar Solution of CTAB and KBR', ibid. Chaplot, S.L, 'Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Amorphous Solid Tetracyanoethylene', ibid. Chaplot, S.L, 'Molecular Dynamics Simulation of YBa 2 Cu at High Temperatures', ibid. Goyal, P.S., Dasannacharya, B.A., Kelkar, V.K., Manohar, C, Narasimhan, S.L, Rajagopalan, V. and Valaulikar, B.S., 'Structure of Equiviscous CTAB Micellar Solutions', ibid. Sahni, V.C. andsanyal, M.K., 'Why a Perfect Penrose Tiling has only Eight Basic Blocks?', ibid. 18

26 Sanyal. M.K., Sahni, V.C., Dey, G.K. and Banerjee, S., "Study of Rapidly Solidified AIMg Alloy 1, ibid. Ghose, S., Hastings, J.M., Corliss, L.M., Choudhury, N., Chaplot, S.L. and Rao, K.R., 'Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Phenon Dispersion in Fe 2 Si0 4 ", ibid. Thapar, CL, Dasannacharya, BA., Goyal, P.S., Qiakravarthy, R. and Tomkinson, J., Neutron Scattering from Glycine and Deuterated Glycine', ibid. Chaplot, S.L, Maukhopadhyay, R., Vijayaraghavan, P.R.,Desphande,A.S.andRao, K.R., 'PowderCoherent Inelastic Neutron Scatttering at Dhruva Reactor', ibid. Wadhawan, V.K. and Bhagwat, K.V, 'A Point-Defect Model of Structural PhaseTransitions in the Ferroelastic Superconductor YBCO', ibid. Rao, TV.C, Ota, S.B., Viswanadham, Ch.S., Varsheney, L. and Sahni, V.C., The Effect of Particle Size on Oxygen Stability in YBa 2 Cu x ', ibid. Narayani Choudhury, Rao, K.R. and Chaplot, S.L., 'Phonon Disperson Relation in La 2 Cu0 4 ', ibid. Narayani Choudhury, Rao, K.R. and Chaplot, S.L, 'Phonon Dispersion Relation in La NiO ', ibid. Grover, A.K., Pillay, R.G., Tandon, P.N. and Rakhecha, V.C., 'Varieties of Magnetic Order incef 2 Matrix-A New Riddle in Alloy Magnetism', ibid. Arora, A.K., Sakuntala, T. and Bansal.M.L, 'Raman Scattering Study of High Pressure Phase Transitions in LiKSO;, ibid. Goyal, P.S., Chakravarthy, R., Dasannacharya, B.A., Kulshreshta, S.K., Sastry, M.S. and Tomkinson, J., 'Neutron Incoherent Inelastic Scattering from (NHJ,, Rb^PO;. ibid. Bansal, ML and Roy, A.P., 'Raman Scattering Study of Nucleation and Growth Processes in First Order Phase Transformation of LiKSO 4 ', ibid. Parvathanathan, P.S., Geeta Datta, Mirza, E.B. and Usha Deniz, K., 'Metastability in the Model Membrane, DPPE-H a O\ ibid. Rao, K.R.P.M., Subhash Padhye and Prafulla Garge, 'Time-Resolved (Dynamical) Mossbauer Study of Light Induced Valence State Changes in Iron (II) Mode! Complexes of Photosensitive Bacterial Reaction Centre', ibid. Bandhopadhyay, B., Goshray, K., Ghoshray, A., Mukhopadhyay, R. and Kadam, R.M., 'IH-Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in (NH 4 ) 2 SbF 5 ", ibid. Deb, S.K., Singh, A.J. and Roy.A.P., 'Photoacoustic Study of Band Gap Variation in AgGa(SxSe,JZ', ibid. Jain, N.C., 'On the Sensitivity Factors in Auger Electron Spectroscopy', ibid. Paranjpe, S.K., Gaonkar, V.G., Suri, M.M.K., Kale, M.S. and Sharma, D.N., 'IBM-PC Based Data Acquisition System for Neutron Diffractometer 1, ibid. Dande, Y.D., Dasannacharya, B.A., Joshi, J.N. and Patra, A.K., 'High Resolution Linear PSD for Soft X-ray 1, ibid. Saibal Basuand Madhav Rao, L, 'Computer Simulation Study of Spectral Distributions at the Dhruva Neutron Guides', ibid. Salunke, H.G. and Sahni, V.C., 'Model Calculation for the Local Density of States for (100) Surface in FCC and Simple Cubic Lattice', ibid. Paranjpe, A.S., Tamhane, S.B. and Vasan, M.B., 'Fractal Growth by Electroless Deposition 1, ibid. Mishra.P.K., Ravi Kumar, G., Chaddah.P., Dasannacharya, B.A. and Malik, M.K., 'Magnetic Field Dependence of Transport Critical Current Density in YBa 2 Cu \ ibid. Agarwal, G.S., Lawande, S.V. and D'Souza, R., 'Quantum Jumps in a Coherently Driven Raman System 1, Phys. Rev., A37, 444 Puri, R.R. and Agarwal, G.S., 'Coherent Two-Photon Transitions in Rydberg Atoms in a Cavity with Finite Q', 19

27 ibid. A37, 3879 Joshi, A. and Lawande, S.V., 'Cooperative Effects on the Side-Band Correlations in Resonance Fluorescence', J. Mod. Optics, 35, 135 Lawande, S.V. and Jagatap, B.N., 'Violation of Cauchy - Schwarz Inequality in Cooperative Optical Double Resonance", Phys. Lett., A126, 329 Joshi, A., Puri, R.R. and Lawande, S.V., 'Dynamical Stark Effect in an Amplitude Modulated Field', Mod. Phys. Lett., 32,457 Jagatao BN and Lawande, S.V., 'Analytical Spectra ana intensity - Intensity Correlations in Cooperative Optical Double Resonance', ibid, B2, 781 Lawande, Q.V. and Lawande, S.V., 'Squeezing in Cooperative Resonance Fluorescence', Phys. Rev., A38, 800 Agarwal, G.S., Lawande, S.V. and D'Souza, R., 'Quantum Jumps in a System of Few Trapped Ions', IEEE J.Quant. Electronics, 24,1413 Bullough, R.K. and Puri, R.R., 'Quantum Electrodynamics of an Atom Making Two-Photon Transitions in an Ideal Cavity', J. Opt. Soc. Am., B5, 2021 Puri, R.R. and Agarwal, G.S., 'Monitoring Quantum Effects in Cavity Electrodynamics by Atoms in Semiclassical Dressed States', ibid, B5,1669 Agarwal, G.S. and Puri, R.R., 'Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions in a Squeezed Cavity and the Generation of Spin States Satisfying Uncertainty Equality', Opt. Comm.. 69, 267 Puri, R.R. and Joshi, A., 'Effects of Finite Temperature on Two-Photon Transitions in a Rydberg Atom in a High- Q Cavity 1, ibid, 69, 367 Lawande, S.V. and Joshi, A., 'Atomic Coherent States and Transient Squeezing in Three-level Systems', Mod. Phys. Lett., B3, 25 (1989). Lawande, S.V. and Joshi, A., The Effects of Negative Binomial Field Distribution on Rabi Oscillations in a Two Level Atoms', Optics Commun., 70, 21 (1989) Lawande, S.V. and Jagtap, B.N., 'Cooperative Effects in a System of Strongly Driven Three-Level Atoms', Phys. Rev., A39, 683 (1989). Agarwal, G.S. and Puri, R.R., 'Collapse and Revival Phenomenon in the Evolution of a Resonant Field in a Kerr like Medium', ibid, A39, 2969 (1989). Jayarao, A.S., Lawande, S.V. and Richard D'Souza, Time Dependent Spectra of a Strongly Driven Three- Level Atom', ibid, A39, 3464(1989). Khandekar, D.C., Bhagwat, K.V. and Lawande, S.V., 'Polaron Effective Mass', ibid, B37, 3085 Ghosh, S.K. and Dhara, A.K., "Density Functional Theory of Many Electron Systems Subjected to Time- Dependent Electric and Magnetic Fields', ibid, 38A, 1149 Lawande, S.V. and Bhagwat, K.V., 'Feyman propagator for the Function Potential', Phys. Lett., A139, 6 Khandekar, D.C., Bhagwat, K.V. and Wiegel, F.W.,'On a Path-Integral with Topological Constraint', ibid, A127, 379 Khandekar, D.C. and Wiegel, F.W., 'Distribution of Area Enclosed by a Plane Random Walk', J.Phys., A21, L563 Khandekar, D.C., 'Functional Integrals and Polymer Physics', ASPAP News 3, 8 Khandekar, D.C. and Wiegel, F.W., 'Continuous Area Preserving Models of Interacting Polymers', J. dephys., 50, 263 (1989). DiagodeFalcoandDinkar, C.K, 'Application of White- Noise Calculus to the Computation of Feynman Inte grals', BiBos Preprint No. 265/87. Srivastava, M.K., Sinha, B.K. and Lawande, S.V., 'Ion Front and Ablalian in a Freely Expanding Two-Ion Two- 20

28 Temperature Non-Collisional Plasma', Phys. Fluids, Lavanya, M.R., Nair, S.V. and Rustagi, K.C., 'Frohlich Resonances in Anisotropic Particles', Solid State Symposium, Bhopal Sahni, D.C., 'New Diffusion Like Modes of One Speed Transport Equation in Spherical Geometry 1, Annals of Nuclear Energy, 15, 357 Vinod Kumar and Menon, S.V.G., 'Discrete Ordinates Scheme for Quadrilateral Meshes', ibid, 15,317 Paranjape, S.D. and Sahni, D.C., 'A Semianalytical Method to Solve the Linear Fokker Plank Equation Characterising Charged Particle Transport in Spherical Geometry 1, Nuc. Sci. and Engg., 101,153 (1989). Menon, S.V.G., Vinod Kumar and Jain, S.R., 'Noise- Induced Transitions : An Example from Linear Transport Theory 1, Physica, A152, 328 Jain, V.K., 'Point Kinetics Model with One-Dimensional (radial) Heat Conduction Formalism', BARC-1452 (1989). Jain, V.K., 'Loss of Regulation Accident Analysis for NAPP in the Startup Phase', ThPD/Note/3r2 Jain, V.K., 'Revised LORA Analysis for NAPP Reactors', ThPD/Note/325 (1989). Jain, V.K., 'One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Model for Reactor Kinetics Studies', 10th Heat and Mass Transfer Conference (1989). Das, S., The Concept of a Sub-Prompt - Critical Nuclear Reactor and Its Applications to the Solutions of Safety Related Problem in Reactor Kinetics', BARC/ II-956 Purandare, H.D., Srivenkatesan, R. and Srinivasan, K.R., 'Physics of Defuelling of Channels in RAPS-1', Symp. on Operating Experience of Nuclear Reactors and Power Plants, Bombay (1989). Dhanvij.R.F. and Purandare, H.D., 'A Program for Fuel Scheduling of PHWRs', ibid. Kamat, S.U., Srivenkatesan, R. and Srinivasan, K.R., 'Fuel Management Studies of MAPS-II with Improved Version of TRIVENI', ibid. Purandare, H.D., 'Search of Patterns in Burnup Distributions of RAPS and MAPS', ThPD/Note/319 Dhanvij, R.F. and Purandare, H.D., 'Study of Variation of Channel and Bundle Powers while Following up MAPS Type Reactors', ThPD/Note/320 Laxmi, M., Purandare, H.D. and Srinivasan, K.R., 'Effect of Cobalt Irradiation in NAPP Adjuster Rods', ThPD/Note/323 Dhanvij, R.F. and Purandare, H.D., 'INDHAN - An Autofuel Program for PHWRs', BARC (1989). Raghav, H.P., 'Computation of Transmission Probabilities for Annular Cylindrical Geometry', Ann. of Nucl. Energy, 15, 209 Burte, D.P., Raghav, H.P. and Vaidya, S.G., 'Tarapur Unit-2 Cycle-12 Fuel Management 1, TFMS/2/12 Jagannathan, V., Jain, R.P, Kulkarni, A.K. and Kamath, S.U., 'A Pre-Analysis of thenapp-1 Approach to Critical and Phase-B Experimental Scenerios with the PHAN- TOM-CEMESH Code System', Note/RASD/PHY/13 (19P9). Gupta, H.C. anddwivedi, S.R., 'An Importance Biasing for 1-P Deep Penetration Problems by Monte Carlo', BARC-1427 Parab, H.D. and Subhash Chandra, 'Numerical Solution of Hallow Shell Implosions', 10th Heat and Mass Transfer Conference Srivenkatesan, R., Yadav, R.D.S., Balaraman, V., Degwekar, S.B., Gupta, H.P. and Srinivasan, K.R., 'Evaluation of Phase-B Low Power Physics Experiments in NAPP-1 Pre-Experimental Studies', Note/ RASD/PHY/17(1989). Gupta, H.P. and Srinivasan, K.R., 'Filling of Calandria 21

29 with Borated Heavy Water and First Approach to Criticalityfor NAPP-1 Reactor 1, ThPD/Not"/'' ft 3 (1989), Srivenkatesan, R., Kumar, A.N., Gupta, n.p., ivlalik, R.C., Mehta, S.L, Tej Ra^ and Mahabir Prasad, 'NAPP-1 Commissioning Procedure for Low Power Physics Measurements (0620.2)', Rev. 3 (NDSC) (1989). Rastogi, B.P., 'Reator Physics Computer Code Development for Neutronic Design, Fuel-Management, Reactor Operation and Safety Analysis of PHWRs',BARC-i442 (1989). Bajaj, P.N., Manohar, K.G., Suri, B.M., Dasgupta, K., Talukdar, R., Chakraborti, P.K. and Rao, P.R.K, Two Colour Multiphoton lonization Spectroscopy of Uranium from a Metastable State', Appl. Phys., B47, 55 Mago.V.K., Ray, A.K., Lai, B. and Rao, P.R.K.,'Study of High Lying Odd Levels in UlbyTwo Color Photoionization 1, J. Phys., B21, 955 Dasgupta, K., Manohar, K.G., Bajaj, P.N., Suri, B.M., Talukdar, R.K., Chakraborti, P.K. and Rao, P.R.K., 'Understanding of Single Color Multiphoton lonization Spectra by Pump-Probe Technique', J. Opt. Soc. Am., B5(6), 1257 Bhowmick, G.K., Talukdar, R., Bajaj, P.N., Kartha, V.B. and Chakraborti, P.K., 'Associative lonization of Laser Excited Uranium with Molecular Oxygen', Chem. Phys. Letts., 144, 407 Lawande, S.V. and Jagatap, B.N., 'Violation of Cauchy - Schwarz Inequality in Co-operative Optical Double Resonance', Phys. Letts, A126, 329 Vas Dev,, Biswas, D.J., Nundy, U. and Chatterjee, U.K., 'Suitable Intracavity Optical Material for the Reliable Off-Line-Centre Operation of CW CO? Laser', ODt. Comm.,65, 364 Biswas, D.J., Vas Dev and Chatterjee, U.K., Experimental Observation of Two Mode Instabilities in a CO 2 Laser', Phys. Rev, A38, 555 Joshi, A. and Lawande, SV,'Co-operative Effects on Side Band Correlation in Resonance Fluorescence', J. Mod. Opt. 35, 135 Lawande, S.V. and Jagatap, B.N.,'Co-operative Effects in a System of Strongly Driven Three Level Atomis', Phys. Rev. A39, (1988) Naik, P.D., Pavanaja, U.B., Sapre, A.V., Rama Rao, K.V.S., Mittal, J.P., Iyer, R.M. and Bajaj, P.N., 'Cheroiluminescent Reactions of Samarium with Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbons', J. Photochem., 41, 285 Smith, M.A.H., Rinsland, C.P., Malathy Devi, V., Benner, D.C. and Thakur, K.B., 'Measurements of Air- Broadened and Nitroneg-Broadened Half Widths and Shifts of Ozone Lines near 9 urn", J. Opt. Soc. Am, B5, 585 Biswas, D.J., 'Lowering of Instability Threshold of Single Mode Modulated Lasers Under Detuned Conditions', Proceedings of the Xlth International Conference on Atomic Physics, Paris Biswas, D.J., Vas Dev and Chatterjee, U.K.,'Observation of Two Mode Instabilities in CO 2 Lasers', J. Opt. Soc. AmB, (Special Issue), 164(1987). Jagatap, B.N. and Lawande, S.V., 'Analytical Spectra and Intensity Correlation in Cooperative Optical Double Resonance 1, Mod Phys. Letts, B2, 781 Kapoor, R. and Saksena, G.D., 'Simple Technique to Measure Relative Transition Probabilities: Application to Ul Transitions', Phys. Rev. Letts. 61, 1481 Joshi, A., Puri, R.R. and Lawande, S.V., 'Dynamical Stark Effect in an Amplitude Modulated Field', Mod. Phys. Letts., B2, 457 Lai, B., Garg, S.P., Das, D., Thakur, A.V., Suri, A.K. and Rao, P.R.K., 'Design of Container for Uranium for Its Evaporation at >3000K Using Several e-beam Guns to Produce U-Atomic Beam Suitable for US', BARC/R-11 Lai, B. andvyas, R.J., 'Design Details of an Experimental Module, EMLIS-3 for US', BARC/R-12 22

30 Rao, P.R.K., Jagatap, B.N., Thakur, K.B. and Das, D., 'Atomic Vapour Laser Isotope Separation of Uranium : Physics of the Process and Technology Assessment', BARC/l-934 Jagatap, B.N., Dasgupta, K., Lai, B. and Rao, P.R.K., 'Laser Beam Combination for Atomic Vapour Laser Isotope Separation: Design and Optimization Studies', BARC/R-10 Ahmed, S.A., Rao, Pushpa M. and Jagatap, B.N., 'Energy Levels, Isotope Shifts, Hyperfine Structures, Life Times, Transition Probabilities and Other Spectroscopic Parameters of Neutral Uranium Atom Update 1987', BARC-1413 Bhatia, M.S., Joshi, A., Patel, K., Mago, V.K., Suri, B.M., Kapoor, R., Dass, S, Nayak, A.K., Mittal, J.K., Chatterjee,U.K.,Saksena,G.D,and Rao, P.R.K., 'Photoionization and Other Studies on Uranium Vapour', BARC/ R-9(1987). D'Cunha, Romola, The Analysis ofthea2 v 2 < = v 2 Hot Bands of "NHL, and 15 NH 3 \ J. Mol. Spectrosc, 112, 13(1987). Ahmad, S.A., Klempt, W., Neugart, R., Otten, E.W., Reinhard, P.G., Ulm, G. and Wendt, K., 'Mean Square Charge Radii of Radium Isotopes and Octupole Deformation in the RaRagion', Nucl.Phys.A483, 244 Bellary, V.P. and Balasubramanian, T.K., 'On the Rotational Intensity Distribution with a'a g -X 3 Magnetic Dipole Transition of Oxygen Molecule', J. Mol. Spectrosc., 126,436(1987). Bhowmick, G.K., Talukdar, R., Bajaj, P.N., Kartha, V.B. and Chakraborty, P.K., 'Associative lonisationof Laser Excited Uranium with Molecular Oxygen', Chem. Phys. Lett., 14,407 Chandola, LC. and Khanna, P.P., 'X-rayFluorescence Analysis of Thulium Oxide for Rare Earth Impurities', J. Radio Anal, and Nucl. Chem., 121(1), 53 Chandola, L.C., Khanna, P.P. and Dixit, V.S., 'Optical Emission Spectrographic Analysis of Thulium Oxide for Rare Earth Impurities', BARC-1426 Dixit, R.M. and Deshpande, S.S., 'X-ray Fluorescence Method for the Determination of La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in Plain Carbon Steels', BARC-1415 Dixit, R.M. and Desphande, S.S., 'An X-ray Fluorescence Method forthe Determination of Ba, Sr, Mo and Bi in Thorium Oxide', BARC-1398 Karanjikar, N.P. and Naik, R.C., 'X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence of Ce 3t in YPO 4 and Location of 5d Levels', Solid State Communications, 65(11), 1419 Kuldip Singh, D'Cunha, R. and Kartha, V.B., Transition Depole Moments and Intensity Measurements of the a 2 v 2 <= sv 2 Hot Band of M NH 3 ',J. Mol. Spectrosc.. 129,307 Lakshminarayana, G. and Shetty, B.J., The Vibrational and Rotational Analysis of the E' Z + - X' * System of SiSe", ibid, 130, 155 Mythili, R., Singh, P., Bhattacharya, P.K., Parvi, A.B., Betigeri, M.G., Raja Rao, P.M., Krishnamurty, G. and Raju, V.S., 'Measurement of Excitation Functions and Radiative Lifetimes of Oxygen Ions', Z. Phys., D7, 311 Saraswathy, P. and Krishnamurty, G., 'Rotational Analysis of A'n-X'X ' Bands of As M N and As 15 N : Perturbation Studies in ATI State', Pramana : J. Phys., 31 Sharma, A., Schuessler, HA. and Hill, R.H. Jr., 'Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection of Collisional Transfer in Atomic Rubidium Vapour During Collisions with Noble Gas and Rubidium Atoms', Phy. Rev., A.37, 4649 Shukla, R.P. and Murty, M.V.R.K., "Determination of Dispersion of Liquids or Solid Transparent Materials Using Scatter Plate Interferometer', Ind. J. Pure and Appl. Phys., 26, 9 Venkatasubramanian, R. and Krishnamachari, S.L.N.G., "Non-Thermal Rotational and Vibrational Excitation of 23

31 CN Produced in the Flash Photolysis of Thiazole', Pramana: J. Phys., 30,529 Wendt, K., Ahmad, S.A., Ekstrom, C, Neugart, R. and Otten, E.W., 'Hyperfine Structure and Isotope Shifts of Neutron Rich «>Ba and 148 Ba', Z. Phys. At. Nuclei, A 329, 407 Kartha, V.B., 'High Resolution Spectroscopy, New Molecules, New Methods.', Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad., 733 Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Raman and Infrared Investigations on Hydrotropes, Surfactants and Model Membranes', Proc. Int. Ram. Conferences Calcutta, Murthy.P.S., Biswas, S.S. and Nair, V.R., 'Determination of Some RE Impurities in High Purity Yttrium, Gadolinium and Dysprosium Oxides by ICP-AES', BARC Kartha, V.B., 'High Resolution Spectroscopy New Molecules, New Techniques (Invited Talk)', Symp. on Emerging Frontiers of Chemistry, Bombay (1987). Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Techniques in Analytical Spectroscopy (Invited Paper)', Fifth ISAS National Symposium, Hyderabad Singh, K., Kartha, S.B., Job, V.A. and Kartha, V.B., 'Precision Intensities and Frequencies. High Resolution Diode Laser Spectroscopy for Isotopic Analysis', ibid. Wahi, P.K. and Kartha, V.B., ' 13 C Analysis in CF 3 I by Diode Laser Spectroscopy', ibid. Chandoia, L.C., 'Optical Emission Spectrographic Analysis of High Purity Rare Earths for Rare Earth Impurities', ibid. Khanna, P.P., Dixit, V.S. and Chandoia, L.C., 'X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometric and Optical Emission Spectrographic Analysis of Thulium Oxide for Rare Earth Impurities', ibid. Sreerama Murthy, P., 'Recent Advances in Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (Invited Paper)', ibid. Biswas, S.S., Sankaran, A.V., Marathe, S.M. and Sreeramamurthy, P., 'On the Determination of Boron in Magnesium by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emssion Spectroscopy', ibid. Sreerama Murty, P., Marathe, S.M., Biswas, S.S. and Sankaran, A.V., 'Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in Copper by ICP-AES', ibid. Rao, P.M.R., Saraswathy, P., Krishnamurthy, G., Rout, R.K Auluck.S.K.H., Anurag Shyamand Kulkarni, D.V., 'Emission Spectroscopic Techniques for Plasma Diagnostics', ibid.. Ravindranath, S.V.G., 'Data Acquisition and Control of a Raman Spectrometer Using an IBM-PC Compatibe Personal Computer', ibid. Venkatasubramanian, R. and Karanjikar, N.P., 'Spectrochemical Determination of Pollutants at sub-ppm Levels in Fresh Water Samples', ibid. Omana, N. and Ayyar, K.H., 'A D.C. Arc Emission Spectrographic Method for the Analysis of Trace- Impurities in Lead Germanate', ibid. Marathe, S.M., Biswas, S.S., Narayanan, O. and Sreeramamurthy, P., 'Spectrographic Determination of Si, Fe and Mn in Boron Carbide after Excitation in Oxgen Atmosphere', ibid. Rao Bhasks'a, S.V.N., Srikanth, G. and Sreeramamurthy, P., 'Determination of Certain Trace Elements of Laterites and Bauxites by Optical Emission Spectroscopy', ibid. Ravindranath, S.V.G., Dua, H.S. and Prakasa Rao, P.K.S., 'Applications of Personal Computers in Spectrochemical Laboratory', National Symposium on Personal Computers in Science and Engineering, Bombay Ravindranath, S.V.G. and Dua, H.S., 'An IBM-PC Based Microphotometer', ibid. Bhowmick, G.K., Ahmad, S.A. and Kartha, V.B., 'Saturation and Polarization Spectroscopy of Uranium in Hollow Cathode Discharge', National Work- 24

32 shop on Laser Spectroscopy and Laser Applications, Varanasi. Saksena. G.D., 'Optogalvanic Spectroscopy', ibid. Ahmad. S.A., 'Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy. (Invited Talk)', ibid. D'Cunha, R., Wahi, P.K., Kartha, V.B. and Weber, A.. 'High Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of CH 2 F 2 : 8 band at 1435 cm 1 ', 43rd Columbus Conference, Ohio D'Cunha, R., Singh, K. and Kartha, V.B.,'Investigation of Hot Band Transitions of NH 3 in the 10 urn region', ibid. D'Cunha, R. and Deo, M.N., The S2 v 2 < = a v 2 Hot Band in 14 NH 3 and 15 NH 3 ', ibid.. Balasubramanian, T.K. and Krishnamachari, S.L.N.G., 'Electronic Spectroscopic Studies at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, (Special Requested Lecture)', ibid. Balasubramanian, T.K. and Bellary, V.P., 'Magnetic Dipole Transitions in Diatomic Molecules : Some Neglected Aspects. I', ibid.. Balasubramanian, T.K. and Bellargy, V.P., 'On the Wigner-Witner Correlation Rules in Diatomic Molecules', ibid. Balasubramanian, T.K., Bellary, V.P. and Narahari Rao, K,'Infrared Spectrum of Solid Hydrogen. Theory of the I ntegrated Absorption Co-efficients of W(AJ=6) Transitions', ibid. D'Cunha, R., "Forbidden' Transitions in Ammonia (Invited Talk)', ibid. Kartha, S.B.. Gaikar, V.G., Sharma, M.M. and Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Raman Spectaroscopic Studies of Surfactants', Int. Conf. on Raman Spectroscopy, Calcutta Ahmad, S.A., Rao, M. Pushpa and Saksena, G.D., 'Isotope Shifts in D, and D 2 Lines of Yb + and Relativistic J Dependance of Field Shifts', VII National Workshop on Atomic and Molecular Physics, Aligarh. Rao,M. Pushpa, Ahmad, S.A. and Saksena, G.D., 'New Assignments of 4f s 5d6s Configuration to Odd Parity Levels of Singly Ionised Samarium', ibid. Venugopalan, A., Ahmad, S.A. and Saksena, G.D., 'Isotope Shifts and Nuclear Mean Square Charge Radii of Stable Isotopes of Gadolinium', ibid. Balasubramanian, T.K. and Bellary, V.P., 'Orbitally Forbidden Electronic Transitions in Diatomic Molecules', ibid. Balasubramanian, T.K., 'On the Theoretical and Experimental Spectroscopy of Diatomic Molecules (Invited Talk)', ibid. Lakshmi Narayana, G. and Shetty, B.J., 'Spectroscopic Studies of the Intra Molecular Energy Transfer Processes', ibid. Ahmad, S.A., 'Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics via Atomic Physics (Invited Talk)', ibid.. Rao, Meenakshi Raja, 'Some Interesting Observations on Emission Spectrum from Plasma-Focus Device', ibid.. Saraswathy, P., Rout, R.K., Auluck, S.H. and Shyam, A., 'Optical Emission Spectroscopic Studies for Plasma Diagnostics', ibid. Ahmad, S.A., 'Nuclear Effects in Atomic Spectra (Invited Talk)', Symp. Laser and Spectroscopy Society of India, Bombay Sharma, A., 'Some Recent Laser Spectroscopic Investigations in Atomic and Molecular Physics', Special Colloqium by Laser Spectroscopy Society of India, (IASSI) Bombay Ahmed, S.A., 'Probing Nuclear Structure of Short- Lived Isotopes and Isomers Using Laser Spectroscopy', Proc. Radio Chemistry and Radiation Chem. Symp. Das, N.C., Theoretical Analysis of Aberrations of 25

33 Some Holographically Produced Gratings', Intl. Workshop on Adv. in Holography and Spectrole Phenomenon and their Industrial Applications (HOS- PIA), Madras Venkatasubramanian, R. arid Karanjikar, N.P., 'Spectrochemical Determination of Metallic Pollutants at subppm Levels in Fresh Water Samples', National Symp. on Anal. Appln. in Earth Science, Shillong Jangida, B.L., Dhami, P.S., Agrawal, R.M. and Sunderasan, M., 'Application of Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EOXRF) Technique to the Analysis of Zircon', ibid. Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Raman and Infrared Investigations on Hydrotropes, Surfactants and Model Membranes', Int. Conf. Raman Spectroscopy, Calcutta Dixit, M.N., Prasad, N.S.K. and Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Raman Spectra and Free and Restricted Rotation in Phenyl Silicates', ibid. Patel, N.D., Venkateswaran, S. and Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Raman Spectroscopic Studies on the Interaction of the Drug Dapsone with Model Membranes', ibid. Kartha, V.B., 'Laser Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Systems - Some Recent Results', (Invited Talk), Symp. Current Trends in Pure and Appl. Phys., Cochin Kartha, V.B., The Raman Effect (Talk)', C.V. Raman Centenary, B.A.R.C. Kartha, V.B., 'VUV Photophysics with Synchrotron Radiation', Symp. INDUS Utilisation, Indore Saksena, G.D., 'Optogalvanic Spectroscopy (Invited Talk)', National Workshop on Laser Spectroscopy and Laser Applications, Varanasi, Saksena, G.D., 'Isotope Shifts in Atomic Spectra of Rare Earths', 1st Soviet-Indian Seminar for Rare Earth and Actinide Compounds, Inst. of Chem. Phys. and Biophys., Estonian Acad. of Science, Tallin, USSR, Saksena, G.D., 'Laser Optogalvanic Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules', Laser Workshop, Harisingh Gaur University, Sagar Shikarkhane, N.S. and Nundy, U., 'Thin Polyethylene Film as a Window for Pulsed TEA CO., Lasers', Appl. Optics, 27(9) Deb, P. and Nundy, U., 'Penetration of Electrons in Compounds by Monte-Carlo Calculations', J. Phys., D21, 763 (1988), Vas Dev, Biswas, D.J., Nundy, U., Chatterjee.U.K., 'Suitable I ntracavity Optical Materials for the Reliable off Line Centre Operation of CW C0 2 Laser', Opt. Commun., 65, 364 Sehgal, S.K., Nundy, U, Kukreja, L.M. and Chatterjee, U.K., 'A 250 Watt Axial Flow Turbulence Stabilized CW CO 2 Laser with a Closed Cycle Subsonic Flow', Proceeding of 16th OSI Conference, Kukreja, L.M., Sehgal, S.K. and Chatterjee, U.K., 'Effect of Excitation Pulse Duration on Efficiency of the Longitudinal Pulsed CO 2 Laser', J. Phys D Applied Physics, 21,851 Kukreja, L.M., Sai, Y.V.S.T. and Parulekar, M., 'Comments on Interaction of CO 2 Laser Radiation with Ocular Tissues', IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-25, 132 (1989). Nundy, U. and Chatterjee, U.K., 'Modelling of Pulsed TEA CO 2 Laser Discharges', Collection of Lecture Notes: Workshop on Gas Lasers Physics and Technology, Pune Chatterjee, U.K., 'Gas Lasers, an Overview', ibid. Deb, P. and Nundy, U., Theoretical Modelling of a Puised CO 2 Laser', ibid. > Nundy, U., 'Instabilities in Gas Discharges', ibid. Biswas, D.J., Vas Dev and Chatterjee, U.K., 'Experimental Observations of Instabilities and Chaos in the Secondary-Beat Frequency of a Multiple Transverse- Mode CO., Laser', Phys. Rev. A (Rapid Communi- 26

34 cations), 38,555 Instrum. Soc. of India, 18(4), 13 Kukreja, L.M., 'Processing Polymers with Lasers (Invited Review)', Bull. Material Science. 11,225 Kukreja, L.M., 'Ablation of Cataractous Lens Tissue with CO 2 Laser', Medical Applications of Lasers and Optics, Eds., Atsumi, Joffe and Goldblatt, SPIE Proc. (1989). Naik, PA., Gupta, P.O., Navathe, C.P., Kumbhare, S.R, and Pant, H.C., 'A K-Edge Spectrometer for Diagnostics of Laser Produced Plasmas', B.A.R.C./I-935 Naik, P.A., Kumbhare, S.R., Gupta, P.D. and Rode, A.V., 'Design and Performance of Crystal SpectrometersforLaser Produced Plasma', B.A.R.C./!-961 Srivastava, M.K., Sinha, B.K. and Lavande, S.V., 'Ion Front and Ablation in a Freely Expanding Two Temperature, non Collisional Plasma', Physics of Fluids, 31,3, 394 Sinha, B.K. and Kumbhare, S.R., 'Relative Strength of Second Harmonic and 3/2 Omega Emissions from Long-Scale Length Laser Produced Plasmas', I.E.E.E. J. of Quantum Electronics, 24,864 Sinha, B.K. and Kumbhare, S.R., 'Spectral Energy Content of Parametrically Excited Second Harmonic Emissions from Laser Plasma', Physics of Fluids 31, 3155 (1388). Sinha. B.K. and Kutty, A.P.G.,'A New Technique forthe Estimation of Density Scale Length of Laser Produced Plasmas', Nuclear Fusion, 28,922 Shirsat, T.S., Shikarkhane, N.S. and Pant, H.C., "A Simple Technique for Laser-Induced Ablation Pressure Measurement', Pramana-J.Phys., 30(6), 549 Verma, R.L., Bapna, R.C. and Joshi, D.N., 'Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Microballoons Laser Target', Physics Teacher, 30(1), 26 Bapna, R.C., Verma, R.L and Joshi, D.N., 'A simple Technique for Generating Changed Liquid Particles', J. Bapna, R.C., Verma, R.L. and Joshi, D.N., 'Development of Electronic Flash Stroboscope', ibid, 18(4) Sucharita Sinha, 'Hybrid CO 2 Laser with a Multiple Electrode CW Gain Cell for Temporal Synchronization of Independently Tunable Laser Emissions', Applied Optics, 27,2373 Sucharita Sinha, Theoretical Investigation of Superfluorescent Emission from an Optically Pumped CF 4 Gas Column', Journal of Applied Physics, 64, 4293 Agarwal, S.C., Ghosh, T.K., Kaura, H.K. and Mahajan, Sunita, 'Remote Job Execution Vis-a-Vis Networked Systems', Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Convention of the Computer Society of India, Madras Souche, Sunanda and Joshi, W.S., "Word Processor in Devnagari', ibid. Mahajan, Sunita, Srinivas, K. and Kaura, H.K., 'A Practical Approach to Parellel Processing', SEG-88 National Conference of the Science and Engineering Group of CSI, Trivandrum, Kaura, H.K., Mahajan, Sunita, Krishnan, P. and Sawant, Nitin, 'An Enrichment of 'C - A Boost to Parallel Computation in a Multiprocessor Environment', ibid. Mahajan, Sunita, Dhekne, P.S. and Kaura, H.K., 'Design of a Flexible Parallel Architecture to Suit Scientific Computing', Fourth National Convention of Computer Engineers. Calcutta Shirke, N.D., Panaikar, M.S. and Moorthy, P.N., 'Software for Acquisition and Processing of Pulse Radiolysis Data by IMB-PC, National Symposium on Personal Computers in Science and Engineering, BARC Gupta, J.D., Naik, K.V., Jain, K.S., Suman Kumari, B. and Phatak, R.V., 'Multi-Input Time Analyser Using PC, ibid. 27

35 Jain, K.S., Gupta. J.D. and Suman, Kumari, B., 'PC Based 8K Multichannel Analyser', ibid. Mahajan, Sunita and Kaura, H.K., 'Parallel Programming Capabilities in UNIX and MS-DOS', ibid. Souche, Sunanda, 'Implementation of Scientific Subroutine Library on IBM Personal Computer Compatible Systems', ibid. Dhekne, P.S., Kamalkumar, N.B., Saxena, P.S. and Makwana, N.A., 'Intelligent Encoder/Decoder for Liser-Link Data Communication', ibid. Gupta, J.D., 'Intelligent Communication Interface for IBM-PC/XT', ibid. Rastogi, Rashmi and Kaura, H.K., 'Use of Personal Computers for Dynamic Presentation of Scientific Information", ibid. Gupta, J.D., Naik, K.V., Jain, S.K., Suman Kumari, B. and Phatak, R.V., 'PC Based Time of Flight Analyser', National Convention of E.T. Engineers on Microprocessor Applications in Industry, Bombay (1987). Mishra, V.M., Rajput, L.S., Singhal, R.L and Nadane, A.A., 'Microprocessor-based Scan Controller for the Study of Materials Under High Pressure.', ibid. Bose, S.K., '3-D Solid Modelling 1, CSI Western Region Conference on On-line Transaction Processing, Baroda (1987). Ghosh, T.K., 'An On-Line Clinical Data Base for Cancer Patients', ibid. Jha.H.R.,'Materials Management System -A Network Model', ibid. Arora, S.K. and Krishnan, C.A., 'Evaluation of Hypocentral Instability due to Random Arrival Time Errors in a Typical Data Set of Koyna Earthquakes', BARC Arora, S.K., Chandrasekhar, K. and Verma, U.S.P., Indigenous Development of a Radio Telemetered Seismic System for Microearthquake Investigations', ISET Siver Jubilee Symp., Roorkee Arora, S.K., 'Deputation Report on the 25th Session of the Ad-hoc Group of Scientific Experts to consider International Coperative measures to detect and identify Seismic Events', Geneva Arora, S.K., Vijai Kumar and Raghavan, S., 'Report on the Conference on Nuclear Test Ban Verification (For restricted circulation)', Linkoping, Sweden, Arora, S.K., 'Deputation Report : Indo-Soviet Integrated Long Term Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology (ILTP) in the Field of Reservior Induced Seismicity', Proj. No. LT-B-2.1(c), USSR Basu, T.K. and Murty, G.S., 'Reserach and Development Activities of the Seismology Section for the period Jan Dec. 1987', BARC-1429 Roy, Falguni, 'A Parametric Model as a Potential Tool for the Interpretation of the Electroencephalograms', National Symposium cum Workshop on Advances in Imaging & Image Processing and XII All India Convention of Biomedical Engineering Society of India, Bombay Kolvankar, V.G., Nadre, V.N. and Sivakumar, C, 'A Rockburst Seismic Data Acquisition System at Kolar Gold Fields', BARC-1393 Kovlankar, V.G., 'Multichannel Waveform Display System', BARC-1434 Krishnamurthy, R. and Subbaramu, K.R., 'Review of Working of Seismic and Microseismic Networks Installed at Kolar Gold Fields', 5th Plenary Scientific Session of the Working Group on Rockburst of the International Bureau of Strata Mechanics, Hyderabad and Kolar Gold Fields Krishnamurthy, R., Srikanth, B.S., Murty, G.S. and Subbaramu, K.R., 'Multichannel Data Acquisition and Analysis to Monitor Rockburst for Assessing Underground Strata Stability at Kolar Gold Fields', International Symposium on Undergrond Engineering, New Delhi 28

36 Nair, G.J. and Kamath, V.S, 'PDP 11/34 Based Rockburst Monitoring System for Kolar Gold Fields', 5th Plenary Scientific Session of the Working Group on Rockburst of the International Bureau of Strata Mechanics, Hyderabad Nair, G.J., Murty, G.S., Srikant, B.S. and Krishnamurthy. R.,'Velocity Model of Champion Reef Mines, Kolar India, Below 98th Level and Its Implication on Future Planning', ibid. Sharma, R.D., 'Data Base Pertinent to Earthquake Design Basis', BARC-1420 Vijai Kumar, Arora, S.K. and Raghavan, S, The Role of Six Nation Peace Initiative in Test Ban Verification - Technical Aspects (For restricted circulation)', Conf. on Nucl. Test Ban Verification, Linkoping, Sweden Koul, R., Bhat, C.L, Tickoo, A.K., Kaul. I.K., Kaul, S.K., Qazi, R.A., Kaul, R.K., Rawat, H.S., Senecha, V.K., Rannot, R.C., Sapru, M.L, and Razdan, H., The Gulmarg Gamma-ray Telescope', BARC-1418 Kumar, A., Singh, M.R. and Tripathi, K.C., 'Mossbauer Thickness Optimization in the Presence of Diffusion', Journal of Physics-D : Applied Physics. 21,789 (1989). Sarma, PR., Singh, M.R. and Tripathi, K.C., 'Effect of Thickness on the Line-Width of a Scattering Mossbauer Spectrum', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research-B, 34, 476 Mukherjee, T., Wani, A.M. andmittal, J.P., Adenosine Sensitized Photolysis of Alanine', Ind. J. Chemistry, 27A (1). 4 Sabharwaf, S., Kishore, K. and Moorthy, P.N., 'Determination of Tetracycyline Hydrochloride in Presence of Anhydro-Tetracycline', Jour. Pharm. Sci., Sawhney, K.J.S, Lodha, G S and Bhat, C.K., Gold Estimation in Geological Samples Using EDXRF Spectroscopy', BARC-1404 Lodha, G.S., Sawheny, K.J.S., Razdan, H., Agarwal D.P. and Juyal, N., 'Characterization of Loess - Paleosols Sequences in Kashmir (India) Valley Using Multielement Concentration Data', Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad.,54A(3) Sawhney, K.J.S., Lodha, G.S. and Razdan, H., Proc. of the First National Workshop on Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence Techniques and their Applications', Bhandari, R.K., Sen, P., Mukherjee, P. and Sarma, P.R., 'Improved Time Structure and the Energy Resolution in a Cyclotron Beam', Workshop on Utilization and Future Program of Variable Energy Cyclotron (1986). De, T.K., 'High Voltage Power Supply and Instrumentation' ibid. Pardha Saradhi, S.K.. The VECC Target Facility', ibid. Bhandari, R.K., Bhattacharya, S., Sarma, P.R. and Wucherer, P., 'RF-Phase Measurement and Optimization for the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta', BARC-12S6 (1985). Bhattacharyya, S., Krishnan, K., Samaddar, S.K. and De, J.N., 'Realistic Estimates for Promptly Emitted Particles', Physical Review C, 37, 2916 Chaudhuri, A., Raha, S. and Sinha, B., 'Changing Structure Functions and Nuclear Saturation', Physics Letters, 208B, 513 Chaudhuri, A.K., Bhattacharya, S. and Krishnan, K., 'Nucleon Transfer Contribution to the Absorptive Heavy Ion Potential by the Monte Carlo Simulation method 1, Nuclear Physics, A Chaudhuri, A.K. and Sinha. B., 'Multiplicity Distribution in Hadron Nuclear Collision and Its A-dependence', ibid. 509 Dasgupta, S, Guha. A., Das, S. and Ramamurthi. S.S., Computer Control of Cyclotron', BARC/l-586 (1980). De, J.N., Samanta, C. and Bandyopadhyay, D, Incompressibility of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter', Physics 29

37 Letters Sec. B, 217, 381 (1989). De, JN, Bandyopadhyay, D., Samaddar, S.K. and Sperber, 0., The Role of Asymmetry on Critical and Limiting Temperature', ibid, 391 (1989). De, T.K., 'Recent Developments in Image Enhancement Using Programmable S-function', National Symp. on Image Processing in Material Science and Other Disciplines', IMPROMAT-89, BARC (1989). De. T.K., 'Digital Image Processing and Simulation of Visual Response Characteristic Using Programmable S-function', National Symp. on Light and Life, Silver Jubilee of Indian Photobiology Society, Calcutta, (1989). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'Implimentation of the Generalized Image Enhancement Technique Using the Concept of Fuzzy Sets', 12th Annual Convention of IEEE, Calcutta Chapter (1984). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'Digital Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Human Visual system and Robotic Vision', Proc. of 1st Indian Engineering Congress, Calcutta (1987). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'An Ingenious Approach to Enhancement Technique for Digital Images', 3rd Int. Symp. on Instrumentation, Calcutta (1987): Proc. of IIST.7, No. 1-4, p. 36. De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'A Spatial Domain Technique for Image Contrast Enhancement', Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on Instrumentation, Calcutta (1983). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'ImplimentationTechnique of the RED Technique for Digital Images', Proc. of 2nd Int. Conf. on Advances on Pattern Recognition and Digital Techniques, Calcutta (1986). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N.,'Application of Reversible Enhancement Deenhancement Technique in Picture Transmission', Proc. of Int. Symposium on Opto-electronic Imaging (1985). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'Edge Crispen'ng with Enhancement and Improvement of the Response of the Image Quality', Proc. of Int. Conf. on Comp. Systems Signal Processing, Bangalore, 456 (1984). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'Forced Enhancement and Deenhancement', Digital Images Indo-US Workshop, Bangalore De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'An Approach to a Generalised Technique for Image Enhancement', Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, Montreal, Canada, 604 (1984). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'Concept of Deenhancement in Digital Image', Processing Pattern Recognition Letters, 2, 329 (1984). De, T.K. and Chatterji, B.N., 'An Approach to a Generalised Technique for Image Contrast Enhancement Using the Concept of Fuzzy Set', InternationalJournal cf Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 25,145 De, T.K. and Roy, S.K., 'A Microprocessor Based Low Cost Digital Multichannel Temperature Indicator', Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 63, 100 (1983). De, T.K., Sana, S., Banerji, B. and Bose, S.K., 'Special Transformer for Accelerator', Indian J. Phys., 63A(1), Ismail, M. and Divatia, A.S., 'Realistic-Edge Field Model for Isochronous Cyclotron', ibid. 62A, 574 Mitra, S.K., Experience of Baffle Cooling of 36 Diffusion Pumps in the Main Vac System of VEC, ibid. 63A, 1 (1989). Pandit, V.S., Sarma, PR. and Bhandari, R.K, 'Multiparticle Multiharmonic Central Region Calculation for Heavy Ions at VECC, ibid. 62A, 613 Sarkar, P.K., Cost Benefit Analysis of Radiation Shielding in a 60 MeV Alpha Accelerator', ibid. 62A, 618 Sarma, P.R., Pandit, V.S. and Bhandari, R.K, Theoretical Investigation on the Shape of the Meas- 30

38 ured Time Profile of a Pulsed Beam', Ibid. 62A, 603 Sharma, R.P., 'Crystal Growth and Characterization of High Purity Germanium", ibid. 61 A, 473 (1987). Tiwary. S.D., 'Cyclotron Vacuum System', ibid. 63A, 71 (1989). De, T.K., Dubai, N.J., Sana, S., BasakG.C, Karmakar, A. and Ranganathan, M.K., 'High Voltage Power Supplies for Accelerator', Indian J. Phys., Sec. A, 63,53 (1989). Kainth, J.S., Sana, S., De, T.K., Puroshottam, K.V., Karmakar, A., Bose, S.K., Gopal, G. and Chintalapudi, S.N., 'Power Supplies for Heavy Ion Source Test Stand', ibid, 63, 74 (1989). Sen, T.J., De, T.K., Ranganathan, M.K. and Basak, G.C., 'Instrumentation for Accelerator 1, ibid. 63,13 (1989). Ismail, M. and Davatia, A.S., 'Measurement and Analysis of Alpha-Induced Reaction on Co, Ag and Ta', Pramana, 30, 193 Ismail, M., 'Hybrid Model Analysis of the Excitation Function for Alpha Induced Reaction on Antimony', BARC-1407 Khasnabis, B.K., Bandyopadhyay, T., Sarkar, P.K. and Muthukrishnan, G., 'Use of Threshold Activation Technique in Estimating Energy Distributions of Accelerator Produced Neutrons', ibid., 30, 105 Sharma, R.P.,'Development of High Resolution Silicon Surface Barrier Detectors', ibid. 21,185 Ismail, M., 'Cross-Section Measurement of a-lnduced Reaction on ^Ga and 71 Ga\ Proc. of Symposium on Nucl. Physics, 31B.24 Krishan, K., Samaddar, S.K. and De, J.N., 'Spin Dispersion and Alignment in Deep Inelastic Collisions', Journal of Physics, Sec. G, 14,1423 Krishan, K., Bhattacharya, S. and De, J.N., 'Residual Velocity of the Incompletely Fused System and Mass Asymmetry', Physics Letters, Sec. B, 211,269 Mukopadhyay, T.K., De, T.K., Basu, S. and Mukherji, S., 'Digital Image Processing Using PC and DOT Matrix Printer', Proc. of 5th All India Symp. on Instrumentation, Lucknow (1987). Mukhopadhyay, T.K., Dasgupta, S. and De, T.K., 'Simulation of Virtual Gray Level on Personal Computer for Digital Image Processing', Proc. on Nat. Symp. on PC in Science and Technology, 124, Bombay Pal, S., 'Role of Nucleon Exchange in Dissipatlve and Absorptive Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions', Proc. of the Symp. on Nuclear Physics, Bombay (1987). Pal, S., 'One-Body Picture of Angular Momentum Transfer in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions', ibid. Pal, S., 'Absorptive Potential in Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering from a Quanta! Calculation of Nucleon Transfer', Third International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions, St. Malo, France (1989). Pal, S., 'A Ouantal Calculation of Nucleon Transfer Contribution in Nucleus-Nucleus Absorptive Potential', Nuclear Physics, A486, 179 Pal, S. and Gross, D.H.E.,'One-Body Nuclear Friction', Zeitscrift fur Physik, A329, 349 Pandit, V.S., Sarma, P.R. and Bhandari, R.K., 'Optimization of the Parameters of an Ion Beam Buncher', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, A Pandit, V.S., Sarma, P.R. and Bhandari, R.K., 'Studies of Harmonic Bunchers for Maximising Bunching Efficiency', Proc. of Symp. on Nuclear Physics, 31B, 86 Pandit V.S., Sarma, P.R. and Bhandari, R.K., "Analytical Treatment of a Perfect Gap Beam Buncher', ibid. 30B, 316(1987). Pandit, V.S., Sarma, P.R. and Bhandari, R.K., 'Energy Gain and Electric Focusing Studies in Cyclotrons', ibid. 29B, 116(1985). 31

39 Fardha Saradhi, S.K. and Eqbal, Md., 'Chemical Centrifugal Deposition Technique for Nuclear Targets', ibid. 30B, 314(1987). Pardha Saradhi, S.K, Eqbal Md. and Divatia, A.S., 'Special Techniques at the VECC Target Laboratory', ibid. 28B (1985). Sarma PR. and Pandit, VS., 'Equilibrium Orbits in Sector focused Cyclotrons', ibid. 28B, 116 (1985). Sarma. PR., Pandit, V.S. andbhandari, R.K., 'Maximization of beam transmissions through collimating slits', ibid. 31B, 91 Pardha Saradhi, S.K., Eqbal, Md. and Deb, P., Fabrication of Uranium Targets for Nuclear Experiments', NSRP- 6. Kalpakkam (1986). Pardha Saradhi, S.K., 'Ion Beam Sputtering for Preparation of Nuclear Targets', IVS Natl. Symp, Chandigarh (1987). Pardha Saradhi, S.K., 'Nuclear Target Technique', Nat. Seminar on Nuclear Spectroscopic Studies Using Natl. Accelerator Facilities, Visakhapatnam (1987). Pardha Saradhi, S.K.. Vacuum Numeracy', IVS Workshop on Vacuum Technology and Applications, Calcutta (1987). Pardha Saradhi, S.K., Eqbal Md and Kundu, S., 'Fabrication of Strontium Targets for Accelerator Experiments', IVS Natl. Symp., Bombay Pardha Saradhi, S.K., Eqbal Md. and Deb, P., Thickness and Profile Measurements of Nuclear Targets', IVS Nan. Symp. Calcutta (1985). Roy, N.R., Pardha Saradhi, S.K. and Sengupta, S.N., 'Determination of the Work Function of the Surfaces by Kelvin Method', ibid. Saha Subimal, Bose, S.K. and Purushotham, K.V., 'Stabilized X-ray Generator Power Supply', BARC Sarkar, P.K., Muthukrishnan, G., Ghosh, S. and Divatia, AS., Neutron Yield Data Due to Bombardment Thick Targets of Be, C, Ta and Au by 40 to 60 MeV Alpha Particles', Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 1161 (1989). Sarkar P.K. and Muthukrishnan, G., 'Optimization of Shielding for a 60 MeV Alpha Particle Accelerators', Proc. of Int. Conf. on Radiation-Protection in Nuclear Energy, IAEA, Sydney Sarma, P.R., Techniques of Accelerator Beam Cooling', Proc. of National Workshop on Fixed-Target Physics at High-Energy, Jadavpur University, (1986) Sarma, PR., Singh, M.R. andtripathi, R.C., 'Effect of Thickness of the Line Width of Scattering Mossbauer Spectrum', Nucl. Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B34,176 Sarma, P.R., Pandit, V.S. and Bhandari, R.K., 'Optimization of Collimating Slit Sizes to Maximize Beam Transmission', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, A274, 131 (1989). Sen, T.J., De, T.K., Ramamurthi, S.S., Kotaiah, S. and Ranganathan, M.K., 'A High power RF Plasma Generator for the Production of High Purity Fused Silica', 3rd Int. Symp. on Instrumentation, Calcutta (1987). Sharma, R.P., 'Fast Neutron Radiation Damage in High Purity Ge Detectors', Symp. on NSRP-6 held at IGCAR, Kalpakkam (1986). Sharma, R.P., Saha, R., Sil, H.P., Rawat, D.N. and Ibomoha, N., 'Development of Semiconductor Radiation Detectors', Pelletron Facility, BHU (1986). Sinha, B., Raha, S. anddatta, B., 'Photon and Dimuon Pairs in an Expanding Quark Gluon-Plasma', Nucl. Phys., A490, 733 (1988) Sinha, B., Datta, B. and Raha, S., 'On the Neutrino Emissivity of Degenerate Structure', Modern Physics Letters, Sec. A, 3,1385 Sinha, B., 'Quark-Matter Diagnostics : Photons and Dileptons in PT Window and Early Universe Cosmology 32

40 (Invited Talk)', Int. Conf. on Medium and High Energy Nucl. Physics. Taiwan. (1988) : World Scientific. Singapore. 212 (1989). Sinha, B. andraha, S., "Quark-Gluon Plasma Diagnostics and (J/ ) Suppression In Nuclear Collisions', Physics Letters Sec B. 218, 413(1989) Sinha, B., 'Quark-Gluon Plasma Diagnostics-Photons at High PT Window', ibid. 187B. 263 (1989). Sinha. B.. *Y%Y»Y -and Dileptions. Signals of Quark- Gluon Plasma (Invited Talk)'. ICPA-QGP'88, TIFR, Bombay : World Scientific, Singapore, 328 (1S38). Sinha. B., The Changing Scenario o> the Atomic Nucleus-from Nucleons and Mesons to Quarks andgluons, (Invited Talk)', Nuclear Particle Physics Symp. to honour Prof. S.P. Pandya, PRL, Ahmedabad Sinha, B., 'Quark-Matter Diagnostics: Dileptons, Photons and (J/Y) Suppression', Zeitschrift fur Physik, Sec. C, 38, Dixit, N.S., Venkatramani, N, androhatgi, V.K., 'Effect of Seed Droplet Evaporation on Electrical Conductivity and Temperature of Combustion Plasmas', Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 30,2617 (1987). Das, A.K., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Evaluation of Fuel Options for a Commercial MHD Plant in India', Int. J. Energy Research, 12, 403 Gupta, G.P., Vijayan, T. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Reiativistic Electron Beam Heating of a Hydrogen Plasmas in Open Confinenent Systems.Theoretical Model', Phys. Fluids, 31,606 Gupta, G.P. and Rohatgi, V.K.'Amplification of Reiativistic Electron Beam Current Propagation In Ambient Neutral Gases', Proc. IEEE Intern. Conf. on Plasma Science, Seattle Saxena, AC, Gupta. G.P. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Model Electron elocity Distribution in Miror-Conflned Plasmas' ibid. Gupta, G.P., Vijayan, T. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Plasma Heating Using a Scattered Moderate REB", Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Vijayan, T., Gupta, G.P. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Effective Scattering Angle of Reiativistic Electron Beams Injected Through Anode Foil', J. Appl. Phys., 64, 1781 (1S88). Joshi, N.K., Thiagarajan, T.K. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Radiative Heat Transfer from Potassium Seeded Water Gas Combustion Plasmas', Energy Convers. Mgmt.,28,59 Joshi, N.K., Thlagarajan, T.K., Rohatgi, V.K. and Ashtamoorthy, T.S., 'The Spatial Distribution of Excitation Temperature and Electron Density in an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma', J. Phys. D : Appl. Phys., 21, 1121 Bapai, A.V., Venkatramani, N. and Suryanarayan, S., 'A New Approach for the Simulation of Point Support in the Analysis of Plates', Journal of Sound and Vibration, 120(1), 107 Bapat, A.V., Venkatramani, N. and Suryanarayan, S., 'Simulation of Classical Boundary Conditions by Finite Elastic Restraints in the Vibration Analysis of Plates', ibid, 120(1), 127 Bapat, A.V., Venkatramani, N. and Suryanarayan, S., The Use of Flexibility Functions with Negative Domains in the Vibration Analysis of Asymmetrically Point Supported Rectangular Plates', ibid. 124(3), 555 Patil, D.S., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Infra Red Spectra of the Ceramic YCrO 2 Doped with Strontium', J. Materials Science Letters, 7,413 Patil, D.S., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi.VK.,'Electrical con- ductivity of (ZrO 2 ) 00S (CeO 2 ) 0 (YAW' J- Materials Science, 23,3367 Patil, D.S., Menon, S.B., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Measurement of thti Electrical Conductivity of Oxide Ceramics at High Temperatutre'. BARC/i

41 Joshi, N.K., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., Seeded Inert Gas Driven Disk Generator', BARC-1391 Satyamurthy, P., Dixit, N.S., Thiagarajan, T.K., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., Two-Phase Flow Studies in Mercury-Air Liquid Metal MHD Generators', Symposium on Liquid Metal MHD, Riga USSR Karthikeyan, J. and Mayuram, M.M., "Ceramic Coating Technology', Sadhana, 13,139 Karthikeyan, J., Sreekumar, K.P., Kurup, M.B., Patil, D.S., Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Plasma Sprayed Superconducting Y^ajCUjCy, Coatings', J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 21, 1246 Ramachandran, K., Shrivastava, P.B., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Selected Refractory Materials at Elevated Temperature by Radial Heat Flow Technique', BARC Ramachandran, K., Venkatramani, N. and Rohatgi, V.K., Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Selected Ceramics at Elevated Temperature in Vacuum', IVS National Symposium on Vacuum Science and Technology, Bombay Mittal, K.C. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Gas lonisation Effects in the Gigawatt Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beam Generation', 8th Workshop on Microplasmas and Electrodes, Vienna Ron, P.H., Nanu, K., lyengar, S.T. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Single and Double Mode Gas Trigatron: Main Gap and Trigger Gap Interactions', J. Phys. D : Appl. Phys., 21 (1988) Paithankar, A.S., Venugopal, G. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Current Enhancement during REB-Propagation In Hydrogen at Sub-Torr Pressure Range with Foil-Less Diode', Beams 88, Karlesruhe Ron, P.H., Nanu, K. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'A Compact Pulse Power Systems for Rash X-ray Generation', Natl. Symp. on High Speed Instrumentation, TBRL, Chandigarh Paithankar, A.S., lyengar, S.K., Mittal, K.C., Gokhale, J.A., Venugopal, G., Saxena, A.C., Roychoudhury, P. andronatagi,v.k., 'Fast Diagnostics for Pulsed REB- Plasma Experiment', ibid. Vijayan, T. and Rohatgi, V.K., 'Spatial and Temporal Distributions in Exploding-Wire Plasmas', J. Appl. Phys., 63,2576 Thakur, A.V., 'Electron Beam Technology in BARC, Workshop on Applications of Electron Beam, Laser, Friction and Resistance Welding in Indian Industry, Trichy Ray, A.K., Rohatgi, V.K. and Jawalekar, S.R., 'Control of Process Parameters During Deposition of DC Magnetron Sputtered TiN Films', IVS Natl. Symp., Bombay 34

42 CHEMICAL SCIENCES 2.1 Basic Chemistry Basic research in radiation and photochemistry, laser chemistry, chemical dynamics, isotope effects, interfacial phenomena, superconductivity and materials for hydrogen storage, has been the prime focus in the programme. Applied research was mainly directed towards the development of catalysts, high technology materials and high temperature superconducting materials. New chemiluminescent reactions of samarium vapour with a series of halogenated hydrocarbons were identified and studied. A new method has been developed for the separation of hydrogen isotopes at liquid nitrogen temperature using specially treated molecular sieves. A novel surface chemical treatment technique has been developed to improve the quality of sintered uranium dioxide pellets. This method has been successfully applied to a batch of 100 kg of uranium dioxide powder at NFC, Hyderabad. Using the nanosecond pulse radiolysis facility, the properties of excited states of coumarin laser dyes have been studied. A consolidated programme of pulse radiolysis studies of different systems like radiation sensitizing drugs, anticancer drugs, biological molecules, metal complexes etc., and radiation induced polymerization has been carried out. Photochemical and photopbysical studies of systems like laser dyes, fluorocarbons, aminoacids, anthraquinones etc., including laser induced multiphoton processes in some of the systems, were conducted. Work has been initiated on biological molecules immobilised in radiation cross-linked polymers for potential industrial and biological applications. Effort to develop improved catalysts for hydrogendeuterium exchange, carbon monoxide oxidation etc. is in progress. A Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer has been commissioned to facilitate advanced studies on surface phenomena which are of crucial importance in catalyst research, irontitanium(fe-ti) and related systems are being investigated as potential hydrogen storage materials. An alpha-hydride phase, (Fe 0 8 Ni 08 ) TiH K, has been prepared with dissolved hydrogen much larger than what has been hitherto reported. In zirconium-iron(zr-fe) system, new phases with large hydrogen absorption capacity have been observed for the first time. The distribution of hydrogen and its effects on the material characteristics, and the systematics of hydrogen occupancy are being studied. A planar magnetron sputtering facility capable of giving a high rate of deposition and a uniaxial hot pressing unit with facilities to carry out the process in vacuum were designed and fabricated indigenously for the high technology materials development programme. Using hydrogen isotope effects as a probe, many interesting features of aqueous ionic solutions have been revealed in the dehydration of ion exchange resins. It was shown that chloride ions do not have a hydration shell in the chemical sense, but they just sit in the cavities within the hydrogen bonded water cluster without disturbing it. It was established that hydrophobic hydration shells around tetra alkyl ammonium cations are more structured than normal water. It was demonstrated for the first time that this enhanced structure involves stronger hydrogen bonds than in bulk water. It was also established that with rise in temperature hydration shells around alkali cations get more structured, relative to bulk water, though hydration numbers decrease with increasing temperature. Radiation damage studies in alloys, high pressure studies on superconducting and other oxide systems and organic polymers, Mossbauer studies on hydrides, ferrites and amorphous metal systems, investigation of transport properties of oxides and development of ceramic coatings and films were continued. Conversion of crystallographic database into binary files and structure determination from single crystal data for crown potassium thiocynate (KCNS) compounds were done. Thermophysical investigatfonson scandium tungstate, doped UO 2 and (Th,U)O z solid solutions were carried out. Model membranes such as DPPC-lysozyme, DPPE-H.,0 were also studied. High temperature Knudsen effusion studies of palladium-platinum (Pd-Pt) alloys and thermodynamic behaviour of binary and ternary systems such as copper-zirconium(cu-zr), silver-tellurium-oxygen (Ag-Te-O), and vapour pressure studies of palladiumplatinum alloys were pursued. Chemical equilibrium 35

43 calculations of molybdenum, ruthenium, palladium and rhodium bearing species in equilibrium with molybdenum-ruthenium-rhodium-palladium alloys were carried out using thesqlgasmix program. The results revealed the reason behind the partitioning of molybdenum and ruthenium in accident situations. 2.2 Water Chemistry Research and development work relating to nuclear energy programme was continued. Interfacial interaction between water and metallic surfaces resulting in film formation, remedial action for preventing or minimising such interaction and the removal of such films in different systems were the most important aspects of the studies conducted. The decontamination of carbon steei surface exposed to MAPS-2 PHT system conditions, the deposit formations in waste stripper tower of HWP, Kota, the biocorrosion due to film formation in FBTR cooling tower and the deposit formation due to ambient storage of carbon steel pipes for the PHT system of Kakrapar Atomic Power Project were some of the problems for which solutions were found. The quality of cooling water at both FBTR cooling tower and MAPP jetty was regularly estimated to ensure smooth operation of the systems. The water quality at Kudankulam and Nagarjunasagar were also evaluated. Water quality under drought conditions was also assessed. Mass transport studies of activated corrosion and erosion products in steam generator tube materials were carried out. Detailed studies were carried out on various aspects of boron chemistry. The suitability of lithium pentaborate prepared for use as a secondary shut down poison was fully investigated from the point of view of chemical and radiation stability. Quantities of the compound in kilograms were made available to NAPP. Theore-tical assessment of fission gas monitoring for PHWR's failed fuel detection at RAPS, MAPS etc., NAPP spent fuel bay purification system, plugging of pin holes in carbon steel surfaces using zinc pdysilicate etc., were carried out. Aluminium complexes with amino polycarboxylic acids and nickel morpholine complexes were investigated. The instruments were constantly updated and anewknudsen cell was designed. Expertise on water chemistry was offered to several national agencies and more than 300 samples were analysed using instrumental techniques. 2.3 Fuel Chemistry Work on the preparation of UO 2 gel particles by soj-ge) process on an engineering scale was continued by augmenting the process equipment and making modifications to the process. Laboratory scale studies on the preparation of advanced fuel have resulted in the successful preparation of high purity microspheres of uranium carbide and uranium nitride. Studies have been carried out to process the effluents from the sol-gel process for the recovery of hexamine and urea for recycling. Uranium-233 and plutonium metals were prepared from their respective oxides through hydroftuorination and calciothermic reduction for fabricating alloy fuel elements for Kamini reactor. The oxidation behaviour of U 2 N 3 containing different amounts of oxide impurity was studied asa function of oxidation potential of the reacting gas, as a part of the programme on advanced fuels. The kinetics of the reactions was controlled by nucleation growth at low oxygen potentials and by diffusion at high oxygen potentials. Existing methods for chemical quality control of nuclear fuel materials employing electrochemical techniques have been improved and modified to widen the scope of their application under different experimental conditions. Development of new primary standards for uranium and plutonium, based on double sulphates of rubidium and uranium (Rb 2 U(SO 4 ),), and potassium and plutonium (K 4 Pu(SO 4 ) 4 ), is being carried out to provide chemical assay standards in nuclear materials accounting and chemical quality control. Nuclear materials accounting data received from various facilities are compiled to keep an up-to-date information on the inventory status. Statistical analysis of MUFF data from an operating plant indicates that Pearson distribution of type-4 is a better fit than normal distribution. A method for simultaneous determination of uranium and plutonium without chemical separation is under development using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The capability of the existing mass spectrometer for making isotope ratio measurements is being enhanced by providing a variable multi-cup collector system for the ions, which is expected to 36

44 improve the precision, accuracy and sensitivity of measurements for various elements. Development of methods for the determination of trace metallics in various matrices, such as thorium dioxide (ThO.,), zirconium (Zr) and stainless steel, employing spark source spectrometry, is being carried out. Some of the non-metallic impurities including hydrogen could also be determined with this instrument. Homo-and hetero-mojecular ion intensities have been measured to gain basic understanding of the rf-spark phenomenon. Thermodynamics of a number of systems has been investigated using solid oxide electrolyte galvanic cell. High temperature Calvet calorimetry and thermal and X-ray investigations have been employed to study the behaviour of a number of components under various chemical environments. A thermal ionisation mass spectrometer was modified by providing suitable ion source and vacuum systems for carrying out Knudsen cell mass spectrometric measurements for the determination of thermodynamic properties of systems relevant to the fast reactor programme. The solution obtained after treating fuel fabrication scrap was processed by precipitation and through ion exchange routes for recovery and purification of plutonium. Methods have been developed for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from phosphate medium using dibutyl diethyl carbomoyl ethylene phosphonate in xylene asextractant. It was successfully used for the recovery of U-233 and plutonium. Studies on the extraction behaviour of tetravalent metal ions from different aqueous media in di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid in different non-polar solvents has been Initiated. 2.4 Radiochemistry Evidence for a new high spin isomeric state in Antimony-131, formed during the fission of Uranium- 238with30to35 MeV helium ions, has been obtained from gamma spectrometry after chemical separation. Fission cross section of Holmlum-165 with 45 MeV and 40 MeV helium ions have been measured, using Lexan plastic detectors as part of experiments to estimate the fission barrier. For the first time, fragment mass distribution in the spontaneous fission of Californium- 252 has been arrived at from coincidence kinetic energy spectra. Absolute yields of Molybdenum-99 and Teilurium-132 have been determined in the spontaneous fission of Californium-252 using solid state track detector and gamma spectrometric techniques. A non-destructive method, based on differential absorption correction, has been developed to measure the uranium content in 1-5% range. A method has been developed to measure plutonium in process streams by counting the combined neutron and soft gamma rays of plutonium in the presence of fission products using a glass scintillator. Electro paramagnetic resonance and thermally stimulated luminescence studies of Plutonium- 239 doped calcium sulfate and strontium sulfatehave led to the identification of radiation induced defects and the mechanism of luminescence. Two photon absorption processes were identified in the laser excited fluorescence studies of Americium-241 doped strontium sulfate. Work is progressing on the extraction of actinides using long chain diaikyl amides. The complexation of Am(lll) with cysteine has been studied using solvent extraction techniques. Spectroscopic methods have been developed for the determinatio of trace metallic constituents in uranium and Plutonium dispersion fuels in aluminium matrix. 2.5 Analytical Chemistry Development and validation of new analytical methodologies to provide specialised referal service, and regular analytical support were continued. Compositional characterisation of gallium of 6N purity with respect to twelve impurity elements, and of metal oxide semiconductor(mos) grade acids with respect to six elements, to be used in the fabrication of microelectronic circuits in industry, was carried out in the ultra-trace clean laboratory facility where metallic impurities in the environment were in parts per trillion levels. This has been achieved employing three different approaches for separation and four independent techniques for measurements providing cross-validated results with high reliability in the parts per billion range of concentration. Based on the expertise developed, a National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Pure Materials is being set up at Hyderabad to provide specialised ultra-trace analysis for char- 37

45 acterising high purity materials and validation support to programmes of national interest, which use different analytical techniques, through reference standards and training. After detailed investigations to ascertain the causes, effective remedial methods were evolved for dealing with the development of high pressure in the hydrogen sulf ide (H 2 S) waste stripper at the Kota Heavy Water Plant, and for the formation of deposits in the water loop set up as a part of the reactor engineering test facilities. Detoxification of fluoride from the slag of potassium metal plant at the Baroda Heavy Water Plant was carried out through chemical treatment. Research and development work in analytical chemistry was continued: major components of this activity were compositional characterisation, using nuclear and chemical methods, of certain special materials with respect to impurities and stoichiometry for the crystal growth programme; establishing experimental conditions to ensure negligible hydrogen uptake during cathodic protection of underground or buried steel structures; understanding the role of additives on the oxidation and uptake of hydrogen by zircaloy in high temperature oxidation; measurement ofthermodynamic parameters of lithium vanadate and vapour pressure of five compounds of lithium and lead, as a function of temperature; thermodynamics of exchange systems involving lithium ion with magnesium, calcium, strontium, bromine and tin ions; determination of several impurities in lithium metal at ppm level using PIXE for the programme in lithium chemistry; setting up of an incremental heating approach for measurement in argon geochronology for investigating the disturbances arising from the thermal history and age of the geological samples; development of a method using the catalytic activity of vanadium inthe oxidation of gallic acid by persulphate and simplex optimisation in three major variables for determination of nanogram quantities of vanadium. A programme of electrochemical sensors and flow injection analysis was initiated for on-line monitoring of concentrations of cations and anions. Specialised service was rendered to other organisations. This included analytical quality control for the second phase of integrated environmental programme of heavy metals of the Department of Environment through preparation and distribution of water samplesfor inter-comparison, followed by evaluation of the results; guidance for the application of nuclear methods to forensic science in a continuing collaborative programme with Ministry of Home Affairs. and to earth sciences in collaboration with Geological Survey of India; and monitoring the performance of transformers by sampling of and analysis of free and dissolved gases in transformer oils using gaschromatography and establishing guidelines for testing transformers for Central Board of Irrigation and Fuwer. 38

46 Publications Kishore, K., Guha, S.N. and Moorthy, P.N., 'Pulse Radiolysis Study of One Electron Oxidation of Thionine in Aqueous Solutions', Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci), 99,351 (1987). Priyadarshini, K.I., Kunjappu, J.T. and Moorthy, P.N., 'Effect of Oxygen in the Photodegradation of 7-Diethylamino 4-Methyl Coumarin at 350 nm', Indian J. Chem., 26(A), 899 (1987). Kunjappu, J.T. and Rao,K.N., 'Fluorescence Emission of Trans 4-4'-Diphenyl Stilbene', ibid,27a, 1 Muherjee.T., Rao, K.N. and Mittal, J.P.,'Solventand ph Effect on Photochemistry and Photostability of Two Possible Laser Dyes : 7-Amino-3-(2'-Benzoxazolyl) quinilineand 6-Amino-2-(2'-Benzimidazolyl) Indole', ibid, 27A, 89 Mukherjee, T., Wani, A.M. and Mittal, J.P., 'Adenosine Sensitised Photolysis of Alanine', ibid, 27A, 4 Lobko, V.V., Shastri, L.V., Mukherjee, T. and Mittal, J.P., 'Porphyrin Sensitised Photodecomposition of Thyminein Aqueous Triton X-100 Solutions', ibid, 27A, 281 Venkataramani, B. and Gupta, A.R., 'Water Sorption and Ion Exchange Properties ot Hydrous Oxides', ibid, 27A, 290 Deshpande, S.G. and Jain, S.C., 'Mixed Ligand Complexes of Uranium', ibid, 27A, 552 Visalakshi, R., Jain, V.K. and Rao, G.S., 'Synthesis and Spectral (I R and NMR) Studies of Some Triorganotin (IV) Compounds Containing 2-Pyridyl Alcohols', ibid, 27A, 427 Hari Mohan and Asmus, K.D., 'Radical Cations from Alkyl Iodides in Aqueous Solutions', J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II, 1795(1987). Shoute, L.C.T. and Mittal, J.P., 'Absorption and Conductivity Studies on the Transients Generated in the Gamma-radiolysis of Perfluorobenzene in Rigid Matrices', Radiat. Phys. Chem., 30, 105 (1987). Kumar, M., Rao, M.H. and Rao, K.N., 'Radiation Initiated Polymerization of Cyclohexyl Methacrylate -1', ibid, (1987). Kumar, M., Rao, M.H. and Rao, K.N., 'RadiationInduced Polymerisation of Methacrytate-ll : Role of Ionic and Free Radical Scavengers', ibid, 30,27 (1987) Manohar Lai, 'Free Br Atom and Free Radical Reactions in the Radiolysis of 1,2 Dibromoethane (DBE) and Other Bromohydrocarbons in Air Free Aqueous Solutions', ibid, 32, 741 Lai, M. and Mahal, H.S., 'Free Radical Reactions of Bromoform in Air-Free and Air-Saturated Aqueous Solutions. Effect of ph and Bromoform Concentrations', ibid, 32,599 Chakrabarti, A., Chowdhury, D.P., Gangadharan, S., Arunachalam, J. and Iyer, R.M., 'Helium Jet Recoil Transport Set Up for Chemistry and Nuclear Applications at VECC, J. Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res., A263, 421 Mamharlal, Schoneich, C, Monig, J. and Asmus, K.D., 'Rate Constants for the Reactions of Halogenated Organic Radicals', Interntl. J. Radiat. Biol., 54, 773 Shoute, LC.T. and Mittal, J.P., 'Dynamics of Exciplex Formation Between Perfluoronaphthalene and Excited Anthracene', Proc. Ind. Natl. Acad. Sci., 54A, 808 Filial, C.G.S. and George, A.M., 'Excitonic Thermal Conduction in Solids : High Temperature Thermal Conductivity of LaCoO 3 ', ibid, 54A (5), 824 Naik, P.D., Pavanaja, U.B., Sapre, A.V., Rama Rao, K.V.S., Mittal.J.P., Iyer, R.M. and Bajaj, P.N., 'Chemiluminescent Reactions of Samarium with Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbons', J. Photochem. Photobiol. A:Chemistry, 41,285 Sabharval, S., Kishore, K. and Moorthy, P.N., 'Determination oftetracycline Hydrochloride in Presence of Anhydrotetracycline by Differential Pulse Polarography", J. Pharm. Sci., 77, 78 39

47 Kishore. K. andmoorthy, P.N., 'Radiation Effects on the Catalytic Activity of MnO 8 ', Radiat. Effects, 105,257 Hari Mohan and Asmus, K.D., 'Rate Constant for Oxidation Reactions by Radical Cations from Methyl Iodide', J. Phys. Chem., 92,118 Anklam, E., Hari Mohan and Asmus, K.D., '2/1 3- Electron Bounded Radical Cations from 1-n HaioalkyI Thioalkanes', J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans., II, 1297 Lai, M., Monig, J. and Asmus, K.D.,'Acid Formation in the Radical Mediated Degradation of Chlorinated Ethane in Aqueous Solution', ibid, 1639 (1987). Kumar, M., Rao, M.H., Moorthy, P.N. and Rao, K.N., 'Structural Influence on the Reactivity of Vinyl Monomer with OH Radicals and Hydrated Electrons Obtained by Pulse Radiolysis', Radiation Effects Express, 1,167 Anand, M.S., Pande, B.M. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Recovery of Helium - Irradiated Molybdenum', ibid, 1, 159 Priyadarshini, K.I., Naik, D.B. and Moorthy, P.N., Nanosecod Pulse Radiolysis Studies on Coumarin 153 in Cyclohexane Solutions', Chem. Phys. Lett., 148,572 Kulshreshtha, S.K., Thomas, V.G. and Srivastava, SB.,'RadiationEffects insn(iv)complexes: AMossbauer Effect Study', Radiation Effects, 106, 289 Choudhury, P.K., Rama Rao, K.V.S. and Mittal, J.P., 'Transient Isomerisation and Inverse Electronic Relaxation of Infrared Multiple-Photon Excited Pentafluoropyridine', Laser Chemistry, 8, 243 Shastri, L.V., Krishnan, N.P.K., Murthy, T.K.S. and Mittal, J.P., 'Development of a Photochemical Route for Upgrading Europium from Aqueous Lanthanide Mixtures', Material Science Forum, 30,57 Pal, H.D., Palit, D.K., Mukherjee, T. and Mittal, J.P., The Fluorescence Life Times of Isomeric Tyroslnes', Chem. Phys. Letters, 151,75 Mukherjee, T., Land, E.J., Swallow, A.J., Bruce, J.M., Beaumont, P.C. and Parsons, B., 'Aspects of the Oxidation of Naphthazrin as Studied by Pulse Radiolysis', J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I, 84, 3423 Mukherjee, T., Land, E.J., Guyan, P.M., Bruce, J.M. and Swallow, A.J., 'Successive Addition of Electrons to Quinizarin 2-and 6-Sulphonate in Aqueous Solution: A Pulse and Gamma-Radiolysis Study', ibid, 84, 2855 Pushpa, K.K., Deoki Nandan and Iyer, R.M., Thermodynamics of Water Sorption by Perfluorosulfonate (Nafion-117) and Polystyrene -Divinyl Benzene Sulfonate (Dowex 50W) ion Exchange Resins at K', ibid, 84,2047 Palit, D.K., Pal, H., Mukherjee, T. and Mittal, J.P., 'Anisotropic Rotational Behaviour of Quinizarin in Solution', Chem. Phys., 126,441 Chowdhury, P-K, Rama Rao, K.V.S. and Mittal, J.P., 'Infrared Laser Induced Multiphoton Dissociation of Decafluoro Cyclopentane in a Concerted Pathway: Time Resolved Evidence of CF e Formation', J. Phys. Chem., 92,102 Palit, D.K,, Pal, H.D., Mukherjee, T. and Mittal.J.P., T-T Absorption and Semiquinone Formation in Solutions of 5,8-Dihydroxy - 1,4-Naphthoquinone (Naphthazarin): A Nanosecond Laser Flash Photolysis Study', J. Photochem. Photobioi, ArChemistry, 43, 59 Saini, R.D., Dhanya, S. and Bhattacharyya, P.K., 'Laser Flash Photolysis of 2,2" Bipyridine Solution in Cyclohexane', ibid, 43,91 Gupta, A.R. and Venkataramani, B., 'Sorption of Uranyl Ions on Hydrous Oxides : A New Hydrolysis Model', Bull. Chem. Soc, Japan. 61,1357 Belapurkar, A.D., Gupta.N.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'PTFE Dispersed Hydrophobic Catalysts for Hydrogen- Water Isotopic Exchange-I. Preparation and Characterisation', App. Catalysis, 43,1 40

48 Gupta, N.M., Belapurkar, A.D., Rama Rao, K.V.S. and Iyer, R.M., 'PTFE Dispersed Hydrophobic Catalysts for Hydrogen-Water Isotopic Exchange-ll. Water Poisoning', ibid, 43,15 Kambte, V.S., Gupta.N.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Carbon Monoxide Adsorption/Desorption Process over NaX Zeolites and Supported Ruthenium Catalyst', J. Catal., 113,398 Amonkar, S.V., Vijayalakshmi, N., Rao, A.S. and Gopinathan, C, 'Sustained Release Formulation of Bacillus Sphaericus (1.5 Species - WHO-2173) for the Control of Culex Fatigans Larve', Current Science, 57(10), 530 Singh, R.A., Sapre, A.V., Dharwadkar, S.R. and Rama Rao.K.V.S., Thermal and Spectral Characterisation of Uranyl Ions with Surfactants', Thermochim. Acta, 131, 79 Swaminathan.K., Sinha, U.C., Chatterjee, C, Patel.R.P. and Padmanabhan, V.M., 'Structure of (2,2'bipy) (N,N-Carboxylatomethyl) Anthranilato Cr(lll) Trihydrate", Acta Cryst. C44, 447 Vaidya, S.N., Kulkami, A.K. and Joshi, D.K., Volume Compressions of Synthetic Mullite to 4 GPa', High- Temperature High-Pressure, 19,665 (1987). Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Yakhmi, J.V., Umarji, A.M., Gupta, L.C., Rajarajan, A.K., Iyer, R.M. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Studies on Superconducting Behaviour of La^M^CuO^I^Ba, Sr, Ca) and the Influence of Some Dopants', Phase Transitions, 10,193 (1987). Yakhmi, J.V., Gupta, L.C., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Umarji, A.M., Iyer, R.M. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'High T c Superconductivity in La, 8 M o2 CuO 4 (M = Sr, Ca, Ba)', Jap. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl., 26, Pt. 2,1085 (1987). Raj.P. and Sathyamoorthy, A., '(Fe.Ni)-(B,Si) Metallic Glasses Local Structure Units Using Fluctuation Hyperfine Parameter Correlations', J. Phys. F: Metal Physics, 18,113 Kulshreshtha, S.K., Sasikala, R., Suryanarayana, P., Singh, A.J. and Iyer, R.M., 'Studies on Hydrogen Storage Material FeTI: Effect of Sn Substitution', Mat. Res. Bull., 23, 330 George, A.M. andvlrkar, A.N., 'Mixed lonoelectronic Conduction in 0 LaNb 3 O 9 ', J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 49, 743 (1988) George, V.C., Dua, A.K. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Study of Boron Coatings', Thin Solid Films, 164,135 Pujari, P.K., Manohar, S.B., Datta, T., Satyaprakash, Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Dopoler Broadened Positron Annihilation Studies in YBa 2 Cu x ', Solid State Phys. 31C, 223 Vaidya, S.N., Srinivasan, M.P., Malik, S.K., Tomy, C.V. and Adroja, D.T., 'Search for Superconductivity in NbCyB System", ibid, 67, 199 Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., 'Enhancement of Transport Critical Current Density by Gd Substitution in YBajCUjO/, Appl. Phys. Lett., 52,1447 Gopalakrishnan, I.K, Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Gangadharan, K., Yakhmi, J.V., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'High Temperature Superconductivity in Bismuth-Alkaline Earth- Copper-Oxygen Sytem', Pramana: J. Phys., 30, L469 Ramachandani, M.G., 'Effect of Pressure on the Fermi Surface of Potassium', ibid, 31, 513 George, A.M. and Pillai, C.G.S., 'Structural Characteristics and Superconductivity of Bi - Al SrCaCuO,,', Solid State Comms. 67, 875 Pillai, C.G.S., Kutty. A.P.G., Vaidya, S.N. and George, A.M., 'Shear Induced Orientation Effects and Resistivity Transition in High-Tc Superconductor ;, ibid, 67, 717 Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Gangadharan, K., Yakhmi, J.V., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Synthesis and Properties of 125 K Superconductor in the TI-Ca-Ba-Cu-0 System', Appl. Phys. Lett., 53,

49 Statt, B.W., Wang, Z, Lee, M.J.G., Yakhmi. J.V., de Camargo, P.D., Major, J.F. and Rutter, J.W., 'StaWizing the High T c Superconductor Bi^S^Cag-^O^^by Pb Substitution", Physica C, 156,251 Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu. Y., Dalvi, A.G.I., Gopalakrishnan, IK., Sastry, P.V.S.S. and Iyer, R.M., 'A New and Sensitive Method for Detection of Superconductivity Using Microwave Bridge", ibid, 153, 1667 Dua, A.K., George. V.C. and Agarwala, R.P., Characterisation and Microhardness Measurements of Electron Beam Evaporated Alumina Coatings', Thin Solid Films, 165, 163 George, V.C., Dua.A.K. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Deuterium Ion Bombardment of AI 2 O 3 Coatings', ibid, 165, L107 Wallner, G., Anand, M.S., Greenwood, L.R., Kirk, M.A., Mansel, W. and Waschkowski, W., 'Defect Production Rates in Metals by Reactor Neutron Irradiation at 4.6 K 1. J. Nucl. Mat., 152, 146 Suryanarayana, P. and Singh. A.J., 'Hydrogen Storage by Metals', Chemistry Education, 4(3), 15 Anand, M.S., Pande, B.M. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Helium Ion Damage in Molybdenum', Indian J. Phys., 63, 5 (1989). Kutty, A.P.G. and Vaidya.S.N.,'High Pressure Studies on Some Cerium Compounds, in Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Valence Fluctuations and Heavy Fermions.', Eds. LC. Gupta, S.K. Malik, Plenum Publishing Corporation, Gupta, N.M. and Luthra, J.M., 'Thermally Stimulated Luminescence', (in Hindi), Vaigyanik, 20(2). 11 Priyadarshini, K.I., 'Participation of Singlet Oxygen in Monodealkylation of 7-Diethyl Amino 4-Methyl Coumarin (C-1)', ISRAPS Seminar on Radiation and Photochemical Sciences, Bombay (1987). Tetrafluoroethylene on to Polyester', DAESymp on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, Bombay Naik, D.B., 'Formation of Excited State and Radical Cation of Coumarin Dyes on Pulse Electron Beam Irradiation', ibid. Shoute, Lian C.T., 'A Unique Matrix for Spectroscopic Studies of Cations: Perfluoro-2-Butyl Tetrahydrofuran', ibid. Chowdhury, P.K., Rama Rao, K.V.S. and Mittal, J.P., 'Inverse Electronic Relaxation of Infrared Multiphoton Excited Perfluoropyridine', Symp on Fast Excitation Process, Tokyo Palit, D.K., Pal, H.D.,Mukherjee,T. and Mittal, J.P.,'Anisotropic Rotational Behaviour of Quinizarin in GlyceroT, IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry, Bologna Kumar, M.M. and Rao, M.H., 'Radiation Polymerisation of Methyl Methacrylate with Methacrylic Acid- An Easy Method for Reactivity Ratio Determinations', 7th International Meeting on Radiation Processing, Netherlands (1989). Ramnani, S.P., Dhanya, S. and Bhattacharyya, P.K., 'Hydrated Electron Reaction with Ethylene Trithio Carbonate', Symp. Radiochem. and Radiat. Chem., Kalpakkam (1989). Pal, H., Palit, D.K., Mukherjee, T. and Mittal, J.P., 'Reduction of Anthraquinone Disulphonates: A Pulse Radiolysis Study', ibid. Saini, R.D., Bhattacharyya, P.K. and Iyer, R.M., 'Flash Photolysis of Uranyl Tricarbonato Complex in Aqueous Solution', ibid. Sastry, L.V., 'Pulse Radiolysis of Nitric Acid Solutions: Reactivity of NO a Radicals with Alcohols', ibid. Shoute, L.C.T., 'Pulse Radiolysis Studies on Transients of 7-Dimeth^amino-4-Trifluoromethyl Coumarin', ibid. Kumar, M. and Rao, M.H., 'Radiation Grafting of Deoki Nandan and Gupta, A.R., 'Water Vapour Sorp- 42

50 tion Isotherms of A) 3 '. Mg 2 ' and Cs* Ionic Forms of Oowex 50W Resins of Various Crosslinkings', VII Conf. of Indian Council of Chemists, Tirupati Manohar, C, Mishra, B.K., Kelkar, V.K. and Shah. O.O.. 'Solvent Isotope Effects cri the Cloud Point of Triton X-100 in H 2 O and D 8 O". Int. Symp. on Surfactants in Solution, Ottawa Manohar, C, Kelkar. V.K., Valaulikar, B.S., Goyal. P.S.. Desa, J.A.E., Narsimhan, S.L and Dasannacharya, B.A., 'Sol-Gel Transition in a Micellar System', ibid. Goyal, PS., Dasannacharya. B.A.. Kelkar, V.K., Manohar, C, Narsimhan, S.L., Rajgopalan, V. and Valaulikar, B.S., 'Structure of Equiviscous CTAB Micellar Solutions', Solid State Phys. Symp., Bhopal Goyal, P.S., Dasannacharya, B.A., Kelkar, V.K., Manohar, C, Narsimhan, S.L., Rajagopalan, V. and Valaulikar, B.S., 'SANS from Micellar Solutions of CTAB and KBr', ibid. Phathak, G.M., Gangadharan, K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., The Effect of Boron-Incorporation on the Characteristics of /, ibid. Sastry. P.V.P.S.S., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Rajagopal, H., Gangadharan, K., Phatak. G.M., Yakhmi, J.V., Sequeira, A. and Iyer, R.M., 'Role of Moisture in the Synthesis of Superconducting Compounds in TI-Ca-Ba-Cu-0 System', ibid. Gopalakrishnan, I.K.. Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., The Effect of Argon-Annealing on the Superconducting Transition Temperature in TI 2 CaBa 2 Cu \ ibid. Susceptibtlity Studies on Superconducting Tl-Ca-Ba- Cu-Oxide'. ibid. Yakhmi, J.V., Hurdequint. H. and Monod, P., 'Antiferromagnetism in Y 2 Cu : EPR Studies', ibid. Tyagi. A.K.. Rao, U.R.K., Iyer. R.M.. Gopalakrishnan, I.K.. Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Satry, M.D., Kadam, R. and Phatak, G.M., 'Attempts to Fluorinate Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 0 y and TI,,CaBa s,cu.,o <l,', ibid. Purthi, D.D. and Anand, M.S., 'Effect of Vanadium on Hydrogen Diffusion in Niobium', ibid. Goyal, P.S., Chakravarthy. R., Dasannacharya. B.A., Kulshreshtha, S.K., Sastry, M.S. and Tomkinson, J., 'Neutron Incoherent Inelastic Scattering from (NH^^RbJHjPO;. ibid. Deb, S.K.. Roy, A.P. and Singh, A.J., 'Photoacoustic Study of Band Gap Variation in AgGa(S a Se, J 2 ', ibid. Raj, P., Suryanarayana, P., Sathyamurthy, A., Singh, A.J. and Iyer. R.M., 'Hydrogen Distribution in alpha- Phase of (Fe 08 Ni a2 )TiH;, ibid, p Raj, P., Sathyamurthy. A. and Rao, I.K., <Fe crii.b Nl e5.4 B i3 Si io Quadru P le Interaction, Mossbauer Absorption arid Debye Temperature', ibid, p Raj, P. and Sathyamurthy, A., 'Hydrogen Diffusion in Pd,.fBH x System', ibid, p Srinivasan, M.P. and Vaidya, S.N., Temperature Dependence of the Electrical Resitivity of Compounds LaSr 2 Nb x O y to 77K 1. ibid, p Karunakaran, C. and Vaidya, S.N., Effect of Addition of Boron on Semiconductor to Metal Transition in V0 2 ', ibid. p Rao, K.V., Puzniak. P., Skumryev, V., Yakhmi, J.V., Sastry, P.V.S.S., Gopalakrishnan, I.K. and Iyer, R.M., Srinivasan, M.P. and Vaidya, S.N., 'Low Temperature and High Pressure Electrical Transport Properties of 'Magnetisation Studies on Y^Gd^B^CUjO/. K x Ba,. x Pb 05 Cu 05O3. O y, ', ibid, p ibid. Karunakaran, C. and Vaidya, S.N., 'Effect of Pressure Wang, Z., Start, B.W., Lee. M.J.G., Gopalakrishnan, on the Electrical Resistivity and Thermoelectric Power I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., 'AC- of VOJB;, ibid, p

51 Vatsa, R.K., Rama Rao, K.V.S. and Iyer, R.M.. Thin Film Preparation of YBa 2 Cu,O l( by TEA Co., Laser Evaporation', ibid. Manohar, C, Perspective Paper on Interface Science and Engineering', Department of Science and Technology (Invited paper). Bhalla, K.C. and Sathyamoorthy, N., 'Isotopic Branching Ratio: He*HD* (HEH +,D): (HeD +,H)', Symp. on Magnetic Resonance, Instrumentation and Theoretical Chemistry, NT Kanpur Belapurkar, A.D., Gupta, N.M., Varshney, Lalit and Iyer, R.M., 'Characterization of Hydrophobic H 2 /H 2 O Isotopic Exchange Catalysts', IV National Workshop Cum Seminar on Technique in Catalysis, JIT, Kharagpur Belapurkar, A.D.. Gupta, N.M., Varshneya, Lalit and Iyer, R.M., 'Characterization of Hydrophobic H 2 /HDO Isotopic Exchange Catalysts', ibid. Tripathi. A.K.. Kulshreshtha, S.K., Gupta, N.M. and Iyer, R.M.,'Mechanisms of CO Oxidation over Pt/SnO 2 Catalyst', IX Natl. Symp. Catalysis, Madras Kamble, V.S., Gupta, N.M. and Iyer, R.M.,'Lewis Site Assisted CO Activation Over Cation Exchanged NaX Zeolites and Supported Ru Catalyst', ibid. Gupta, N.M., Belapurkar, A.D. and Iyer, R.M., 'Water Poisoning of PTFE Dispersed Pt/Charcoal Catalyst for HD/H 2 0 Isotope Exchange', ibid. Vaidya, M.A. and Jain, S.C., 'Synthesis and Characterisation of Rare Earth Tris(2-Furoates) and their Compounds', Ann. Convention of Chemists, Calcutta Lai, M., 'Free Radical Reaction Studies in Dithioerythreitol in Air Saturated Solution. Effect of ph and DTE Concentration', ibid. Mukherjee, T., 'On the Nature of H-Bonding in Quinizarin 2-Sulphonate", ibid, (Phy/109). 'Synthesis and Characterisation of Furoates and Picoiinates of Uranium, Thorium, Zirconium and Titanium', ibid. Yakhmi, J.V., 'Resistivity, Thermopower and Mall Effect in High T c Superconductivity', DAE Solid State Physics Symp., Bombay (1987). Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y., Dalvi, A.G.I., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S. and Iyer, R.M., 'A New and Sensitive Method for Detection of Superconductivity Using Microwave Bridge', Proc.lntl. Conf. on High Temperature Superconductivity and Materials and Mechanisms of Superconductivity, Inter-Laken, Switzerland Senoussi, S., Ousessena, M., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Yakhmi. J.V. and Campbell, I.A., 'Magnetic Hysteresis of Superconducting GdBa 2 Cu to 1.8 K", Int. Conf. on Magnetism, Paris Yakhmi, J.V., Hurdequint, H. and Monod, P., 'EPR Investigations of Magnetic Order in Y 2 Cu Y 2 BaCu0 s and BaCuO 2 ', ibid. Yakhmi, J.V., Walia, R.. Bhatia, S.N., Iyer, R.M. and Campbell, I.A., Thermopower Measurements oncr-ai Single Crystals in the Magnetic Triple Point Region', ibid. Gopalakrishnan U.K., 'Single Phasic Bi a CaSr 2 Cu 2 O K :Synthesis and Structure', 1st Asia- Pacific Conference on Condensed Matter Physics- High T e Superconductivity and Related Topics, Singapore Yakhmi, J.V., 'Improved Superconducting Characteristics in Y(Gd)-Ba-Cu-O. Bi(Pb)-Ca-Sr-Cu-0 and TI(K)-Ca-Ba-Cu-O: Magnetisation Studies', National Seminar on Superconductivity (NSS-88), Trivandrum Yakhmi, J.V., 'Improved Superconducting Characteristics ofy-ba-cu-o, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-0 and TI-Ca-Cu-OEffect of Substitution', 2nd World Congress on Superconductivity, Houston (1989). Deshpande, S.G., Vaidya, M.A. and Jain, S.C., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Phatak, G.M.. 44

52 Yakhmi, J.V.. Iyer, R.M., Sequeira, A. and Rajagopal, H.. 'On the Synthesis of Single Phase 2122-Superconductors in the Bi- and Tl- Systems and the Effect of Substituents on their Superconducting Behaviour', TMS Int. Symp. on High Temp Superconducting Oxtdes:Processing and Properties, Las Vegas (1989). Agarwala, R.P. and Pruthi, D.D., 'High Temperature Diffusion Mechanism in BCC Metals', Intl. Conf. on Diffusion in Metals (DIMEJA-88), Hungary Chakravarthy, R., MadhavRao, L, Paranjpe, S.K. and Kulshreshtha, S.K., 'Semispin Glass Behaviour of Co 05 Zn 05 FeCr0 4 ", Vth International. Conf. on Ferrites., Bombay (1989), Bhat, R., Raj, P., Keer, H.V. and Sathyamurthy, A. 'Synthesis of Spinels Containing Cerium and Europium', ibid Rajan, K.G., Shekar, N.V.C., Sekar, M., Rao, G.V.N.. Singh, A.J. and Iyer, R.M., 'Synthesis and Single Crystal Growth of Gap by Liquid Encapsulation Vertical Bridgman Technique', Natl. Symp. on Electrochemical Material Science, Karaikudi Mathur, B.S., Suryanarayana, P., Bhatt, K.B., Shelar, K.N. and Singh, A.J., 'Synthesis of Bulk Polycrystalline Indium Phosphide', Electrochemical and Semiconductor Symp., Karaikudi Gupta, S.S. and Singh, A.J., 'Preparation of Thermoluminescent Phosphor CaSO 4 :Dy', ibid. Anand, M.S., Pande, B.M. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Surface Damage of V-2% Zr Alloy Using Scanning Electron Microscope', XVIII Annual Conf. of EMSI, Shillong Dua, A.K. and Agarwala, R.P., 'Design of a Planer Magnetron Sputtering Facility', IVS Natl. Symp., Bombay Mittal, J.P.. 'Dynamics of IR Laser Induced Multiphoton Excitations', DST Workshop on Chemical Dynamics, I IT, Kanpur (invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., 'Spectroscopy and Photochemistry with Infra Red C0 2 Lasers', UGC/DST Workshop Organised by Laser & Spectroscopy Society of India, BHU, Varanasi (1989) (Invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., 'Fast Excitation Processes Involved in Infra Red Laser Induced Inverse Electronic Reieaxation and Transient Isomerisation in Pentafluoropyridine', International Symposium on Fast Excitation Processes, Tokyo (1989) (Invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., 'Laser Isotope Separation of C 13 ', RIKEN.Tokyo. (1989) (Invited Talk). Mittal.J.P., 'Chemical Dynamics and Radiation Chemistry Research at BARC, ibid, (Invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., Time Resolved Studies of IR-Laser Induced Chemistry of Fluoroganics', Seminar at the Chemistry Dept of California State University, Los Angeles (1988) (Invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., 'Specific Site of Attack of in Radiation Chemistry', National Bureau of Standards, USA (1988) (Invited Talk). Mittal, J.P., 'How Fast do the Chemical Reactions Take Place?', Workshop for Post Graduate College Teachers, IIT Powai (1988) (Invited Talk). Moo<thy, P.N., 'Application of Electron Accelerator for Study of Fast Radiation Induced Processes in Biology and Nuclear Related Chemical Studies', DAE Symposium on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, Bombay (1988) (Invited Talk). Gupta, N.M., 'Gas Recovery System for C0 2 Lasers', Proc. Workshop Gas Lasers Phys. and Tech., Pune (1988) (Invited Talk). Jain, V.K., 'Synthesis, Reactivity and Redistribution Reactions of Homo- and Hetero-Binuclear Palladium(ll) and Platinum(ll) Complexes', 1st Indo Soviet Symp. on Organometallic Chemistry, Jaipur (1988) (Invited Talk). Yakhmi, J.V., 'High Temperature Superconductivity in Bi- and Tl- Based Oxides : A Review of Some Experimental Results', DAE Solid State Physics Symp., Bhopal (1988) (Invited Talk). 45

53 Yakhmi, J.V., 'Chemistry in Superconductivity 1, Natl. Seminar (in Hindi) on Emerging Frontiers of Chemical Sciences, BARC, Bombay (1988) (Invited Talk). Yakhmi, J.V., Towards Stabilization of 11 OK Superconducting Phase in Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-0 System', National Workshop! on High Tempeature Superconducivity, Varanasi (1988) (Invited Talk). Singh, A.J., 'Ultrapurification of Materials for Semiconductors', Internatl. Conf. on Semiconductor Materials, New Delhi (1988) (Invited Talk). Gopinathan, C, 'Recent Advances in the Technology of Biogels'. Natl. Symp. cum Workshop on Advances in Imaging andimage Processing and XII All India Convention of Biomedical Engineers, Bombay (1988) (Invited Talk) Gupta, A.R., 'Molecular Interactions and Ion Exchanger Selectivity', Convention of Chemists, Calcutta (1988) (Invited Talk). Moorthy, P.N., 'An Overview of Some Basic and Applied Radiation Chemical Studies at Trombay', IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of New Developments and Trends in Radiation Chemistry, Bologna (1988) (Invited Talk). Rao, M.H., 'Radiation Effects on the Mechanical Pro-perties of Polymers and their Characteristion', UNDP/IAEA/RCa Regional Training Course on Industrial Radiation Sterilization, Bombay (1988) (Invited Talk). Nandan, D., 'Chemical Warfare - Its Effects, Aid and Rescue Measures', Industrial Civil Defence Course, BARC, Bombay (1988) (Invited Talk). Rao. K.N., Moorthy, P.N., Prasad, C.V.C., Kunjappu, J.T. and Priyadarsini, K.I., 'Synthesis, Purification and Characterisation of 7-Am'mo Coumarin Laser Dye', BARC Panajkar, M.S., Moorthy, P.N. and Shirke, N.D., 'Programming a Micro Computer for On-Line Data Acquisition and Processing in Pulse Radiolysis Experiments', BARC-1410 Agarwala, R.P., 'Laboratory Scale Development for Coatings of Improving Characteristics of Candidate Materials for Fusion Reactor', IAEA Research Contract (No. 2927/RB-2927/RB-R5)-Flnal Report. Tripathi, A.K., Gupta, N.M., Annaji Rao, K. and Iyer, R.M., 'A Gas Recovery System for CO 2 Lasers', BARC Kumar, M., 'Study of Kinetics and Transient Intermediates in Radiation Polymerisation of Monomer', Ph.D. Thesis. Bombay University Pillai, C.G.S., 'Study of Heat Transport in Rare Earth and Transition Metal Oxide System', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University George, V.C., 'Preparation and Characterisation of Refractory Coatings', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Visalakshi, R., 'Synthesis, Reactivity and Spectroscopic Studies on Organotin Compounds', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Patel, R.P., 'Synthesis, Molecular and Crystal Structure Aspects of Some Palladium(ll) Complexes', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Guha, S.N., 'Photochemistry of Organic Compounds and Radiation Chemical Studies ofthiazinedyesand U(VI) Ions', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Suryanarayana, P.,'Physicochemical Studies on FeTi- Related Hydrogen Storage Materials', PhD. Thesis, Bombay University Sasikala, R., 'Carbon Monoxide Methanation Over FeTi and Related Intermetallics', M.Sc. Thesis, Bombay University Chaudhari, B.S. and Radhakrishnan, T.P., 'Anomalous Electropermeation of Hydrogen Through Mild Shim Steel', Indian Journal of Technology, 26,189 Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Gangadharan, K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Ravindran, P.V., Yakhmi, J.V., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'On the Synthesis of High-Temperature Super- 46

54 conducting Compounds in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-Q System', Material Letters, Venkataramani, B., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Ravindran, P.V., Phatak, G.M., Sastry, M.D. and Iyer, R.M., 'Studies on Ion Sorption Property and Stability of YB^C^O^ in Aqueous and Mixed Solvent Media', Solid State Comm., 67,397 Chaudhari, B.S. and Radhakrishnan, T.P., 'Role of Additions on the Uptake of Hydrogen by Steel During Cathodic Charging', International Symposium on Metal-Hydrogen Systems-Fundamentals and Applications, Max-Planck Institute for Metai Research, Stuttgart, Chandrasekaran, V.R., 'An Impedance Study of Reduction of Ti(IV) on Dropping Mercury Electrode', National Symposium on Electrochemical Techniques and Instrumentation, Kalpakkam Chandrasekaran, V.R. and Radha-krishnan.T.P., 'Electrochemical Impedance on Solid Metal-Electrode- Measurement and Applications', ibid. Radhakrishnan, T.P., 'Ultratrace Analysis by Modulated Voltammetric Stripping Method', ibid. Sundaresan, R., 'Electrochemical Analysis (ph, Red- OX, ion-selective Electrodes and Coulometric Analysis) - Invited Lectures', The Course on Understanding Analytical Instruments, IDEMI, Bombay Murugayyan, P., Iyer, H.P. and Venkateswarlu, Ch., 'Separation of Trace Metal Impurities from Phosphoric Acid as Chelex-100', Indian J. Technology, 26,194 Bhushan, K.S., Rao, B.B., Parthasarathy, R. and Nambiar, G.S., 'Geochemistry and Genesis of the Meta-Anorthositic Rocks', Neues Jabrbuch. Min. Agh., 159(2), Nambiar, C.G., Rao, B.B., Parthasarathy, R. and SankarDas, M.,'Geochemistry and Genesis of the Archan Granulites from the Charnockite Terrain of Northern Kerala', The Indian Mineralogist, 28,28 Kayasth, S.R., Parthasarathy, R. and Desai, H.B., 'Preconcentration and Determination of Rare Earth Elements In Water Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis', Radiochem. Nucl. Chem. Symposium, Parthasarathy, R., 'Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Constituents of Zircon by Neutron Activation Analysis', Proc. of the 6th ISAS National Symp. on Analytical Application in Earth Sciences, Shillong Rameswaran, R., Iyer, H.P. and Murugayyan, P., 'A Rapid Method for the Determination of Traces of Gold in Zinc and Lead Concentrates', ibid. Sundersanan, M., Reddy, G.R. and Iyer, R.K., 'Argon- Argon Dating of Geological Samples by Incremental Heating Technique', ibid. Jangida, B.L, Dhami, P.S., Agrawal, R.M. and Sundaresan, M., 'Application of Energy Dispersive X- ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique to the Analysis of Zircon', ibid. Sundersanan, M., Reddy, G.R. and Iyer, R.K., 'Setting of of an Argon-Argon Mass Spectrometer for Geochronological Studies', ibid. Dhaktode, S.S., Zarapkar, L.R. and Dhaneshwar, R.G., 'Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry of Sulphide Ion in Alkaline Medium : An Explanation of Electrode Reaction Mechanism', Transactions of SAEST, 23(1). 91 Adsul, J.S., Palrecha, M.M. and Dhaneshwar, R.G., 'Determination of Cr(VI) in Sediments by Differential Pulse Polarography', Proc. of the 4th National Symp. of ISAS on Analytical Sciences for Environmental Studies, Burdwan (1987). Adsul, J.S., Palrecha, M.M. and Dhaneshwar, R.G.. 'Simultaneous Determination of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Marine Samples (Thane Creek) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry', ibid. Adsul, J.S., 'Determination of Trace Amounts of Gallium in Pure Aluminium Metal', 25th Convention of 47

55 Chemists. Indian Chemical Society, Calcutta. Maiti, B., Desai, S.R. and Krishnamoorthy, T.S., 'Determination of Naphthalene Acetic Acid Residue in Apples byhplc. Analyst Krishnamoorthy, T.S., Mahadevan, N., Desaf, S.S. and Dias, C.C., 'Comparative Evaluation of Methods for Precise Determination of Oxygen Stoichiometry in High T e Superconductors', Pramana. 32(2), 143 (1989). Iyer, C.S.P., Usha Nathan, Chokera, A.R. and Rao, DP., 'Boron Sorption Characteristics in Resins', BARC Iyer, C.S.P., 'Marine Pollution Prevention and Control Measures', Proc. of the National Seminar on Marine Pollution Control Strategies, Bombay Iyer, C.S.P., 'Fires and Explosions in Chemical Industries', Proc. of the Seminar on Chemical Hazards in Industries. Bombay Balasubramaniam, K.S., Iyer, C.S.P. and Tulsidas, S.K., 'ICP Method of Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Bauxites', Proc. of the Congress Brasileiro de Geoquimica, Brazil. Iyer, R.K., Krishnamoorthy, K.R. and Ramanamurthy, M., Evaluation of Analytical Methods for the Determination of Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs', 2nd Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Techniques for Trace Elements in Food-etuffs, Beijing, Kayasth, S.R., Parthasarthy, R. and Desai, H.B., 'Preconcentration and Determination of RaseC > sinwater Samples by NAA', Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Symposium, Bombay Jangida, B.L, Toteja, R.S. and Sundaresan, M.. 'Application of Gupla'sTheoryto Divalent-Univalentlon Exchange Equilibria on Dowex-50wx4 Resin in Anhydrous MethanoT, 25th Convention of Chemists, Indian Chemical Society, Calcutta, Toteja, R.S.D., Jangida, B.L. and Sundaresan, M., Thermodynamic property Changes in Cation-Exchanges of Alkaline Earth Metal Ions with Lithium Ions in Dowex- 50Wx4 Resin in Methanol Medium', ibid. Jamgoda. B.L, Dja.o. P.S., Agrawal, R.M. and Sudaresan, M., 'Application of Energy Dispersive X-ray Ruorescence (EDXRF) Technique to the Analysis of Zircon', 6th ISAS National Symposium on Analytical Applications in Earth Sciences, Shillong Rao, U.R.K, Wani, B.N. and Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Pyrotysis of Na-analogues of (NH^VO//, ThermochimicaActa, 125,229 Karim, G.A., Rao, U.R.K. and Ram Prasad, 'Synthesis ofyba 2 VO a and Unit Cell Data', J. Materials Sciences Letters, 7,3 Tyagi, A.K., Patwe, S.J., Rao, U.R.K. and Iyer, R.M., 'Attempts to Prepare Fluorine Containing YBa;,Cu 3 O 6 5 \ Solid State Communication, 65,1149 Venkateswarlu, K.S., Shankar, R., Velmurugan, S., Venkateswaran, G.andRanganathaRao, M., 'Removal of Aluminium Turbidity from Reactor Heavy Water by Precipitation Ion Exchange Using Magnesium Hydroxide', Nuclear Technology, 82,243 Venkataramani, B., Karwee, S.B., Iyer, R.K., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Removal of Al(lll) Based Turbidity in Water Using Hydrous Titanium Oxide Dispersed in Ion Exchange Resins', Separation Science & Technology, 23, 473 Das, P.C., Velumurugan, S., Sinha, P.K. and Mathur, P.K., 'Electrophoretic Studies on Corrosion Products from Secondary Side of Nuclear Steam Generators', Transactions of SAEST, 23,39 Kumbhar, A.G., Rangarajan, S. and Narasimhan, S.V., 'Electroanalytical Applications to Estimate Ionic Impurities', ibid, 23, 25 Iyer, R.K. and Desphande, S.G., 'Preparation of High Purity Antimony by Electrodoposition', Applied Electrochemistry, 17,936 (1987). Ramshesh, V., 'Recoil Chemistry and Solid State Exchange in Cobalt Complexes', Nat. Acad. Sc. Letters, 10,429 (1987). 48

56 Visalakshl, G., Naraslmhan, S.V. and Venkateswartu, K.S., 'Polarographic Determination of Iron (II) and Iron (I) Complexes with EDTA', Analytica chemica Acta, 212, 335 Lakshmanan, A.R. and Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Uptake of Uranium by Vegetables and Rice', Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 38,151 Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Chemical Instrumentation Needs of Modern Steam Generating Systems', Chemical Business, 2, 24 Paul, A.R., Kaimal, K.N.G., Naik, M.C. and Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'The Release of Fission Recoiled Xenon from Zr-2.5 w% Nb Alloy", J. Nucl. Materials, 160,166 Rao, U.R.K., Tyagi, A.K., Patwe, S.J., Iyer, R.M., Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y. and Dalvi, A.S.I., 'Chemical Incorporation of Fluorine into YBajCu^ O 6s+ 5 ', Solid State Communications, 67,385 Rao, U.R.K., Tyagi, A.K., Patwe, S.J. and Iyer, R.M. TG/DTA Evidence of Fluorine Incorporation into YBa 2 Cu ', Pramana: J. Phys., 31,1 Satpathy, K.K., Mathur, P.K. and Nair, K.V.K., 'Contribution of Edaiyur - Sadras Estuarine System to the Hydrographic Characteristics of Kalpakkam Coastal Waters', J. Marine Biological Association, 29, 344 (1987). Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Research Trends in Hot Atom Chemistry', Proc. Indian Nat. Sc. Acad., 54(5) Mathur, P.K., "Water Chemistry Problems in Nuclear Power Industry', ibid, 54(5) Narasimhan, S.V., Venkateswarlu, K.S. and Krishna Rao, K.S., "Condensate Polishing in AVT (Morpholine) Situation - Performance of Monitoring and Diagnostic Techniques', 1988 JAIF Conf. on Water Chemistry, Japan, v. 1,105, Venkateswaran, G. and Venkateswariu, K.S., 'Dependence of Source Term on Water Chemistry Control Under Accident Conditions', ibid. Momin, A.C., Mathews, M.D., Mirza, E.B. and Gopalakraishnan, I.K., 'Bulk Thermal Expansion Studies of the Superconducting Compound YBa z Cu ', Proc. Int. Conf. on First Two years of High Temperature Superconductivity, USA Momin, A.C., Mathews, M.D., Mirza, E.B. and Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Structural Thermal and Superconducting Properties of Y,. Ba^C^O/, 1st Int. Symp. on Superconductivity, Japan Venkataeswariu, K.S., 'Coolant Chemistry in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors : The Indian Experience', IAEA CRP Meeting on WACOLIN, Heidelberg Venkateswariu, K.S. and Bhardwaj, S.R., 'Possible Fractionation of Mo from Ru in Severe Nuclear Reactor Accidents', ACS Symposium on Nuclear Reactor Severe Accident Chemistry, Toronto Sathyaseelan, V.S., Das, PC. and Mathur, P.K., 'Kinetics of Dis-solution of Magnetite in Chemical Solvents Based on EDTA Analogues - HEEDTA (Hydroxy Ethyl Ethylene Diamine Triacetic Acid)', Eighth Conf. on Indian Council of Chemists, Trupati Mathur, P.K., 'Boiler Water / Steam Chemistry - Problems / Remedies in Nuclear and Thermal Power Stations', ibid. Jakkal, V.S., The Use of Cambridge Crystaltographic DataBase for Retrieval of Conducti-vity Data Regarding the Chemical Fragments of Diketopiperazines, Dinitruphenyfs and Triethenolamines', Regional Seminar on Data Storage, Retrieval arid Dissemination in Sciences, Madras Tyagi, A.K., Rao, U.R.K., Iyer, R.M., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S. and Phatak, G.M., 'Attempts to Prepare Fluorine Containing TI 2 CaBa 2 Cu and Bi 2 CaBr 2 Cu ', Solid State Phys. Symposium, Bhopal Mathur, P.K., 'Electrophoretic Methods and their Application in Understanding the Mechanism of Deposition and Transport of Corrosion Products in nuclear Power Plants', Proc. Nat. Symposium on 49

57 Electrochemical Techniques and Instrumentation, Madras(19S8). Velmurugan, S., Das, P.C. and Mathur, P.K., 'Magnesium Ion Adsoprtion Over Synthetic Magnetite and Its Influence on pzc', ibid. Kumbhar, A.G., Rangarajan, S. and Narasimhan, S.V., Speciation of Copper in 3 Methoxy Propylamine Aqueous Solution by Voltammetry', ibid. Paul, A.R., Naik, M.C. and Venkateswarlu, K.S., 'Migration of Cerium in Mixed (Th, Ce) Oxides Under Temperature Gradients', BARC-1386(1987). Venugopal, V., Iyer, V.S., Renu Agarwal, Roy, K.N., Prasad, R. and Sood, D.D., 'Solid State E.M.F. and Calorimetric Measurements on Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ', J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 19,1047 (1987). Prasad, R., Iyer, V.S., Singh, Z, Venugopal, V., Mohapatra, S. and Sood, D.D., Thermodynamic Properties of Cr, Je, for x=0.546 and 0.526', ibid, Prasad, R., Mohapatra, S., Iyer, V.S., Venugopal,V. and Sood, D.D., Thermodynamics of FeTe^g', ibid, 20,453 Iyer, V.S., Venugopal, V., Prasad, R., Singh, Z., Mohapatra, S. and Sood, D.O., 'Standard Gibbs Molar Free Energy of Formation of Na^rO;, ibid, 20,781 Hilpert, K., Kobertz, D., Venugopal, V., Miller, M., Gerads, H., Bremer, F.J. and Nickel, H., 'Phase Diagram Studies on the Al-Ni System', Z. Naturforsch, 42a, 1327(1987). Tangri, R.P., Venugopal, V., Bose, D.K. and Sundaresan, M., 'Vaporization Thermodynamics of Cs 2 MoO 4 ', International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials, Chicago Prasad, R.. Renu Agarwal, Roy, K.N., Iyer, V.S., Venugopal, V. and Sood, D.D., 'Thermal Properties of Cs 2 Cr (s,i) by High Temperature Calorimetry', ibid. Sampath, S, Kulkarni, N.K., Subramanian, M.S. and Jayadevan, N.C., 'Effect of Lanthanum, Neodymium, Tnorium.Unanium and Plutonium Compounds on Graphite Oxidation', Carbon, 26,12S Chawla, K.L., Misra,N.L and Jayadevan, N.C.,'M 2 U 4 O 12 Compounds of Potassium, Rubidium and Thallium', J Nucl. Materials, 154,181 Singh Mudher, K.D., Krishnan, K., Chakraburthy, D.M. and Jayadevan, N.C., 'Structural and Thermal Investigations on Tetrasulphate Complexes of Uranium (IV) and Plutonium (IV)', J. Less Common Metals, 143, 173 Mary Xavier and Jayanthi, N., 'A Potentiometric Method for the Determination of Uranium by Stannous Chloride Reduction', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Articles, 122, 65 Aggarwal, S.K., Duggal, R.K., Shah, P.M., Rao, R. and Jain, H.C., 'Experimental Evaluation of the Characteristic Features of Passivated Ion Implanted and Surface Barrier Detectors for Alpha Spectrometry on Plutonium', ibid, 120(1), 22 Aggarwal, S.K., Duggal, R.K., Shah, P.M. and Jain, H.C., 'Simultaneous Determination of the S3S U/ 23B U Isotope Ratio and Concentration at Nanogram Levels of Uranium Employing a Mixed Spike in Thermal lonisation Mass Spectrometry', Int. J. Mass Spectrum. Ion Process, 85,137 Ramkumar, K.L., Raman, V.A., Sant, V.L, Kavimandan, V.D. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Trace Constituents, in Tellurium and Zircaloy-2 Employing Spark Source Mass Spectrometry', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Letters, 125(2), 467 Nair, P.R., Lohitakshan, K.V., Mary Zavier, Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Uranium and Plutonium in Plutonium Based Fuels by Sequential Amperometric Titration', ibid, 122(1), 19 Hasilkar, S.P., Gopinath, N., KeshavChander, Marathe, S.G.and Jain, H.C., 'Complexometric Determination of Thorium in ThO 2 -PuO 2 \ ibid, 122(1), 69 Jain, H.C. and Ramakumar, K.L., 'Spark Source Mass 50

58 Spectrometry in Nuclear Technology for Trace Analysis', 11th international Mass Spectrometry Conference, France Sharma, R.C., Kalsi, P.K., Sawant, L.R., VakJyanathan, S. and Iyer, R.H., 'Iterative Computational Method for Rapid Analysis of Fe and Pu by CPC and Some Interesting Observations on the Coulogram of Pu(lll)', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 126,1 Bhanu, A.U., Kalsi, P.C., Sahoo, S. and Iyer, R.H., 'Assay of Uranium in Scrap and Waste Produced at Natural Uranium Metal Production and Fuel Fabrication Plants', ibid, 121,29 Jain, H.C., 'Mass Spectrometry in Nuclear Technology : Two Decades of Our Experience (Invited Talk)', Fourth National Symposium on Mass Spectrometry, Bangalore Ramakumar, K.L, Kavimandan, V.D., Subbanna, C.S., Raman, V.A., Sant, V.L and Jain, H.C., "Diffused Peaks in Spark Source Mass Spectrometry', Paper No. 1-12, ibid. Ramakumar, K.L, Raman, V.A., Sant, V.L., Kavimandan, V.D. and Jain, H.C., 'Comparison of Relative Sensitity Factors in Pure U 3 Og) and U 3 O a -C Matrices', Paper No. NT-6, ibid. Ramakumar, K.L., Subbanna, C.S., Kavimandan, V.D., Raman, V.A., Sant, V.L and Jain, H.C., 'Analysis of Plutonium Bearing Fuel Materials by Spark Source Mass Spectrometry Employing Electrical Detection System', Paper No. 1-13, ibid. Datta, B.P., Sant, V.L, Raman, V.A., Kavimandan, V.D. and Jain, H.C., 'Relative Sensitivity Coefficient in Spark Source Mass Spectrometry and its Relation with Element Sensitive Physicochemical Properties', Paper No. NT-7, ibid. Chitambar, S.A., Parab, A.R., Khodade, P.S. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Isotopic Composition of Nanogram Amounts of Uranium Using U-233 as a Spike', Paper No. NT-8, ibid. Chitambar, S.A., Khodade, P.S., Parab, A.R. and Jain, H.C., 'Isotope Fractionation Factors in Thermal lonisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Uranium and Plutonium', Paper No. NT-9, ibid. Vaidya, V.N., 'Sol-gel Process for Fuel Fabrication (Invited Talk)', Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Symposium, Bombay Ramakrishna, V.V., 'Macroporous Resins in Actinide Separations (Invited Talk)', ibid. Gopinath, N., Kamat, J.V., Sharma, H.S., Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Dissolution of UCforCoulometric Determination of U', Paper No. CT-01, ibid. Shivarudrappa, V., Mithapara, P.D., Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Recovery of Pu from Phosphoric Acid Waste Using Mono Octyl Phenyl Phosphoric Acid', Paper No. CT-7, ibid. Manolkar, R.B., Keshav Chander, Marathe. S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Studies on the Recovery of Pu from Solutions Containing Thorium and EDTA', Paper No. CT-08, ibid. Kadam, A., Karekar, C.V., Charyulu, M.M. and Sivaramakrishnan, C.K., 'Studies on the Sorption of Plutonium on Alumina from Carbonate Media', Paper No. CT-13, ibid. Sawant, R.M. and Chaudhuri, N.K., 'Measurement of Stability Constants of the P Complexes of Tetravalent Actinides using P Ion Selective Electrode - A Feasibility Study of Th(IV)', Paper No. CT-14, ibid. Bhanushali, R.D., Negi, S. and Ramakrishna, V.V., The Extraction of U(VI) from HCI Acid by D2EHPA and Mixtures of D2EHPA and HTTA', Paper No. CT-17, ibid. Phal, D.G., Kannan, S. and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'Extraction of Pu(IV) by D2EHPA from Sulphuric Acid Medium', Paper No. CT-18, ibid. Kannan, S., Phal, D.G. and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'Influence of Nitrate Ion on the Extraction of Pu(IV) by D2EHPA from Sulphuric Acid Medium', Paper No. CT-19, ibid. Phal, D.G., Kannan, S. and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'The 51

59 Extraction Behaviour of Pu(IV) from Nitric Acid and Nitric-Perchloric Acid Mixtures in to D2EHPA 1, Paper No. CT-20. ibid. Kannan, S., Phal, D.G. and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'Synergic Extraction of Pu(IV) from Nitric Acid Medium by D2EHPA with HTTA and TOPO', Paper No. CT-21, ibid. Chetty, K.V., Mapara, P.M., Rajendra Swarup and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'The Solvent Extraction Behaviour of Pu(VI) from Perchloric Acid by D2EHPA', Paper No. CT-22, ibid. Sagar, V.B., Pawar, S.M., Oak, M.S. and Sivaramakrishnan, C.K., 'Some Studies on the Extraction of Pu from Phosphate Containing HNO 3 Solution Using DBDECMP as Extractanf, Paper No.CT-24, ibid. Singh Mudher, K.D., Khandekar, R.R., Chadha, A.K. and Jayadevan, N.C., 'X-ray Studies in Rb-U-Ca-0 System Characterisation of a New Mixed Oxide Phase', Paper No. CT-26, ibid. Chawla, K.L., Misra, N.L. and Jayadevan, N.C., 'Reactions of Rubidium and Cesium with UO 2 -ThO 2 Oxides', Paper No. CT-27, ibid. Kamat, R.V., Dehadraya, J.V., Kumar, N., Vittal Rao, T.V., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Engineering Scale Facility for the Production of UO 3 Gel Spheres', Paper No. CT-28, ibid. Mukerjee, S.K., Dehadraya, J.V., Bamankar, Y.R., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Synthesis of Uranium Monocarbide Microspheres by Sol-gel Process', Paper No. CT-29, ibid. Mukerjee, S.K., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Kinetics of Nitrate Leaching from UO 3 Gel Parti-cles Prepared by Internal Gelation Process', Paper No. CT-30, ibid. Ray, M., Pius, I.C., Charyulu, M.M. and Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.,'Spectrophotometric Studies on the Behaviour of Plutonium in Basic Media', PaperNo.CT-36.ibid. Aggarwal, S.K., Shah, P.M., Duggal, R.K. and Jain, H.C., 'Studios for the Electrodeposition of Milligram Amounts of Uranium on Electropolished Stainless Steel Disks', Paper No. CT-39, ibid. Kasar, U.M., Pius, I.C., Sagar, V.B., Joshl, A.R. and Sivaramakrishnan, C.K., 'Studies on the Decontamination Factors Using Macroporous Anion Exchange Resins', Paper No. CT-44, ibid. Bhargava, V.K., Oak, M.S., Ramaswami, A. and Satya Prakash, 'Absolute yields of Fission Products * Mo and 13? Te in the Spontaneous Fission of as8 CF, Paper No. NR- 07, ibid. Chitambar, S.A., Khodade, P.S., Parab, A.R. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Half Life of 2<0 Pu Relative to Half Life of ^U', Paper No. NR-09, ibid. Pandey, A.K., Kalsi, P.C., Sharma, R.C., Vaidyanathan, S. and Iyer, R.H., 'Direct Potentiometric Determination of Uranium in Organic Extracts Using Tl(lll) asreductant', Paper No. RA-01, ibid. Nair, PR., Lohithakshan, K.V., MaryXavier, Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of U byti(lll) Reduction and Biamperometric Redox Titration', Paper No. RA-02, ibid. Sharma, R.C., Kalsi, P.K., Sawant, L.R. and Iyer, R.H., 'An Improved Method for the Rapid Determination of Uranium by Controlled Potential Coulometry Using Lingane's Equation', Paper No. RA-3, ibid. Hasilkar, S.P., Keshav Chander, Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Titrimetric Determination of Uranium in U-Pu Alloy', Paper No. RA-4, ibid. Kalsi, P.C., Pandey, A.K. and Iyer, R.H., 'Assay of Uranium in MgF 2 Slag Generated in the Magnesiothermic Reduction of UF 4 at the Nat. Uranium Concentrates', Paper No. RA-07, ibid. Khedekar, N.B., Sharma, H.S.. Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Controlled Potential Coulometric Determination of Pu at Microgram Levels', Paper No. RA-09, ibid. Kasar, U.M., Sagar, V.B., Joshi, A.R. and Bhargava, V.K., 'Studies of Controlled Potential Coulometric Determination of Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Samples', 52

60 Paper No. RA-10, ibid. Patil, B.N., Shivarudrappa, V., Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Sodium in Cryolite', Paper No. RA-24, ibid. Aggarwal, S.K., Shah, P.M., Duggal, R.K. and Jain, H.C., 'Aplha Spectrometry for the Determination of 234 U / 2 38 U Rati0 in uranium Samples', Paper No. RA-30. ibid. Aggarwal, S.K., Duggal, R.K., Shah, P.M. and Jain, H.C., 'A Comparative Study of 239 Pu, 238 Pu and 233 U for Determining Pu Concentration', Paper No. RA-31, ibid. Bhargava, V.K., Naronha, D.M. and Sharma, J,, 'A New Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Microamounts of Uranium', Paper No. RA- 05, ibid. Chourasiya, G., Raman, V.A., Ramasubramanian, P.A. and Jain, H.C., 'Determination of Alpha Specific Activity and Concentration of Pu in Dissolver Solution of Low Bumupfuels by Alpha Spectrometry', PaperNo. RA-34, ibid. Sood, D.D., 'Chemistry of Nuclear Fuels (Invited Talk)', 25th Annual Convention of Chemistry, Calcutta (1988) (Invited Talk). Patil, S.K., 'Ion Exchange in Nuclear Technology : Some Aspects (Invited Talks)', ibid. Lnetty, K.V., Mapara, P.M., Swamp, R. and Ramakrishna, V.V., Synergic Extraction of Pu(VI) by Mixtures of HD2EHP and TOPO from Perchloric Acid", ibid. Mukherjee, S.K., Dehadrya, J.V., Bamankar, Y.R., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Synthesis of (U,Ce)C Microspheres Containing 20% Ce, by Sol-gel Process', ibid. Kasar, U.M., Joshi, A.R. and Sivaramakrishnan, C.K., 'Determination of Uranium in Presence of Iron by Controlled Potential Coulometry Using Plutonium Working Electrode', ibid. Jayadevan, N.C., 'XRF Analysis Methods for Actinide Elements in Nuclear Fuels', National Workshop on X-ray Emmission Spectrometary, Kalpakkam Gopinath, N., Kamat, J.V., Sharma, H.S., Marathe, S.G. and Jain, H.C., 'Influence of Some Parameters in the Coulometric Determination of Uranium by Successive Addition Method', National Seminar on Electrode, Karaikudi, Chadha, A.K., Mudher Singh, K.D. and Jayadevan, N.C., 'X-ray Diffraction Study of the Phases in K-Ba- U-0 System', 8th Annual Conference of Indian Council of Chemists, Tirupati Jadhav, A.V., Raghuraman, K., Mathew,K.A., Nair, PS. and Jain, H.C., 'Studies on Synergistic Extraction of Pu(IV) by HTTA-DBDECMP Mixture from Perchloric Acid Medium 1, ibid. Hasilkar, S.P., Keshav Chander and Marathe, S.G., 'Effect of EDTA on Ferrous - Dichromate Blank in the Potentiometric Determination of Plutonium', ibid. Chetty, K.V., Mapara, P.M., Swarup, R. and Ramakrishna, V.V., 'Solvent Extraction Studies of U(VI) and Pu(VI) by D2EHPA and Mixture of D2EHPA and TOPO from Sulphuric Acid Medium', ibid. Kamat, R.V., Pillai, K.T., Reghu, N., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Preparation of Copper sol by Alkoxide Route', Council of Chemists, Tirupati, Mukherjee, S.K., Dehadraya, J.V., Bamankar, Y.R., Vaidya, V.N. and Sood, D.D., 'Synthesis of Uranium Mononitride Microspheres by Sol-gel Process', ibid. Sood, D.D., 'Chemical Characterisation of Plutonium Fuels', Indo-German Workshop on Techniques for Materials Characterisation, Hyderabad Sood, D.D. and Vaidya, V.N, 'Experience in BARC on the Preparation of Gel Microspheres of Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium (Invited Talk) 1, Internationl Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Fabrication, Bombay Patil, S.K., 'Chemical Quality Control of Nuclear Fuels (Invited Talk)', ibid. 53

61 Sood, D.D., 'Anubhati ke Indhan Mein Rasayanaki Ka Yog', Seminar on 'Rasayanik Vigyan ke Ubharte Kshitiz' Bombay Sood, D.D., 'Role of Chemistry in Nuclear Technology', National Workshop on Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry, Poona Krishnamurthy, M.V., 'Self-Irradiation Effects in Plutonium IV Hydroxo Phenyl Acetate and Plutonium IV Hydroxo Alpha-Naphthyl Acetate: EPR Investigations', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Letters, 119,367 (1987). Thulasidas, S.K., Kulkarni, M.J., Porwal, N.K., Page. A.G. and Sastry, M.D., 'Direct Determination of Be, Cd, Li and Pb in Thorium Nitrate Solution by ET-AAS Spectrometry', Anal. Letters, 21, 265 Goyal, N., Purohit, P.J., Dhobale, A.R., Page, A.G. and Sastry, M.D., 'ET-AAS Determination of Trace Metals in U-Pu Fuel Materials', Fr. Z. Anal. Chem., 330, 114 Sana, S.K., Guin, R. and Sahakundu, S.M., 'Isomer Ratios of "^U and "Rb in the Alpha Induced Reactions on KRb', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 119, 303 (1987). Sana, S.K. and Sahakundu, S.M., 'A Method for the Purification of Bulk Amount of Thorium from its Daughter Products', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. (Articles), 120,401 Datta, T., Dange, S.P., Sahakundu, S.M. and Satya Prakash, 'Infuence of Collective Rotational Degrees of Freedom in Medium Energy Fission', Z. Physik, A 33, 103 Bhattacharyya, N.C., Basu, S.K., Bhowmic, R.K., Chackraborty, A. and Sana, S.K., 'A Gas Jet Coupled ISDL System at VECC, Nucl. Inst. Methods Ramaswamy, A., Gubbi, G.K., Singh, R.J. and Satya Prakash, 'Cumulative Yields of Short-Lrved isotopes of Barium in the Spontaneous Fission of ^Cf, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem, 125,85 Manchanda, V.K., Chang, C.A. and Peng, J., The Effect of the Diluent on the Extraction of LanthankJe Complexes of Macrocylic lonophores', Solv. Extraction and Ion Exchange, 6, 835 Naik, H., Datta, T., Dange, S.P., Pujari, P.K. and Satya Prakash, 'Infuence of Scission Configuration on Fragment Angular Momentum in ^CffSF) 1, Z. Phys. A, Seshagirt, T.K., Dalvi, A.G.I. and Sastry, M.D., Trap Level Spectroscopy of Actinide Doped Alkaline Earth Sulphates I: ^PwSrSO, and ^PuiCaSO/. J. Phys. C.: Solid State Physics, 21 Natarajan, V., Dalvi, A.G.I. and Sastry, M.D., Trap Level Spectroscopy of Actinide Doped Alkaline Earth Sulphates II: 241 Am:CaS0/, ibid, 21 Mithileshkumar, Dalvi, A.G.I, and Sastry, M.D., Trap Level Spectroscopy of Actinide Doped Alkaline Earth Sulphates III: UO 2 a *:SrSO 4 \ ibid, 21, Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y., Dalvi, A.G.I., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Microwave Absorption Studies in New High-T c Superconducting Oxides, Bi-Ce-Sr-Cu-0 and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O', ibid, 21, L607 Sastry, M.D., Babu, Y., Kadam, R.M., Dalvi, A.G.I., Gopalakrishnan, IK., Yakhmi, J.V. and Iyer, R.M., 'Unique Signatures of Microwave Absorption in Superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7x ', Solid State Communications, 66, 1219(1968). Iyer, R.M., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Phatak, G.M., Gopalakrishnan, IK., Gangadharan, K. and Sastry, M.D., 'Insensitivity of T c to High K Substitution in Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu- O\ Physic* C, 154, 505 Rao, U.R.K., Tyagi, A.K., Patwe, S.J., Iyer, R.M., Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y. and Dalvi, A.G.I., 'Chemical Incorporation of Fluorine into \Bafiu 3 O asi _\ Solid State Communications, 67, 385 Venkataramani, B., Kadam, R.M., Babu. Y., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Phatak, G.M., Sastry. M.D. and Iyer, R.M.,'Studies on Ion Sorption Property and Stability of Superconducting YBaj,Cu 3 O 7 in Aqueous and Mixed 54

62 Solvent Media 1, ibid, 67,385 Nair, G.M. and Prabhu, D.R., 'Synergism of Crown Ethers inthethenoyltrifluoro Acetone Extraction of Am(lll) in Benzene Medium', J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 121, 83 Sana, S.K. andsahakundu, S.M., Radioactaive Decay of 2a2 Th", J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys. Sana, S.K., Guin, R. and Sahakundu, S.M., 'Decay of 3 sec iaom Mo\ Phys. Rev. C. 37, 2894 Mondal, A.M., Sana, S.K., Sahakundu and Patro, A.P., 'Study of K-Capture Probability in the Decay of ^Po", J. Phys. G : Nucl. Phys. Tomar, B..S., Goswami, A., Das, S.K., Srivastava, B.K., Guin, R., Sahakundu, S.M. and Satya Prakash, 'Fragment Angular Momenta in Alpha Induced Fission of 238 U\ Phys. Rev. C, 38, 4 Goswami, A., Das, S.K.,Tomar, B.S., Nair, A.G.C., Guin, R., Manohar, S.B., Sahakundu, S.M. and Satya Prakash, "Decay of New 16.7 min. lsomerof iai Sb',ibid, 38,3 Mundra, S.K., Pa», S.A. and Subramanian, M.S., 'Synergistic Extraction of Uranyl Ion with Amyl Pyrazolones and Some Oxodonors', Lanthanide and Actinide Research, 2, 323 Datta, T., Pujari, P.K., Das, S.K., Tomar, B.S., Manohar, S.B., Goswami, A., Naik, H. and Satya Prakash, 'A New Approach to Determine Elemental Yield, Charge Polarization and Odd-Even Effects in Fission', IAEA Symposium on Physics and Chemistry of Fission Phenomena, Gaussig, Dresden, GDR Manohar, S.B., Datta, T., Goswami, A. and Satya Prakash, "Radiochemical Investigations on Mass-Resolved Angular Distribution in Medium Energy Fission', ibid. Nagar, M.S. and Natarajan, P.R., 'Studies on the Radiolytic Oxidatation of Plutonium(ill) in Hydrochloric Acid Medium', Radiat. Phys. Chem., 30,169 (1987). Charkravarty, N., Rattan, S.S. and Singh, R.J., 'Spontaneous Emission of Heavy Ions from Nuclei', DAE Symposium on Nuclear Physics, Bombay Pujari, P.K., Manohar, S.B., Datta. T., Satya Prakash, Gopalakrishnan, i.k., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S., Phatak, G.M. and Iyer, R.M., 'Doppler Broadened Positron Annihilation Studies on YBa^Cu^ ', DAE Symposium on Solid State Physics, Bhopal Sastry, M.D., 'EPR Spectrometric Studies in High T c Superconductors', ibid. Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y., Dalvi, A.G.I., Jayanthkumar, M.L, Gupalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S. and Iyer, R.M., 'Measurement of He, from Leakage Current Anomaly in EPR Spectrum of Y-Ba- Cu-O, Bi-Cr-Ca-Cu-0 and TI-Ba-Ca-Cu-0 Systems', ibid. Tyagi, A.K., Rao, U.R.K., Iyer, R.M., Gopalakrishnan, I.K., Sastry, M.D., Kadam, R.M., Sastry, P.V.P.S.S. and Phatak, G.M., "Attempt to Fluorinate Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 0 e and TI 2 CaBe 2 Cu 2 0 e ', ibid. Bhide, M.K., Jayanthkumar, M.L and Sastry, M.D., 'EPR Studies of High Spin Co 2 * in NH,CI Single Crystals at 25 K". ibid. Kadam, R.M., Babu, Y., Dalvi, A.G.I. and Sastry, M.D., 'EPR Investigation of Structural Phase Transition in LiNH 4 SO;, ibid. Bandhopadhyay, Ghashray, K., Goshray, A., Mukhopadhyay, M. and Kadam, R.M., M H Spin Lattice Relaxation Time irf (NH 4 ) 2 SbF 5 \ ibid. Suresh Babu, D., Sastry, G.S., Sastry, M.D. and Dalvi, A.G.I., 'EPR Study of Structural Phase Transition in (NH,) 2 Cd 2 (SO 4 )3)\ Phase Transitions, Suresh Babu, D., Sastry, G.S., Sastry, M.D. and Kadam, R.M., 'Molecular Dynamics of Hydrazonium Cation in the Structural Phase Transitions of Hydrazonium Sulphate : An EPR Investigation', Phase Transitions, Sastry, M.D., 'Evidence for Cu 3+ in from 55

63 ESR Measurement: A Reassessment', Physica B, 151, 513 Bangia, T.R., Dhawal, B.A., Adya, V.C. and Sastry, M.D., 'ICP-AES and DC Arc-AES Determination of Sc.Y and Lanthanides in Nuclear Grade Graphite', Fr.2. Anal. Chem, 88 Nair, A.G.C., Das, S.K., Tomar, B.S., Goswami, A., Srivastava, B.K. and SatyaPrakash, 'Cumulative Yields ofshort-lrv-dru Isotopes in Thermal Neutron Induced Fission of ^Pu', Radiochimica Acta, 42, 7 (1987). Guin, R., Sahakundu, S.M., Manohar, S.B., Satya Prakash and Ramaniah, M.V., 'Mass Distribution of Fission Products in 28.5 MeV Alpha Induced Fission of a3? Th', Radiochimica Acta, Datta. T., Pujari, P.K., Naik, H., Dange, S.P., Satya Prakash and Ramaniah, M.V., 'Positronium Interaction in Organic solvents', Radiation Physics and Chemistry Nair, A.G.C., Srivastava, B.K., Goswami, A., Satya Prakash and Ramaniah, M.V., 'Radiochemical Investigations of the Isomeric Transition in Telluric Acid and Its Solution', ibid, Mathur, J.N. and Khopkar, P.K., 'Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides with 1- Phenyl-3-Methyl-4-Trifluoroacetyl-pyrazolone-5', Polyhedron, 6, 2009 (1987). Mathur, J.N. and Khopkar, P.K., Liquid-Liquid Extractaion of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides with Mixtures of N-benzoyl-N-Phenyl Hydroxylamine and Neutral Donors', J. Radioanal. Nucl Chem. 109, 329(1987). Mathur, J.N. and Khopkar, P.K., 'Use of Crown Ethers as Synergists in the Solvent Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides by i-phenyl-methyl-4-trilluoroacetyl-pyrazolone-5', Solv. Ext. and Ion Exchange, 6,111 Singh, R.J., Ramaswami, A. and Satya Prakash, 'Method for the Preparation of Thin Targets of Californium', Int. J.Appl. Rad. Isotopes, Shukla, J.P. and Kedari, C.S.,'Extraction of Plutonium (IV) by Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Sulfoxide: A Novel Branched - Chain Extractant', DAE Symposium on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, Kalpakkam, (1989). Datta, T., Goswami, A. and Satya Prakash, 'Mass Resolved Fragment Angular Distribution in Alpha-Induced Fission of 23a U', ibid. Ruikar.P.B., Nagar, M.S., Pai, S.A. and Subramanian, M.S. 'Extraction of Tetravalent Plutoni sr with N-N'dinn-butyl decanamide', ibid. Subramanian, M.S., 'Sulphoxides as Possible Alternate Extractants to TBP in the Purex Process', ibid. Nagar, M.S., Ruikar, P.B. and Subramanian, M.S., 'Seven Coordinate Complexes of Hexavalent Uranium and Plutonium with Acyl Pyrazolones and Sulphoxides', ibid. Ramaswami, A., Gubbi, G.K., Satya Prakash and Natarajan, P.R., 'Development of K-Edge Densitometer for the Assay of Plutonium in Solution', ibid. Ramaswami, A., Rattan, S.S., Singh, R.J., Manohar, S.B. and Satya Prakash, 'Charge Distribution Study in the Alpha Particle Induced Fission of 238 U", ibid. Kalsi, P.C., Sharma, R. C, Pandey, A.K. and Iyer, R.H., 'Fission Cross-Section of Ho Induced by 60 MeV Ions', ibid. Guin, R., Sana, S.K., Sahakundu, S.M. and Satya Prakash, 'Anomaly in the Isomeric Transition of 1CMm Ag", ibid. Naik, H., Datta, T., Dange, S.P., Pujari, P.K., Guin, R., Sahakundu, S.M. and Satya Prakash, 'Effect of Excitation Energy on Fission Fragment Angular Momentum', ibid. Nair, G.M. and Prabhhu, D.R., 'Stability Constants of Complexes of Uranium(VI) and Plutonium(VI) with Succinic Acid', ibid. 56

64 Adya, V.C., Dhawale, B.A., Rajeswari, B., Bangia.T.R. and Sastry, M.D., 'Radiocherni(?l Studies in Chemical Separation and Spectrographic Determination of Rare Earths in Thorium Oxide Material', ibid. Xenon Isotopes In the Spontaneous Fission ibid. Manchanda.V.K and Mohapatra, P.K., 'Complexation of Pu(IV) with lonisable MacrocycISc Ugands', ibid. Nair, A.G.C., Redddy, A.V.R., Ramaswami, A. and Rao, V.K., Mahajan, G.R. and Natarajan, P.R., 'Cystain Satya Prakash,'Cumulative Yields of Short-LJved Complexation of Am(lll)', ibid. 57

65 MATERIALS AND MATERIALS SCINCE 3.1 Metallurgy Production of both boron carbide and bocarsil was continued and over 100 kg of acceptable quality boron carbide and pieces of bocarsil shapes in plug and sheet forms have been supplied to units in DAE and to DMRL, Hyderabad for neutron absorber and shielding applications. Work has also been initiated to prepare boric acid-lead slabs andborated polythene shapes which are required for specific use in neutron shielding. A few pieces produced in experimental trials have given satisfactory test results. The technical feasibility of fabrication of self-sintered boron carbide shapes, required in FBTR, by the hot pressing technique was successfully demonstrated. Process development for the production of high purity boron metal powder which finds important defence applications was continued. Parallel studies are in progress on two different processes for their comparative evaluation. Standardisation of work on thermit process for the production of high purity calcium metal has been completed, and scale-up studies are in progress. A new process involving cementation of the metal from its solution with copper has been developed for the production of high purity silver metal required for making superconducting ceramic metal composite. Work was continued for improving the process efficiency in the recovery of valuable scarce metals like tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, nickel etc. from their primary and secondary resources. Large scale studies are also in progress for establishing the commercial viability of the soda ash sintering process for the production of nuclear grade zirconia. Studies have been continued on both basic and applied aspects offluidised bed technology and its suitability for the incineration of radioactive resin waste has been demonstrated. Substantial progress has been made in setting up an experimental facility for the separation of hafnium from zirconium by extractive distillation of zirconium hafnium chloride. About 850 kg of zircaloy sheets were cold rolled for NFC, and about 30 kg of sheets were fine cold-rolled and supplied for fabrication of heart valves. Work on the process development and the transformation kinetic aspects of naturally occurring sillimanite to mullite has been continued and a method involving the technique of infra-red spectros CD copy has been developed for the precise monitoring of the degree of transformation. Ceramic-metal seals for recrystallised alumina tubes are under development. The tubes, after successive metallisation with moly-manganese and nickel-boron in hydrogen under specific conditions, were found amenable to brazing in metal members. Efforts were also intensified on the development of high temperature ceramic materials, particularly those involving Si-C-O-N system, partially stablized ZrO 2 compositions, and on steatite based machinable ceramic compositions. Processes have been developed for electroplating of nickel on uranium components for oxidation protection and of zinc-tin and zinc-nickel, in place of toxic cadmium plating, on steel parts. A process for coating highly adherent electroless nickel on aluminium plugs, used in the fabrication of fuel cluster for Dhruva, was developed. The 2-ton tin extraction pilot plant at Raipur has been operating satisfactorily and the technical data and experience gained from this plant will be helpful in the setting up of the larger plant (100 T/y) for which a memorandum of understanding (MOU) has been signed between BARC and the Madhya Pradesh Government. Subsequent to the signing of the MOU, steps have been taken to initiate the project work for which a tripartite agreement has been signed between Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation (agent of MP Government), BARC and Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants (MECON). Hindustan Zinc Ltd. is setting up a commercial plant, based on the solvent extraction processes developed, to recover copper and cobalt from the waste streams of their zinc smelter, at Udaipur. Under a collaborative agreement, technical expertise is made available to them to set up and commission their plant. Considerable development work was carried out for 500 MWe PHWRs. The important ones in this area include machining of the manifold, which has a complex design; finalisation of the design of the joint between the manifold and the guide tube so that this joint can be welded using electron beam welding; fabrication of leaf springs from an alloy of zirconium, niobium and copper; and measurement of leakage between Zr-2 manifold and Zr-2 helium tubes with various clearances. Work was carried out for the development of 58

66 boron carbide pellets, resistance welding of spacers onto fuel tubes, induction brazing of joints of low power range monitors (LPRM) for Tarapur Atomic Power Station, tungsten-copper electrodes for use at the Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, and fabrication of aluminium finned tubes for thorium rods in Cirus reactor (J rods) by extruding aluminium billet in tandem. Other development work carried out includes fabrication of tungsten pellets, standardisation of microfocus radiography technique and a number of non-destructive testing jobs for DAE units as well as outside agencies. In the corrosion studies on reactor materials, the major emphasis has been on the comparative evaluation of the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of SS and nickel-based alloys in high purity water, hydrogen charging and its consequent effects on mechanical and oxidation properties of Zr-2.5 Nb alloy, and development of chemical formulations for corrosion product dissolution from irradiated structural materials. Corrosion testing and in situ examination were carried out on a large number of fabricated components for the nuclear power plants. The electrochemical technique developed for the in situ examination of SS components was extended to nickel-based alloys inconel 600 and 690. _J-tot conditioning of NAPP-I carbon steel components, and high temperature aqueous oxidation followed by chemical anodisation of zircaloy-2 flappers have been carried out to develop strongly adherent protective coatings. Significant progress has been made in both the projects under the Materials Science Co-operation Programme of the Indo-US Science and Technology Subcommission. In the project on Mechanical Properties of Advanced Ceramics, procedures have been developed for producing near-impervious alumina-based ceramic shapes with negligible grain growth. Work is in progress for the development of injection moulding technique for fabrication of ceramics. Work under the corrosion passivation project has led to the establishment of the mechanism of passivation and the limit of nitrogen for resistance to stress corrosion cracking in 316 LN SS. Room temperature vulcanisable (RTV) siltcone rubber, and elastomeric gum formulation which can be utilised as a sealant for in situ formation of gaskets, membranes and class 4 electrical insulation, have been developed. Phenyl and phenyl methyl silicone resins curable at room temperature and at 250 C respectively, and useful as protective coating upto 400 C, have also been developed. Efforts have been initiated to exploit the capabilities of the sol-gel process for preparation of ceramics for non-nuclear applications. A number of process parameters have been investigated to obtain good quality sols of alumina, copper oxide and yttria. Studies are in progress to make ceramic materials from these sols. 3.2 Materials Science Physical metallurgy research activities in the areas of structure- property correlations in zirconium and nickel base alloys, mechanical and fracture properties of nuclear structural materials, thermodynamicai analysis of mixed carbonitride and nitride fuels and investigative failure analysis were continued. Work on process parameter optimisation of Zr- 2.5 Nb and zircaloy-2 pressure tubes was continued. Comparison between microstructures, textures and mechanical properties of Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes obtained from different fabrication routes was made in order to assess the suitability of the route followed by NFC. The suitability of the calandria tubes manufactured by NFC by pilgering process (seamless tubes) for reactor applications was assessed from microstructural and textural studies. Elevated temperature tension tests at various strain rates were carried out on longitudinal specimens of II nd pilgered and aged tubes. Temperature dependence of tensile properties (RT C) were found satisfactory. Influence of thermal aging on mechanical properties was carried out by tension and hardness tests on samples aged at C. Hardness measurements were made on longitudinal, radial and transverse directions. The results demonstrated that aging of cold worked material is texture dependent. Stress reorientation of hydride in this alloy was studied on hyrided (~ 100 ppm) longitudinal specimens machined from llnd piigered tube. Results demonstrated that at a solutionising temperature of 450 C and tensile stress of MPa, little re-orientation of hydride occurred. Tensile properties of zirconium alloys containing various amounts of tin, iron, chromium and nickel 59

67 with different microstructures were determined at 27 C and 300 C. It was observed that small changes in alloying elements in the vicinity of 2ircaloy-4 composition does not influence mechanical properties to a significant extent. High temperature deformation and hot working studies have been initiated on zirconium and zirconium base alloys using a new method of modelling the dynamic material behaviour. The method gives 'safe' regimes of processing in the form of a three dimensional (strain rate, temperature, efficiency) map and also predicts microstructure of the processed component. A map for zircaloy-2 has already been made using this method. Diffusion bonding between zircaloy-2 and stainless steels has been successfully achieved without giving rise to any embrittling intermediate phase formation. This technique has considerable advantage over the conventional roll bonding technique. Studies on fatigue and fracture cf nuclear structural components were carried out. Fracture parameters, threshold stress intensity and fatigue crack growth rate have been determined for end fitting material. A new specimen geometry has been considered to determine fracture toughness parameter in tubular reactor components having longitudinal crack, and trial tests have been carried out. Kinetics of precipitation in a PH-13-8 Mo stainless steel in as quenched and cold worked conditions were studied. The nature of the reversion stress in nickeltitanium shape memory alloys has been investigated and a relationship connecting the reversion stress at a given temperature and the pseudoplastic strain has been established. Detailed experimental as well as theoretical studies have been carried out to delineate the nature of ordering the phase separation reactions occurring in the nickel-molybdenum system. Several controversial issues regarding the thermodynamics of and the diffraction effects pertaining to these alloys have been resolved. Studies on metallic glasses based on zirconium and titanium have been intensified Several ternary zirconium base glasses and Ti-Cu glasses have been produced in the form of 20 mm wide strips, and the glass forming abilities and the crystallization characteristics have been studied in these systems. Rapid solidification processing of several ordered Intermetallic compounds based on nickel has also been carried out. Diffusion of a large number of elemental species In metal-metal as well as metal-metalloid glasses was studied by Rutherford back scattering spectrometry. Interesting correlations could be established between diffusivity and the size of the diffusing atom, and between the activation energy for diffusion and the glass crystallization temperature. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the mixed nitride and carbonitride fuels for the FBRs has been carried out at temperatures between 1500K and 2000K. Thermodynamic properties such as partial pressures of N 2jg), CO (g), Pu (), U g) and carbon potential of the fuel have been calculated as a function of compositions and temperatures. Some of the interesting observations made during these investigations are (i) The partial pressure of Pu (g is maximum when Pu/ U ratio is 0.33 in the hyperstoichiometric fuel, (ii) P N2 increases substantially with addition of oxygen, and (iii) both carbon potential and P^ for the hyperstoichiometric carbonitride and nitride fuels are much higher than that for the carbide fuel. This makes the specifications with respect to carbon and oxygen contents of the carbonitride and nitride fuels more stringent than those of the carbide fuels. Failure analysis on cracked ammonia cracker tubes used in Thai heavy water plant was carried out. These tubes are centrif ugally cast from Inconel 625 and have been used for the first time in heavy water plants. A detailed report indicating the cause of failure has been submitted. 3.3 Rare Earths and Other Materials Work on the development of samariumcobalt (SmCO;) permanent magnets was continued and several epoxy resin bonded magnets have been produced and supplied. Sintering studies on magnetically aligned and hydraulically pressed powder compacts are in progress to produce high density high energy-product magnets. in the process development for yttrium metal, magnesiothermy followed by pyrovacuum distillation has been found to give the metal in sponge form with more than 95% yield. With the discovery of significant deposits of xenotime, a yttrium-bearing rare earth ore in Bihar, a comprehensive programme has been initiated for the complete processing of the ore for 60

68 separation, concentration and production of yttrium metal and other heavy rare earths. A solvent extraction process has been evolved and tested on a bench scale for upirading of crude yttrium concentrate produced at the rare earth plant of IRE. The two-cycle process is based on the use of commercial phosphoric acid to get an intermediate product assaying about 95% Y 2 O 3 and another using tributyi-phosphate to purify it further to 99.99%. Rare-earths like terbium, dysprosium and erbium also get segregated, and work on purifying them to the desired level is in progress. Studies have been carried out to recover over 95% pure Nd 2 O 3 from mixed rare-earth chloride. The flow sheet that has been developed would shortly undergo pilot scale test at IRE, Alwaye. Studies were continued on the extraction and refining of thorium and lithium, separation of stable isotopes, preparation of scintillation chemicals, fluorine gas and carbon anodes and purification of helium gas. Detailed design and engineering work undertaken for the newthorium Plant of IRE has made considerable progress. Test runs were carried out with the higher pressure helium purification unit based on condensation and cryogenic adsorption of nitrogen. Studies were continued the electrolytic decomposition of nitric acid with lead oxide coated graphite and titanium anodes. Operation of the 500 amp. fluorine cell with improved design parameters was continued satisfactorily. The operation of the pilot plant for the production of scintillation chemicals PPO and POPOP was continued to meet the requirements of nuclear power plants and research organisations. A few blocks of tin-loaded plastic scintillators have been fabricated, and testing is in progress. The work on preparation of methyl-methacrylate based plastic scintillator was continued. Polystyrene based plastic scintillator blocks of different sizes were routinely produced and supplied to various users. Studies on the development of various carbon products for specialised applications were continued. The process steps and conditions for the production of ultra-pure carbon anodes suitable for electrolytic production of fluorine gas were standardised. Carbon anodes produced in the facility are being studied for fluorine production. 3.4 Beryllium Technology Development of beryllium technology, and production of vacuum hot pressed (VHP) beryllium metal and copper beryllium ingot; starting from Indian beryl, were continue A number of modi-ficatlons were incorporated in the design and operation of various process equipment for better safety. About 3.6 tonnes of Indian beryl was processed in the plant. A reserve of about 5 tonnes of ammonium beryllium fluoride was built up. Production of VHP beryllium blocks of improved instrument grade specifications for the Department of Space was successfully started on a small scale. Beryllium blocks produced in the plant from imported instrument grade beryllium powder were found acceptable after qualification tests for MK-II type Rate Integrating Gyroscope. Atotal of about 4.29 kg of VHP beryllium blocks were supplied to the Department of Space. About 470 kg of copper beryllium alloys of different compositions were supplied for use in 'he Defence Metallurgical Laboratory, Hyderabad, and to certain private industries. Work has been initiated to develop methods for the fabrication of beryllia crucibles currently being imported. Crucibles having capacities of 20 cc to 400 cc were successfully produced, and developmental work on the fabrication of larger crucibles of 3 litres capacity required in the plant is in progress. 3.5 Heavy Water The final stage Enrichment Plant set up at Manuguru has been commissioned. Operation with heavy water of average 47% composition as feed has shown enrichment upto 99.8%. The reconcentration plant attrombay has been operating satisfactorily. It was used to reconcentrate degraded heavy water from Dhruva reactor. The pilot plant for production of high purity hydrogen sulphide gas by direct reaction was modified suitably based on the experience gained in the material compatibility studies. New SS 446 reactors have been installed, and pilot plant operation has commenced. Deuterium gas and liquid heavy water standards covering the full isotopic range have been prepared and supplied to various heavy water plants. Preparation and supply of various chemicals 61

69 labelled with deuterium in the required configuration was continued for various users in the country. An excimer laser pumped tunable dye laser, procured for studies on feasibility of laser isotope separation technique for heavy water production with formaldehyde as the working fluid, has been commissioned. Fabrication of multipass absorption cell of "White design" has been completed and is undergoing trial runs. The pilot plant for detritiation of reactor heavy water by chemical exchange-cryogenic distillation is progressing satisfactorily. Fabrication of the requisite cold box is in progress. A nickel-chromia catalyst developed for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid phase water has shown that the catalyst after suitable hydrophobic treatment with organo-alkoxysilanes has activity comparable with that of platinum based catalysts. This property has been found to be retained at ambient temperature for upto 90 days, and can withstand pressure upto 10 bars. The catalyst is undergoing further evaluation. 3.6 Desalination and Hydrogen Production Subsystem testing for the 425 m 3 /hr Multistage Flash (MSF) Desalination Plant has been initiated. Operation of the 30 m 3 /day Shipbome Desalination Plant was continued for ascertaining its performance, endurance and reliability in connection with Technology Transfer. A vacuum deaerator system has been installed and commissioned at VECC, Calcutta. Cost estimates and equipment details were worked out for a 3000 m 3 /day MSF Desalination Plant coupled to a 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Erection of the 30 m 3 /day Reverse Osmosis (RO) Pilot Plant for low level radioactive waste treatment at Trombay was completed. The plant will be commissioned shortly. Action is in progress for setting up a 24 m 3 /day Reverse Osmosis Brackish Water Desalination Plant for VECC, Calcutta. Reverse Osmosis brackish water desalination plants installed three years ago in certain rural areas in Gujarat arc/ Andhra Pradesh continued to run satisfactorily. The 50 m 3 /day reverse osmosis effluent treatment plant set up at RCF, Bombay, was commissioned and is performing well. Participation in the activities of the Technology Mission for drinking water launched by Government of India was continued. Development of cellulosic blend membranes and synthetic polymeric membranes for treatment of industrial effluents and radioactive wastes and also associated engineering development work is in progress. Erection of process equipment and mechanical and electrical systems of the 33 m 3 /nr Hydrogen Pilot Plant has been completed. Installation of instrumentation system is in progress Testing of various sub-systems has been carried out. Trial runs and commissioning of the Hydrogen Pilot Plant will be taken up shortly. 62

70 Publications Dutta, N.G. and Venkataraman, L, 'Advances in U.T. Techniques', Proc. Symp. on Advances in NDT Techniques, Baroda Dutta, N.G. and Venkataraman, L, 'Advances in ECT, ibid. Singh, U.S.P., 'Surface Hardening by Chemical Methods', Proc. of Intensive Course on Heat Treatment of Metals, I!M Local Chapter, Hyderabad Saldanha, F.P., Gurumurthy, K.R. and Date, V.G., 'Development and Fabrication of Oxide Superconductors by P/M Techniques', 14th National P/M Conference, New Delhi Malik, M.K., Nair, V.D., Biswas, A.R., Vijayaraghavan, R., etal., 'Texture Formation and Enhanced Critical Currents in YBa 2 Cu,O 7 ', Applied Physica Letters, 52(19), 523 Bhole, V.M., Rastogi, P.K., Kulkarni, P.G. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Studies on Detection of Garter Spring Positions in Coolant Channel Assembly Mock up', Internal Report. Kulkarni, P.G., 'Concepts of Quality Assurance', Proc. of Course on "NDT for Management' Bombay Vaidya, P.R., 'Radiographic Testing and Its Developments', ibid. Dutta, N.G., 'Leak Testing Techniques', ibid. Vaidya, P.R., Kulkarni, P.G. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Application of Microfocal X-Radiography for Evaluation of Dhruva Fuel and TAPS Poison Pin Weids', Nu Pcwer,2(8) Desai, P.B., Ray, T.K., Date, V.G. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Monitoring of Resistance Welds for Reliability - An Integrated Approach', Proc. of Int. Conference on Welding Technology in Developing Countries, Roorkee Bichakal, S.S., Palnitkar, D.G. and Date, V.G., 'Experience with a Low Voltage EBW Equipment in Welding Reactor Components', Proc. of Workshop on Applications of EB, Laser Friction and Resistance Welding Processes in Indian Industries, Trichy Biswas, A.R., Bandopadyay, M., Venkataraman, L. and Kulkarni, P.G., 'Effect of Microstructure on Ultrasonic Wave Propogation in Matensite Stainless Steel', ATM of DM, Delhi Shah, B.K., Sinha, A.K., Rastogi, P.K. and Kulkarni, P.G., 'Effect of Prior Cold Work on Low Temperature Sensitization Susceptibility of AISI 304 Steel 1, ibid. Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Experiences in the Fabrication of Aluminium Clad Metallic Uranium Fuel', Symp. on Nuclear Fuel Fabrication, BARC Vijayaraghavan, R., Thomare, M.M. and Date, V.G., 'Experiences in the Fabrication of Steel Components for Nuclear Reactors', Int. Conf. on St. Steels, Bombay (1989). Mehra, O.K., Sohan Singh, Sehra, J.C., Krishnan, T.S., Bose, D.K. and Gupta, C.K., 'Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths - Development Work at BARC, Materials Science Forum, Proc. Int. Symp. on Rare Earths Applications and Technology, Bombay (1986): Trans. Tech Publications, Switzerland. Gupta, C.K. and Krishnan, T.S. (Eds.), 'Proc. Int. Symposium on Rare Earths - Applications and Technology', Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Palit, G.C. and Gadiyar, H.S., 'Pitting Morphologies of Zirconium Base Alloys in Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Celoride Media', Trans. SAEST, 23(1), 63 Phadnis, S.V., Gaonkar, K.B., Joshi, J.V. and Gadiyar, H.S., 'Corrosion and Pre-Treatment Studies on Al IS', JECS of India, 37, 220 Adhe. X.N., Shibad, P.R., Kain, V., Chouthai, S.S. and Gadiyar, H.S., 'Effect of Isothermal Treatment on the Sensitization Behaviour of Type AISI 304 Stainless Steel', ibid, 37, 215(1^98). 63

71 Tomy, C.V., Umarji, A.M., Adroja, D.T., Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Superconductivity in YBa 2 (Cu a, )( Ag )( ) 3 O 7 Oxide System', Solid State Communications 64, 889 (1987). Maiik. S.K., Tomy, C.V., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Magnetic Studies on the Superconducting Oxide Er ' ibid, 65, 581 Tomy, C.V., Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Lower Critical Field and Magnetization Critical Current Density in Ihe Oxide Superconductor TmBajCUgOy ', J. of Mag. & Mag. Mat. 71, L241 Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Tomy, C.V., Adroja, D.T., Ashok Mohan, Gupta, C.K., Sankar, S.G., Xu, Y., BoJtich, E.B., Obermyer, R.T., Yannopoulos, LN. and Wallace, W.E., 'Magnetic Studies on./. ibid, 72, L1 Muraleedharan, K., Tomy, C.V., Ramababu, D., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C. and Malik, S.K., local Distortions Induced to Depression in La^Sr^Ag^Cu^O/, Proc. DAE Symp. on Solid State Phys., 236 (198?). Muraleedharan, K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Tomy, C.V. and Malik, S.K., 'Evidence of Oxygen Rearrangement in Quenched REBa 2 Cu 3 0 7y (R=Rare earth) Oxides from Infrared Spectroscopy', ibid, 235 (1987). Muraleedharan, K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C.Tomy, C.V. and Malik, S.K., 'On the Reactive Decomposition of BaCOgin Ceramic Preparation of RBa,Cu 3 O 7. y Superconducting Systems', ibid, 237 (1987). Tomy, C.V., Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Critical Current Densities from Magnetization Studies on the Polycrystalline Oxide Superconductors REBa^UgO ', ibid, 238 (1987). Malik, S.K., Tomy, C.V., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Resistivity and Magnetic Studies on Quenched Non-Superconducting ', ibid, 239 (1987). Tomy, C.V.. Nagaraian, R., Adroja, D.T.. Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad and Soni, N.C., M81 Eu Moesbauer Studies on Orthorhombic and Tetragonal EuBa, Cu,0 ', ibid. 242 (1987). Garg, S.P., Venkataramani, R.,Bhatt,Y.J.,Tiwari l G.P., Majumdar, S., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Malik, S.K. and Tomy, C.V., 'Oxygen Stotohkxnetry In Ba^CUjO,, as a Function of Temperature', ibid, 215(1987). Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Tomy, C.V., Malik, S.K, Sankar, S.G., Xu, Y., Bdtlch, E.B., Obermyer, R.T., Yannopoulos, LN. and Wallace. W.E.. 'Substitution Effects on the Superconductivity in YBa,- Cup^', Ibid, 250 (1987). Gulnar, A.K., Rao, U.R.K. and Ram Prasad, 'Synthesis of YB^VOB and Unit Cell Data', J. Mat. Science Letters, 7,300 Soni, N.C., Ram Prasad, Ashok Mohan, Gupta, C.K, Tomy, C.V. and Malik. S.K., 'YBajCUgO T. y Composites for Improved FabricabHity', Pramana - J. of Physics, 30(4), L355 Tomy. C.V., Malik, S.K., Ram Prasad and Soni, N.C., 'High Temperature Superconductivity in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 Oxide System', ibid, 30(5), L473 Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Gulnar, A.K., Tomy, C.V., Adroja, D.T. and Malik, S.K., 'Superconductivity In B i2* c a!».x Sr x C upy System and Effect of Rare Earth Substitution', ibid, 30(5) L477 Malik", S.K., Tomy, C.V.. Adroja, D.T., Nagarajan, R.. Ram Prasad and Soni, N.C., 'Magnetic and 151 Eu Mossbauer Studies on Orthorhombic and Tetragonal EuB&,Cu 3 O 7y \ Solid State Comm., Tomy, C.V., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C. and Malik, S.K., 'Effect of Quenching on the Magnetic Properties of RBajCUjO,. (R=Dy, Ho and Er) Compounds', Physica C. 153,174 Malik, S.K.. Tomy, C.V., Ram Prasad, Soni, N.C., Ashok Mohan and Gupta, C.K., 'Resistivity and Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconducting and Non- 64

72 Superconducting ErBa 8 Cu ' Phys. Letters, 130,182 Malik, S.K., Tomy, C.V., Adroja, D.T., Dhar, S.K., Nagarajan, Ft., Ram Prasad and Soni, N.C., 'Superconducting and Magnetic Studies on GdBa^Cu^FeJgO^', Solid State Communications, 67,551 Krishnan, T.S. and Rajagopalan, P.K., 'Preparation of Magnesium-Zirconium Master Alloys by P/M Route', Transactions of Powder Metallurgy Association of India, 14, 70 (1987). Ghosh, S.K., Dave, S.M. and Sadhukhan, H.K., Thermophysical Properties of Heavy water: Formulations and Results', BARC-1354 (1987). Shankar, S., Mortier, W. and Ghosh, S.K., 'Calculation of Atomic Charges in Large Molecules', Annals. New YorkAcad. Sci. USA, 482, 82 (1987). Ghosh, S.K. and Parr, R.G., Toward a Semiempirical Density Functional Theory of Chemical Binding', Theoret. Chim. Acta, 72, 379(1987). Deb, B.M. and Ghosh, S.K., 'Quantum Fluid Dynamical Significance of Single-Particle Density in Single-Particle Density in Chemistry and Physics', Academic Press, New York, 219(1987), Eds. March, N.H. and Deb, B.M. Das, G.P., Ghosh, S.K. and Sahni, V.C., 'On the Correlation Energy Density functional in Momentum Space', Solid St. Communications, 65, 719 Ghosh, S.K., 'Dynamic Polarizability of Many-Electron Systems in a Time-Dependent Density Functional Framework and its Hydrodynamic Analogue in Atomic and Molecular Polarizability'. World Scientific, Singapore, 1988; Ed. Sen, K.D. Ghosh, S.K. and Dhara, A.K., Density Functional Theory of Many-Electron Systems Subjected to Time- Dependent Electric and Magnetic Fields', Phys. Rev. A38, 1149 Madangopal, K., Ganesh, R. and Banerjee, S., 'Reversion Stresses in Ni-Ti Memory Alloys', Scripta Metallurgies 22,1953 Krishnan, R., Garg, S.P. and Krishnamurthy, N., 'TheTa- U System', J. Alloy Phase Diagram 4, 204 Sundaraman, M., Mukhopadhyay, P. and Banerjee, S., 'Precepitation of the 6-Ni 3 Nb Phase in Two Nickel Base Superalloys', Metallurgical Transactions, 19A.453 Sunderraman, M., Mukhopadhyay, P. and Banerjee, S., 'Deformation Behaviour of Y Strengthened Inconel 718". Acta Metallurgica, 36, 847 Lalit Kumar, Sarma, D.D. and Krummacher, S., 'XPS Study of the Room Temperature Surfaces Oxidation of Zirconium and Its Binary Alloys with Tin, Chromium and Iron', Applied Science, 32,309 Sarma, D.D., Speier, W., Kumar, L, Carbone, C, Sprnsanti, A., Bisi, 0., landelli, A., Olcese, G.L and Palergzna, A., 'Electronic Structure of CaSi and CaSi 2 ', Z. Phys. B. Condensed Matter, 71,69 Kulkarni, U.D. and Banerjee, S., 'Phase Separation During the Early Stages of Ordering in Ni 3 Mo', Acta Metallurgica, 36, 413 Wadekar, S.L, Raman, V.V., Banerjee, S. and Asundi, M.K., 'Structure Property Correlation of Zr-Base Alloys', J. Nucl. Materials, 151, 162 Kulkarni, U.D., Dey, G:K. and Banerjee, S., 'Ordering in Rapidly Solidified in NL,Mo', Scripta Metallurgica, 22, 437 Vishwanathan.U.K., Banerjee, S. and Krishnan, R., 'Effects of Ageing in the Microstructure of 17-4 Stainless Steel', Materials Science and Engg., A104,181 Bhanumurthy, K., Dey, G.K. and Banerjee, S., 'Metallic Glass Formation by Solid State Reaction in Bulk Ziranium - Copper Diffusion Couples', Scripta Metallurgica, 22, 1395 Kulkarni, U.D., Muriidharan, S. and Banerjee, S., 'Computer Simulation of the Early Stages of Ordering in Ni-Mo Alloys', Pysica Status Solkji (a),

73 Banerjee, S. and Kulkarni, U.D., 'Ordering and Clustening Instabilities In Solid Solutions', Proceedings of the International Conference in Phase Transformation, The Institute of Metals, London (1987). Banerjee, S., Dey, G.K., Mukhpadhyay, P. and Menon, E.S.K., 'Beta Phase Decomposition of Zirconium and Titanium Base Alloys', ibid. Varma, H.M., Raju DR., Rajan, B.N.V., Bhanamurthy. K. and Mahadevan, T.M.,'Preliminary Electron Microprobe Study of Uranium, Thorium and Lead Distribution in Some U-Th Minerals from Various Parts of India', Memoir Geological Society of India, 9,115 Mazumdar, S., Rajagopal, H., Venkatramani, R., Garg, S.P., Sequeria, A., Singh, J., Rajrajan, A.K., Gupta, LC. and Vijayaraghavan, R., 'Neutron Diffraction Investigations on YBa 2 (Cu 094 Mo 0 ^0^5) (M = Mg, 2n)', Proc. Symp. Solid State Physics, Bhopal, 217 Batra, I.S. and Das Gupta, P., 'Irradiation Creep - A Review', Trans. I.I.M., October Batra, I.S. andnayar, P.K.K., 'Kinetics of G.P. Zone Formation in Commercial Cu-Be Alloy', Trans I.I.M. 5, 441 (1987). Lai, B., Garg, S.P., Das, D.. Thakur, A.V.,Suri,A.K.and Rao, P.R.K., 'Design of a Container for Vaporisation of Uranium at 3000K Using Four E-Beam to Produce U- Atomic Beam Suitable for US', BARC, Report No. 11 Soni, N.C., Ram Prasad, Ashok Mohan, Banerjee, S., Tomy, C.V., Malik, S.K., Jadhav, H.S. and Rao, K.R.K., 'Shock Wave Compaction of Y-Ba-Cu-0 Superconducting Powders', Proc. DAE Symp. on Solid State Physics Rao, C.N., Ayesha J. Haq and Asundi, M.K., 'Characterization of Texture of Uranium by XRD - Influence of Surface Oxide Layer and Domain Size 1, Trans. I.I.M., 41,329 Saha, S., Paul, CM. and Roy, P.R., 'Pilot Plant Scale Production of Ammonium-Beryllium-Fluoride from Indian Beryl', Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 41(6), 559 Ramani, M.P.S., 'Recent Advances in Reverse Osmosis", Indian Chemical Engineering Congress, Baroda, (1988) (Invited Talk). Hanra, M.S. and Ramani, M.P.S., 'Determination of Recirculation to Distillate Ratio and Performance Ratio of a Multistage Flash Desalination Plant', ibid. 66

74 RADIOISGTOPES Radioisotope Production About 1,200 samples of various target materials were irradiated in the reactors at Trombay for production of radioisotopes and for neutron activation analysis: 25 in Apsara, 1060 in Cirus and 115 in Dhruva. A total of 64,000 consignments of various radioisotopes and related equipment valued approximately at Rs crores were supplied to various users in the country and abroad. 4.2 Radiation Sources and Radiochemicals Development of methods and techniques for the fabrication of radiation sources and related equipment, preparation of radioisotopes and radiochemicals and promotion of their application in the areas of industry, medicine, agricuitureand for research activities in various fields were carried out. About 1,500 consignments of sealed radiation sources with a total activity of about 6,300 Trillion Becquerel (TBq) (170,000 Ci) were supplied to various users. These included 13 Cobalt-60 teletherapy sources with a total activity of about 1,965 TBq (53,000 Ci), 16 Cobalt-60 sources with a total activity of 3,333 TBq (90,000 Ci) for an irradiator set up at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KIMIO), Bangalore, 4 gamma chamber units supplied to research institutions, one gamma chamber unit exported to National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo, and 12 Antimony- 124 sources withatotalactivityof51.85tbq(1,400 Ci) for the start-up of FBTR, Kalapakkam. Tritium gas filled light sources and self-luminous compounds in different sizes and shapes have been fabricated radiation sources were supplied to various defence laboratories and establishments in the country. 32 tritium sources and targets were prepared and supplied for use in smoke alarm, electron capture detector, accelerators etc. Cesium-137 after loading applicator kits were introduced for use in the treatment of cervix cancer and 11 such kits have been supplied to various hospitals. A total of 277 batches of various reactor produced isotopes, including Phosphorus-32, Sulphur- 35, Chromium-51, Cobalt-58, Molybdenum-99, lodine-131, Mercury-203 etc., were processed. Major portion of the 49 TBq (1,322 Ci) activity produced was used in the preparation of radiopharmaceutlcals. More than 2,100 consignments of various radioisotopes and 30 consignments of fission product isotopes such as Strontium-90, Promethium-147, Cesium-137 etc. were also dispensed to various users. 10 kg of Phosphorus-32 labelled superphosphate was processed in 10 batches, and 36 consignments of this product were supplied to various agricultural research centres. 47 consignments of Promethium-147 activated self-luminous compound were processed and supplied to various users for dial painting purpose. Three Gamma Chamber-4000 units and two Gamma Chamber-900 units were also assembled, tested, supplied and installed at various research centres in the country. The radiation sources supplied were tested as per international standards and specifications. 4.3 Radiation Technology 42 radiography cameras of different types and 20 lead shielded accessories were supplied to users. About 930 inspections were carried out on the accessories, source pencils and cameras used in Isotope Radiography work to evaluate the safety of their use at the customers' premises. Specialised radiography inspection service was extended to a chemical factory near Bombay to locate the positions of trays inside a fractionating tower. A radiometric test was carried out on an ionexchange assembly and filter assembly of an engineering loop facility at the Dhruva reactor. Consultancy service was offered in testing Pelton runner wheels assembly at Koyna Power Station and for the procurement of a suitable ultrasonic testing unit. A method has been developed for the preparation of Cesium-137, Barium-137m generator using stannic phosphate. Inorganic exchangers like ferric antimonate and chromium phosphate are being investigated for their possible use in generator systems. Using the new processing facilities set up under the Fission Product Source Development Project for the processing of short-lived fission products, three batches of different isotopes with a total activity of 148 GBq (4 Ci) were processed and supplied to various users. The installation of facilities for the fabrication of Cesium-137 brachytherapy sources is in 67

75 an advanced state of completion and will be commissioned during Under the Dhruva Utilisation for Isotope Technology (DUIT) Project, a new processing plant has been set up for the production of lodine-131. The processing facility for lodine-125 was completed. Installation work on the setting up of tritium handling facility is in an advanced stage of completion. Commissioning of the various sub-systems of the Sewage Hygienisation Research Irradiator (SHRI), Baroda, is in progress. An electron accelerator facility providing electron beam of 2 MeV and 20 kw capacity has been commissioned at Trombay. This facility is the first of its kind to be installed in the country and is being used for the development of technology employing high energy electrons in industrial processing. The industrial products being studied include cross-linked electrical cables of superior characteristics and high quality power thyristors. The development of radiation technologies for the production of heat shrinkage tubes and films of polyethylene is also under way in collaboration with industries. 4.4 Radiopharmaceuticals Approximately 50,000 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals, consisting of a variety of formulations for scanning, therapy and a range of radioimmunoassay kits for diagnostic purposes, were produced and supplied. These products are expected to benefit nearly 5 lakhs of the Indian population. R&D work was carried out to develop new radiopharmaceuticals for myocardial imaging and new radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits, to improve the existing kits for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), and for labelling of monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. A myocardial agent, Technetium-99m-t-butyl isonitryl complex, is undergoing controlled clinical trials at the Radiation Medicine Centre of BARC and other hospitals, after preliminary evaluation on animals. About 100 patients were investigated using this agent and the clinical results are satisfactory. This compound will be a suitable substitute for Thallium-201, which is an expensive cyclotron-produced isotope not available in India. Development of an RIA system for the measurement of Theophylline levels in the plasma, for the effective treatment of asthma, has been taken up in collaboration with Bombay College of Pharmacy. A suitable solid phase separation agent, which is a critical component of immunoassays, is being developed. The work for labelling monoclonal antibodies with Yttrium-90 through DTPA linkage for rigorous standardisation of radio labelling procedures is under progress. Efforts to produce Scandium-47, a potential radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy, by alpha particle bombardment of titanium targets attempted at VECC, Calcutta, have yielded encouraging results. 4.5 Labelled Compounds The production and supply of a large number of products including many new compounds labelled with Carbon-14, Sulphur-35, Phosphorus-32 and tritium for use in frontier areas of research in biochemistry, microbiology, bio-technology, genetic engineeering, drug research, agriculture etc. was continued. Regular production of two important P-32 labelled nucleotides has commenced at the 'JONAKI' laboratory set up at Hyderabad and a number of Phosphorus-32 labelled compounds developed there are undergoing evaluation in users' laboratories. The new Labelled Compounds Laboratory at Vashi, New Bombay, is at an advanced stage of commissioning. 4.6 Tracer Applications in Industry and Hydrology Environmental isotopes, deuterium, tritium, Oxygen-18 and Carbon-14, are being used to study ground water salinization in certain parts of West Bengal, Haryana and Maharashtra. Using point dilution radiotracer method, groundwater quality and groundwater velocities were measured in different zones near a paper factory in Coimbatore to study water pollution in the adjoining area. The device used for cleaning the Bombay-Pune product pipeline operated by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation was tagged with a radioisotope and its movement was monitored in the sections which were recently repaired. Gamma ray attenuation technique was used for scanning the acetic acid dehydration column at a petrochemical complex to evaluate its functioning and to inspect the condition of in-built trays. Methods for dispensing Krypton-85 gas and its estimation have been standardized. Radiotracer studies were carried out at Madras harbour for determining suitable dumping sites for dredged materials, and at Madras Atomic Power Station to evaluate the flow rate of 68

76 process waters through moderator heat exchangers. 4.7 Radiation Sterilisation of Medical Products A radiation sterilisation plant with a capacity to house about 11,100 TBq (300,000 Ci) of Cobalt-60 and to process 6,000 cubic meter of medical products per annum has been commissioned at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology at Bangalore. The plant is now available for sterilisation of medical products from hospitals and local industries on routine basis and the present cobalt loading of the plant is 3,333 TBq (90,000 Ci) of Cobalt-60. A five tier conveyor system has been designed and developed for installation at the 11,100 TBq (300,000 Ci) Cobalt-60 plant at Sri Ram Institute of Industrial Research, New Delhi, for use in radiation sterilisation of medical products. The fabrication of the conveyor system is in progress and is expected to be installed and commissioned by the end of This will provide additional facility in the northern region for the radiation sterilisation of medical products. The ISOMED plant attrombay continued to offer irradiation services to manufacturers of medical products, pharmaceutical industries and hospitals. About 80,000 cartons of medical products having a total volume of 6880 cu.m. were processed at the plant registering an increase of 18% over the volume of medical products processed in the previous year. The sale value of the services rendered by the plant during the year was Rs lakhs. A promotional campaign to increase the awareness about radiation sterilization was launched by personal visits, audio-visual presentations and by advertising through reputed medical journals. Readyto-use medical products such as disposable plastic drapes, surgical kits and trolley covers were also made available to medical profession as a part of this programme. R&D work for extending the scope of the radiation sterilization technique to pharmaceutical products and packaging materials for medical products was continued. Feasibility studies were carried out for radiation treatment of starch, pancreatin, boric acid and poiypropylenes. A simple method, based on colour change on heating, was developed to identify irradiated medical devices made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 69

77 Publications Murty. T.S., 'Radiation Processing -ANew Emerging Technology", Seminar on Radioisotope Applications in Chemical Industry, Patalganga Wamorkar, R.R., 'N.D.\T. Applications in Chemical Industry', ibid. Krishnamurthy, K., 'Radiation Sources and Irradiation Techniques', ibid. Majali, A.6., 'Potential Applications of Electron Beam Accelerators in Indian Industry', ibid. Krishnamurthy, K., 'Industrial Electron Accelerator Facility at BARC, Indo-USSR Seminar on Industrial Applications of Electron Accelerators Murty, T.S., 'Radioisotope Applications in Industry', DAE Seminar on Atoms for Peace, Power and Prosperity, Lucknow Bhalla, H.L, Ananthanarayanan, R., Murthy, T.S. and Majali, A.B., 'Micro Sealed Transdermal Delivery of Nitroglycerine with a Radiation Polymerised System', First South East Asian Conference on Production, Research and Education in Pharmaceutical Industry, Singapore Vaidya. N.D., Shinde, S.N., Nair, V.C. and Murthy, T.S., 'Studies on the Elimination of "'I from Uranyl Nitrate Solution', Proceedings of DAE Symposium on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, Bombay Krishnamurthy, ft, 'Nuclear Techniques in Sewage Sludge Treatment.', National Conference on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Bombay Jeyakumar, T.K., Sinha, M.K. and Wamorkar, R.R., 'Experimental Studies of Back Scatter Techniques for Various Applications', ibid. Sinha, M.K., Datta, S.S. and Krishnamurthy, K., 'Modular Designs for Nucleonic Gauging Electronics', ibid. Sinha, M.K., Datta, S.S., Madhavankutty, C.K. and Krishnamurthy, K., 'Development of Modular Micro Computer Hardware for Control of Sewage Irradiation Plant', ibid. Sinha, M.K., Madhavan Kutty, C.K., Ranganathan, D. and Krishnamoorthy, K., 'Development of Programmable Controller System for Control of Medical Sterilization Plant 1, ibid. Das, G.C., Sinha, M.K. and Krishnamurthy, K., 'A Method for Measuring the Ash Content of Coal by Neutron Activation Analysis', ibid. Ranganathan, D.,Sarma, K.S.S. and Krishnamurthy, K., 'Development of an Instrument for Lyoluminescence Dosimetry Studies', ibid. Majali, A.B., Shah.M.R., Patil, N.D. and Dhanawade, B.R., 'An Impregnation Plant for Pilot Scale Production of Wood Polymer Composites', ibid. Singh, G., Jeyakumar, T.K. and Wamorkar, R.R., 'Radiography and Radiometry Techniques for Maintenance and Construction of Nuclear Reactor Components', ibid. Singh, G., Jeyakumar, T.K., Wamorkar, R.R. and Murthy, T.S., 'Status of Certification and Education in NDT in India', ibid. Biswas, G., Patwardhan, N.K., Tikku, V.K. and Aggarwal, K.S., 'Irradiation Cross Linking in Polymers for Wire and Cable Applications', ibid. Murthy, T.S., 'Lecture Notes UNDP/IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on Radiation Engineering - Gamma Radiation Facilities (1988)',. Patel,K.M. and Murthy, T.S., 'Lecture and Practicals UNDP/IAEA/RCA Regional Training Cource on Industrial Radiation Sterilization, Quality Control and Compatibility of Materials (1988)',. Murthy, T.S., 'Country Report', 4th Meeting of National Co-ordinators for NDT Sub-Project, Daeduk, Republic of Korea 'Summary of the Activities of Radiation Technology Division for the Period ' Viswanathan, K.V., Muralidharan, B. and Chandrika, R., 'Synthesis of "C Labelled i-napthaleneacetic Acid', 3rd International Symposium on the Synthesis and Appli- 70

78 cations of IsotopfcaHy Labelled Compounds, Innsbruck, Austria Murafidharan, B., Mallika, S. and Viswanathan, K.V., 'Studies on Synthesis of (U- 14 C-2-Deoxy D-Ribose', ibid. Muralidharan, B., Mallika, C, Chandrika, R., Ravi, S. and Viswanathan, K.V., 'Radiation Chemistry of High Specific Activity (U- U C) Sucrose in Aqueous Ethanol - Some Production Aspects', Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Symposium, Kalpakkam (1989). Thorat, Rekha B., 'Investigations of Immundogical Methods of Hormone Analysis', M.Sc. Thesis, Bombay University Rao, Pramila S., 'Radiolabelling Studies on Human Lymphocytes', M.Sc. Thesis, Bombay University Bhupal, V., 'Study of Some Aspects of RIA of Thyroxine and Application of Ethacridine in RIA', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Rahalkar, A.D., 'Developmnt of a Radioassay of Vitamin B 12 Kit Using Egg Yolk Proteins as Binding Agent', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Kothari, Kanchan K., 'Studies of Enzyme Labelling of Biological Substances and Their Imrrunoassay', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Ramamoorthy, N., 'Some Observations on the Synthesis and HPLC of Tris Acetyl Acetonato Technetium (ill) and (IV) Complexes', J. Radio Anal. Nucl. Chem., Articles 125, 97 Choudhary, S.Y., Ranganatha, O.K., Soman, P.D., Shah, KB. and Desai, C.N., 'A New Rapid Method for the Determination of Free Iodide in the Radioiodinated Protein Hormones and Triiodo Thyronine (T 3 ) and Thyroxine (T 4 )', Proc. of Symposium on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry, IQCAR (1989). Kanchan Kothari and Sivaprasad, N.,'Evaluation of Solid Phase System in Radioimmunoassay of Triiodothyronine', ibid. Majali, Mythili A. and Mani, R.S., 'Studies on the Preparation of "Y Labelled Antibodies Using CDTPAA as Bifunctional Chelating Agents', ibid. Meera Venkatesh and Mani, R.S., 'Radloimmunassay of d-akjosterone 1, ibfd. Grace Samuel, Sivaprasad, N. and Mani, R.S., 'Radioimmunoassay of Phenytoin Using Two Different Tracers', ibid. Das, M.K., Sarkar, B.R. and Ramamoorthy, N., 'Studies on Yields of Some Radionucltdes Produced by Irradiation of Natural Titanium Target with -particles', ibid. Shah, K.B.R., Banodkar, S.M., Soman, P.D. and Mani, R.S., 'Effect of MDP concentration on the Organ Distribution of Tc-99m - MDP in Wistar Rats: Optimization of ph and Dose', Indian J. Nucl. Med., 3, 71 Ramamoorthy, N., Narasimhan, D.V.S., Desai, C.N. and Mani, R.S., 'Availability of Tc-99m to Nuclear Medicine Centres in India: Past, present and Future', Proc. ofconf. on Nuclear Science and Technology in India : Past, Present and Future, INS/DAE, Bombay (1989). Sharma, G., Patel,K.M.,Gopal,N.G.S.andDeshpande, R.G.,'Current Status of Radiation Sterilization in India', IAEA Seminar on New Approaches in Practices and Process Technology for the Radiation Steriization of Medical Supplies, CIC, Canada Sharma, R.K., 'Relevance of Radiation Sterilization in Primary Health Care', International Workshop on Hospital and Primary Health Care, New Delhi Lalrt Varshney, 'Study of Complex Radiation Degradation Behaviour of PVC by Differential Scanning Calorimetry', Seminar on Radiation and Photochemical Sciences, Powai, Bombay (1987). Sharma, G., Zaman, R., Varshney, L, Balal, N. and Gopal, N.G.S., 'Effect of Ethylene Oxide and Gamma Radiation on Ampicillin Sodium', National Conference on Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, BARC, Bombay Varshney, L, Sharma, G. and Gopal, N.G.S., Thermal Behaviour of Gamma Irradiated Potyvinyl Chloride', ibid. 71

79 Patel, K.M., 'Micrc Oology Aspects of Radiation Sterilization', 39th Batch oi the Drug Inspectors Under Tranining Programme, May (1988) (Lecture). Sharma, G., 'Effects of Radiation on Pharmaceuticals', ibid, (Lecture). Gopal, N.G.S.. Sharma, G. and Patel, K.M., "Radiation Sterilization of Pharmaceuticals and Disposable Medical Products', Proceedings of Technical and Economical Comparison of Irradiation and Conventional Methods. Final Report of an Advisory Group Meeting Organised by the IAEA Dubrovnik, Yogoslavia : IAEA - TECDOC- 454, p. 15, Gopal, N.G.S., Patel, K.M., Sharma, G., Bhalla, H.L, Wills, P.A. and Hilmy, N., 'Guide for Radiation Sterilization of Pharmaceuticals and Decontamination of Raw Materials', Radiation Physics, Chemistry, 32,

80 REACTORS 5.1 Reactor Engineering The main thrust of R & D programme in reactor engineering continued to be on the design of 500MWePHWRs, safety related work concerning 235 MWe PHWRs under operation and construction, and fuel handling system for 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor. Significant effort was also made towards development of new technologies related to reactor systems. The programme on tests of major reactor components using the facilities that have been built for the purpose was continued. Endurance run on the first primary heat transport (PHT) pump for KAPP-1 was completed, enabling collection of long term performance data. Acceptance testing of two more fuelling machines for use at NAPP-2 have been completed. Indigenously manufactured special types of high pressure couplings used in reactor coolant channel feeders, and for other similar critical applications, have been endurance tested under conditions of specified load, pressure and temperature cycling. Indigenously manufactured high pressure valves capable of meeting nuclear standards were tested for their functional performance under simulated high pressure and high temperature conditions including thermal cycling. Some of the new hardware items that were developed are a prototype borewell lock assembly with a matching seismometer housing, and an automatic sample changer. Items under development include a neutron proportional counter, neutron velocity selector and vacuum shroud for cold neutron guides. Efforts for development of critical components like pressure reducing valves and solenoid valves for water hydraulic control system have been successful and these components can now be manufactured indigenously. A set-up for testing low speed high torque motors was commissioned and some motors proposed for use in 500 MWe PHWR fuelling machine have been evaluated. The characteristics of coolant flow in endshields of 500 MWe PHWR were established experimentally in order to prove the adequacy of the design. The design of pressuriser for 500 MWe PHWR was evolved, and necessary support was provided in the preparation of its tender document. The liquid poison shut down system developed for 235 MWe PHWR units was further refined to permit online testing. The system has been implemented at NAPP. A new liquid poison injection system is being developed for the 500 MWe PHWRs. Studies on poison jet growth have been started using high speed photography techniques in a specially built set-up. A two-dimensional transport theory code "OFFICIAL 1, was modified to calculate the incremental absorption due to gadolinium nitrate solution injected into the moderator to serve as the secondary shut down system. A series of computer codes which progressively process the poison jet data of the SDS-2 of the 500 MWe PHWR have been developed. This set of codes can give the incremental absorption in any cell of the reactor. Feasibility of using the existing stock of 22 element fuel bundles with the present design of separator assemblies used in fuelling machine was established. Based on these experiments a scheme for using about five hundred 22 element fuel bundles in the Narora reactor was evolved and implemented. Detailed experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out for finalisation of design of locator and liner tube configuration for 500 MWe PHWR. Substantial contribution was made in the preparation of emergency procedures, analysis of operational problems and review of design reports for fuel handling system of power stations and projects. Conceptual design of the fuel handling system for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor has been finalised. Preliminary design of the Inclined Fuel Translift Mechanism has been completed. Detailed design is in progress for the individual components. Reduced size and full size models are being made to prove the designs. Work has also been initiated for the design of spent and fresh fuel transfer machines for handling of fuel external to the reactor. Detailed design and fabrication drawings for the turnstile gates for access control at nuclear installations which were hitherto being imported have been prepared. One prototype mechanism was prepared and successfully tested for more than 100,000 cycles of operation. Engineering support was provided for setting up a high pressure gas gun facility. The facility is in an advanced stage of construction. 73

81 Safety analysis has been carried out for various postulated abnormal and accident conditions of Narora reactor. Analysis has been carried out for Class IV power failure using a computer code developed for that purpose. Under this condition the heat removal from the core is through a thermosyphon mechanism. Analysis has also been carried out for certain cases of loss of regulation involving various power transients. Thermosyphon cooling has been analysed for various reactor powers upto 5%. Analysis for station black out conditions and conditions of large break loss of coolant accident are in progress, Thermosyphon analysis was also carried out for MAPS reactor under certain conditions in connection with the proposed tests related to avoidance of cold pressurisation. Pressure drop measurements on channel with 5/6 fuel bundles have been carried out for 500 MWe PHWR under low temperature and low pressure conditions to estimate limiting values of pressure drop. Temperature transients during transfer of spent fuel bundles from reactor core to the storage bay have been estimated for normal as well as for anticipated abnormal conditions in 500 MWe PHWR. Analysis has been carried out to arrive at the capacity of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) recirculating pumps in 500 MWe PHWR. A computer code RHEINA-3D has been developed for the analysis of radiation heat exchange between fuel pins. The code can handle three dimensional geometry and has been used for the analysis of spent fuel of 500 MWe PHWR as well as the 500 MWe PFBR. A two-dimensional computer code DOTS-TP has been developed for the analysis of fuel transfer pot with thermal sleeves. Computer code COBRA IV-1 has been commissioned in the ND computer system. This isan improved version of the transient subchannel analysis code COBRA MIC, and can handle flow reversal and recirculation. A test carried on HDR reactor containment in Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was offered for a containment standard problem exercise ISP-23. Based on the data supplied, pretest analysis was carried out using the containment option of RELAP-IV/MOD 6 computer code. Modifications related to the heat transfer package in the code are in progress to enable better estimation of heat transfer coefficients in the containment following Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A power setback test was carried out successfully at MAPS to demonstrate the possibility of elimination of boiler pressure programme. This change Is expected to eliminate conflicting demands on plant regulating system. Extensive stress analysis work related to various 500 MWe PHWR components and systems was carried out. Some of the components which were covered are end-shield, primary heat transport system piping, feeders, headers, seal disc etc.. Systematic analysis of the reactor building as also other structures in the plant area was continued. Major effort has been to study interaction effects of heavy equipment like calandria and end-shield assembly, steam generator and pump assembly and pressuriser with the reactor building. Random vibration approach to determine the response of the structures arid also to evolve floor response spectra, was used for checking the results of time history analysis. Work in the area of structural analysis included analysis of fluid structure interaction covering the two-dimensional and axi-symmetric problems, patch and performance tests for various plate/shell elements available in SAP IV, PAFEC and COSMOS/M according to the NAFEMS standards, development of a code to determine pressure temperature history of calandria and other structures due to a coolant tube rupture, evolving a new element capable of modelling two singular points close to each other and development of a band width optimiser for piping analysis. Experimental stress analysis work covered the determination of stress in PHT piping during hot conditioning of first unit of Narora, impact tests on shock absorber assembly aimed at qualifying them, determination of residual stress in the rolled liner tube as well as zirconium alloy coolant tube in 500 MWe PHWR end fitting, and photoelastic analysis of fuelling machine pressure housing. First phase of the programme for the experimental development of rolled joints occurring in the coolant channels of the 500 MWe PHWR was completed and the designs of the rolled joints for pressure tube, calandria tube, and liner tube have been frozen. Mechanical flexing technique was developed for repositioning of garter springs in PHWR coolant 74

82 channels. This was successfully used for the relocation of garter springs in some coolant channels of NAPP-1, leading to substantial Increases In the creep sag limited service life of these channels. Experiments for on-line garter spring location of PHWR coolant channels are being carried out. A remotely operable gadget for carrying out creep adjustment of coolant channels inmapptypeof reactors has been designed and has been ordered for fabrication. Trouble shooting of various field problems encountered during the commissioning of the power reactors was carried out. Development activities for early failure detection in primary heat transport components are being pursued. Dhruva main coolant pumps are being monitored routinely and timely warnings are issued regarding the deterioration of the bearings. Reoptimisation studies on Narora control rod locations have shown that an increase of 25 to 30% in the reactivity worth of both the primary and secondary shut-down systems can be achieved by interchanging the locations of some of the primary and secondary shut down systems. Three-dimensional fuelling calculations are being carried out on the RAPS core to work out a smooth change over from all natural uranium core to one having a combined loading of (U.Pu) MOX and plain thorium bundles. The ThO 2 - PuO 2 fuel cluster, which was under test, was taken out of the Cirus Pressure Water Loop. The fuel has completed a burn up of 18,400 MWD/T. A preliminary physics feasibility study of an advanced PHWR concept has been carried out. A detailed analysis of the criticality properties of various isotopes of the higher mass actinide elements such as neptunium, americium, curium, etc has revealed that their infinite multiplication factor (kinfinity) increased linearly with the (Z^A) value of the nuclkje. This implied that all these long lived alpha active nuclkjes present in the spent fuel of power reactors can also be used as a valuable nuclear fuel material similar to plutonium. This finding has a very important bearing on fission reactor waste disposal considerations, since long term hazards of high level waste would be considerably minimised if these elements also can be separated out and recycled like plutonium. Four boron carbide control blades were fabricated and supplied to TAPS. NitrkJing of 1060 power reactor components were carried out for NPC. Forty eight Zr-Nb-Cu alloy garter springs were made as spares for use in NAPP. Ten sub-assemblies of source range monitor (SRM) and intermediate range monitor (IRM) were made for TAPS, seventeen Zr-2 guide tube assemblies and 14 stainless steel mechanical shut off rods assemblies were fabricated for NAPP-II. Work related to replacement of wire rope assemblies of NAPP- I mechanical shut-off rods was taken up. The earlier wire ropes had got damaged during installation of shutoff rods in the reactor due to some defect in drive mechanism. The replacement work involved machining of new sleeves, and welding and crimping of one sleeve each at either end of 20 new wire ropes, after qualification of the process. Welding of sleeves on one side was done at Trombay. Welding at the other end was carried out at site since this was required to be done after wire ropes were woven through the initial accelerating spring assemblies of the earlier shut-off rods. Replacement of 20 wire rope assemblies was successfully completed at site as per schedule. Necessary machining of components required for modification of 12 cobalt slug assemblies was carried out for NPC. The components wererewelded and the assemblies, after due inspection, were despatched to Narora. On-power refuelling operation of Dhruva reactor was satisfactorily demonstrated at Hall 7. It is proposed to carry out similar refuelling trials in Dhruva. Components of Dhruva, such as bottom bulge, and top bulge, were modified in order to simplify fabrication and to facilitate the reusability of aluminium shield. Seal plug sub-assemblies of Dhruva have been tested using fuelling machine for their functional suitability before finalising the design. The final report of the committee formed by AERB to suggest means of improving failed fuel detection system, improvements in fuel performance etc. was sub-mitted after analysis. Out-of-pile commissioning of 2 MW InpHe Loop, installed at Hall 7, was successfully completed. Due to unacceptable level of pump vibrations noted during continuous operation of the loop, the pumps were disassembled for inspection. The cause of high pump 75

83 vibrations is being investigated. Safety analysis of the loop at Dhruva is being done. Work pertaining to the installation of the 150 kw Inpile loop in Dhruva is also in progress. Fabrication of the X-ray inspection facility for Dhruva irradiated fuel and shield blocks is in progress. Detailed failure analysis has been carried out on Ml cables which failed in one of the reactors. Life testing of PVC cables based on accelerated tests has been carried out. The life of these cables has been estimated using ARRHENiUS model and found to be about 32 years at 30 C Process instrumentation and controls for 3 MW Boiling Water Loop and third unit of 600 kw variable DC power suppiy were commissioned. Installation of instrumentation and control for High Temperature Loop is under progress. Instrumentation and controls for a number of small experimental test facilities for the development work pertaining to 235 and 500 MWe power reactors were completed. Technical specifications for the installation of process instrumentation and control for Fuelling Machine Test Facility in Engineering Hall No. 3 was finalised. Heat shirkable sleeves were evaluated under accelerated thermal and radiation aging to assess their suitability for use for containment penetrations. 5.2 Reactor Analysis The core heat-up studies for PHWR has been done under Loss of Coolant Accident condition with loss of emergency core cooling system. A computer code forrewetting analysis of horizontal channels has been developed. Several problems of 500 MWe physics design such as worth of shut off rods, global and power tilts and burn-up optimisation, have been solved. The nodal synthesis method for on-line flux mapping has been further advanced. An efficient software package has been developed for providing updated remote back up relay settings in extra high voltage (ehv) interconnected system, which will enhance the system security. Complete model package and software for the training simulator has been developed and is undergoing validation. Boiler Level Control System for Narora type steam generators has been developed. Design of safety parameter display systems for 235 MWe plants is in progress. Methodology for spectrum compatible Seismic Site Evaluation has been developed, and evaluation of individual sites is being carried out. Fuel management service for TAPS was continued. The procedure for approach to first critically and low power physics experiments in NAPP-1 were worked out in detail. A new diffusion interactive method for 3-D super cell for the purpose of reactivity device simulation was developed and tested. 5.3 Experimental Reactor Physics Procedures and preparations for physics measurements at low power in NAPP-1 using microprocessors were completed. Transport theory methods were developed for analysis of shielding experiments. An on-line system for measuring boron concentration in the moderator of heavy-water power reactors is under development. Theoretical analysis was made to study the sensitivity of measurement as a function of sample geometry. Computation of gamma fluxes and gamma heating in the 500 MWe PHWR was done with transport theory code. Development work for transmutation doping of silicon for industrial uses, noise analysis techniques for measurements and diagnostics in power reactors, and automation for experiments and data acquisition was continued. Work on evaluation of nuclear data pertaining to the thorium cycle, and on developing improved transport theory methods for radiation transport calculations was also continued. 5.4 Reactor Control The prototype adjuster rod assembly and its drive mechanism have been satisfactorily flow-tested at the out-of-pile flow test station for Dhruva reactor. The actual assemblies with lithium-aluminium pencils are ready for installation in the reactor. The use of these movable adjuster rods in the reactor would help in increasing reactor availability by minimising reactor poisoning-out time after trip or shutdown. Emergency core cooling system in automode of operation has been commissioned. Light water moderator system, process instrumentation system, modified safety-plate and control rod drives, safety logic and controls for Purnima-lll were redesigned, fabricated and installed. The computer control of Fuel Handling System of NAPP has been fully tested and commissioned 76

84 77 for operation on fuelling machines and fuel transfer systems. In situ modifications to improve operator interface and additional safety interlocks have been incorporated and tested during the commissioning of thesystem. On-lineandoff-linediagnostfcand system modification programs have been upgraded to enhance flexibility of operation. Shut-off-rod drive mechanisms were qualified in 'out- of-pile test station 1 at site before installation in the reactor. Each mechanism was drop tested for partial and full scrams totalling 50 drops. After installation, the mechanisms were further tested for 10 drops during commissioning. Additional switch assemblies were installed on the mechanisms in situ for providing independent trip signals to safety channels. A test console to facilitate complete testing of the mechanisms at out-of-pile test station was fabricated and commissioned. A microprocessor based Programmable Digital Comparator System for Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant has been designed and deveioped to provide intelligent protective functions. The system is designed to handle analog field signals and would replace a large number of analog comparators required to handle multiple setpoints for each input. The new system will greatly reduce the maintenance and calibration problems associated with conventional analog comparators. The exhaustive selfdiagnostic facilities in alarm units monitor various points of hardware. A microprocessor based display unit system, supporting two CRTs and printers, is connected to three alarm units through serial communication lines. The first prototype shut-off rod drive mechanism for 500 MWePHWR reactor has been assembled for functional and reliability testing. This mechanism has features for partial scramming and fast shut down of reactor. A lest station and a test console to facilitate complete testing of the mechanism have been fabricated. A mathematical model of reactor for study of reactor regulating system has been developed. Reliability analysis of control logic circuit for PHT pressure protective and over pressure relief system he-.«n prepared. Work has been initiated for introducing stateof-art technology in computer control of overall plant and control room desiqn for better man-machine interface and knowledge-based operator support to aid the plant operator during normal and emergency situations. Fortyfour motors for the shut-off rod drive mechanisms of KAPP-1 and KAPP-2 were manufactured. Canned motors with modified can thickness for obtaining low slip to give higher efficiency and better performance have been fabricated and delivered to HWP for further testing. Manufacture of 150 canned motors forthe Hazira MWP has also been taken up. The 100 kva semi-automatic welding machine has been extensively tested, and about 200 welds have been completed on the indigenous fuel and cap welding machine to check the performance of its prototype mechanical fixtures. The Pressure Tube Gauging Equipment is further upgraded employing microprocessor controlled stepper motor drives for axial and angular movements of rabbit and for acquiring, processing and printing the measured data. 5.5 Reactor Operations, Services and Maintenance Dhruva attained its design value of 100 MWt during January 1988 and the reactor operation was continued at its rated power level throughout the year. Emergency Core Cooling System for the reactor was tested satisfactorily and commissioned with automatic initiation features. Tray rods for irradiation of samples were modified and regular production of radioisotopes was started. One self-serve assembly was commissioned for this purpose. Two special assemblies for production ofcobalt-60 were installed in the reactor. Irradi-ation of four numbers of thoria rods was completed. Antimony pencils were irradiated in the reactor for start-up source for FBTR. Utilisation of the reactor for basic and applied research continued, and is gaining further momentum with several new assemblies at various stages of installation in the beam holes. Operation of the research reactors Apsara and Cirus at their rated power levels was continued in a safe and efficient manner. Several hundred samples were irradiated for research and isotope production. Necessary repairs and replacements of

85 aged equipment were carried out. Over 2,000 Isotope samples were evaluated for reactivity effect, heat production and radiation shielding. Several experimental proposals were evaluated. These Include irradiation of gadolinium nitrate solution, silicon crystals, and moon rock samples, testing of cobalt self-powered detectors in Apsara, irradiation of xenon gas and silicon for neutron doping for semiconductor application in Cirus. Core loading studies with uranium oxide fuels, cobalt/thorium oxide and aluminium dummy assemblies were carried out at Dhruva to permit reactor operation at high power levels. Assessments for nuclear heating in the Hot Neutron Source, installation of cohimator in tangential beam hole, on-power tray rod handling etc. in Dhruva were also carried out. An in-core fuel management study was done for the planned long outage of Cirus reactor so as to conserve uranium metal fuel inventory. About 35,000 chemical samples of light water, heavy water, helium, ion exchange resins etc. were analysed for the chemical control of Apsara, Cirus and Dhruva. Data from the experiments in the out-of-core corrosion loop indicated that corrosion of aluminium In the operating conditions of Dhruva does not lead to formation of aluminium turbidity in the reactor coolant. Necessary engineering and safety assessments for the shipment of irradiated second charge fuel of Apsara to U.K. through Suez Canal were made and clearance was obtained. A new isotope tray section for the irradiation of oversize capsules was designed, fabricated, tested and installed In the Cirus reactor. Graphic panel for the sea water system was designed and installed in Cirus control room, incorporating remote operation of sea water inlet valve. A piping layout scheme for the connection of the chilled water, demineralised water and compressed air systems of Dhruva with Cirus systems for better flexibility and reliability was worked out. Most of the major components for the spare calandria for Cirus are in an advanced stage of fabrication. Design of the rolled joint between lattice tube and tube sheet was modified for better strength. The new design is being tested. Feasibility study and preparation of detailed specifications are in progress for replacement of major old equipment of Cirus for giving the reactor a new lease of life. Removable type lead brick shielding for the openings of main coolant pumps was designed, fabricated and installed at Dhruva for ease in maintenance of the pumps. Review of the design requirements for reactor structural cooling system with respect to strainer ratings and coolant flow rates were conducted. Strainer design has been further modified to reduce its replacement frequency. Centrifuges arc being installed in the main coolant system with a view to reducing turbidity and crud levels. Modification of seal piug was carried out to eliminate "spring back" action while locking and unlocking the Dhruva fuel assembly. Tests were conducted at flow test station for "on-power" fuelling operations. Pre-commissioning checks of the spare magazine for the fuelling machine are in progress. Fabrication of components for achieving on-power handling of tray rods is in progress. Necessary maintenance and servicing of all major equipment, like main sea water pumps and Dhruva main coolant pumps, were carried out. The Dhruva power regulating system was simplified by changing from dual control mode to single control mode, by operating the moderator pumps on fixed speed and assigning control functions only to moderator outflow valves. Procurement of instrumentation forphase-ll of Dhruva, Emergency Core Cooling System layout of instrumentation and control, electrical system for 2 MW in-pile loop to be installed in the Dhruva Reactor, and fabrication of Dhruva fuel assembly with thermocouples embedded in the cladding, are in progress. The microprocessor based system developed for failed fuel detection and location was installed in Dhruva and its performance is under evaluation. 78

86 Publications Venkat Raj, V.. 'Safety Related Thermal Hydraulic Studies in Support of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors', The Indo-Polish Sbminar on Development of Advanced Codes and Methods for Transient and Accident Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants, Bombay Chakraborty, G. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Computer Code for PHWR System Dynamic Analysis - Models and Comparison with Plant Data', ibid. Vijayan, P.K., Nagdaune, R.K. and Venkat. Raj, V., 'Analysis of Flow Coastdown and Transition to Thermosyphon Cooling in the PHT System of a PHWR Following Power Failure', ibid. Haware, S.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Experimental Studies on Vapour Suppression Poo! System for Indian PHWRs', ibid. Patil, R.K., Venkat Raj, V. and Sharma, G.K., 'Temperature Transients in a Nuclear Fuel Rod During Rewetting', Second International Symposium on Heat Transfer, Beijing Venkat Raj, V., 'Definition of Some Terms Related to Nuclear Reactor Safety and some Discussions on Passive Cooling of Reactor Core Under Certain Operational States', IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Definition and Understanding of Engineered Safety, Passive Safety and Related Terms, Vaesteras, Sweden Venkat Raj, V. and Surender, Ch., 'Indian PHWRs - Some Safety Related Studies', IAEA Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology, Montreal Pilkhwal, D.S., Vijayan, P.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Parametric Study of Pressure Drop in a Nuclear Reactor Component Having Complex Flow Paths Using Pipe Network Analysis Technique', 16th National Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, Kanpur Patel, R.J., Raghunathan, S., Agarwal, R.G., Rajesh Chandra, Pilkhwal, D.S., Vijayan, P.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Experimental and Analytical Investigations on Pressure Drop in the Fuel Locator of 500 MWe PHWR', ibid. Reddy, G.R., Soni, R.S., Dutta, B.K., Kushwaha, H.S. and Kakodkar, A., 'Static and Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Containment', ASKA Users Conference, Bangalore Soni, R.S., Neelawarne, A., Singh, R.K., Murali, B., Kushwaha, H.S. and Kakodkar, A., 'Stress Analysis of New Improved Design of TAPS Feedwater Nozzle', ibid. Sharma, A., Dulera, I.V., Sinha, R.K. and Kakodkar, A.,'Application of Personal Computers During Relocation of Garter Spring Spacers in PHWR CoolantChannels", National Symp. on Personal Computers in Sci. and Engg. Bombay, Kamala Balakrishnan and Ganguly, G, Thorium Utilisation in Indian Power Programme', Symp. on Nuclear Fuel Fabrication, Bombay, Babar, A.K., Saraf, R.K. and Rao, V.V.S.S., 'Probabilistic Safety Assessment ofnapp", Indo-Polish Seminar on Development of Advanced Computer Codes;and Methods in Transient and Accident Analysis, Bombay Bora, J.S. and Babar, A.K., 'Performance Evaluation of Instrumentation and Control Cable', Workshop on Realisation of Standards for Calibration, Evaluation and Testing of Process Instrumentation, Bombay Kulkarni, R.N. and Challam, Y., 'Use of a PC in Level I PSA', Work on Use of PCs in Sci. and Tech., Bombay Shah, F.B., Kohli, A.K. and Rajesh Chandra, 'Selection of Optimum Wire-rope Construction fora Given Application', All India Seminar on Design and Selection of Kinematics for Handling Equipment, Calcutta Chandgedkar, G.N., Patel, R.J., Agarwal, R.G. and Rajesh Chandra,'Remote Creep Measurement of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Channels Using Computer Based Control System', National Symp. on Current Trends in Process Inst. and Control, Kalpakkam Babar, A.K., Saraf, R.K. and Rao, V.V.S.S., 'Reliability 79

87 Improvement in Electric Motor Operated Valves', Reliability Engineering and Systems Safety, 23(2), Pilknwal, D.S., Vijayan, P.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Pressure Drop Calculations for Fuel Locator of 500 MWe PHWR 1, Tech. Report. (Internal). Pilkhwal, D.S.. Vijayan, P.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Fuel Locator for 500 MWe PHWR - Estimation of Pressure Drop for Different Designs, Comparison with Experimental Data and Suggestions for an Improved Design', Tech. Report (Internal). Pilkhwal. D.S., Vijayan, P.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Fuel Locator for 500 MWe PHWR - Pressure Drop Calculations'with Liner Tube having 128 Holes and Prediction of Core Pressure Drop at Reactor Operating Conditions', Tech. Report. (Internal). Sarkar, P.K., Pilkhwal, D.S., Vijayan, P.K., Anantharaman, K. and Venkat Raj, V., "Pressure Drop Tests on 500 MWe PHWR Fuel Channel with Bundles', Tech. Report (Internal). Pal, G., Markandeya, S.G. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Assessment of Clad Temperature of Spent Fuel with Interrupted Cooling in Fuel Transfer System for 500 MWe PHWRs', Tech. Report (Internal). Pal, G., Markandeya, S.G. and Venkat Raj, V., Temperature Transients in the Fuel Cluster of Dhruva Subsequent to Core Voiding as a Result of LOCA', Tech. Report (Internal). Pal, G., Markandeya, S.G. and Venkat Raj, V., Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Seven Element Fuel Clusterwith Hexagonal Flow Tube for Dhruva Reactor 1, Tech. Report (Internal). Haware, S.K. and Venkat Raj, V., 'Experiments on One- Tenth Scale Model of PHWR Containment at MAPS, Kalpakkam', Interim Report for the Period June to Dec. 1987, Tech. Report (Internal). Kamala Salakrishnan and Kakodkar, Anil, 'Redistribution of the Control Rod Locations ofthesds-1 and SDS-2 of the Standardised PHWR within Available Penetrations to Enhance the Reactivity Worth of Both Systems', RED/RP/FC/19. Joseph, A.N. and Kamala Balakrishnan, 'Burn-up Penalty Consequent to Changes in Pressure Tube and Garter Spring Material', RED/RP/FC/18. Kamala Balakrishnan, Uma Shankari P. and Joseph, A.N., 'Alternate Calculations of the Reactivity Worths of the Shutdown Systems of Narora', RED/RP/FC/2. Kamala Balakrishnan and Kakodkar, Anil, The Possibility of Operating a PHWR on the Fuel Discharged from RAPS and TAPS Without Further Input of Natural Uranium', RED/THU/FC/14. Dutta, B.K., Kakodkar, A. and Maiti, S.K., 'Enhancement in Capabilities of Computer Code 'CRACK and Case Studies, BARC Singh, R.K., Kakodkar, A. and Kant, T., 'SomeStudies on Fluid Structure Interaction Problems', BARC-1424 Subramaniam, K., 'Event Specific Procedutds, Symptom Based Procedures and Computerised Operator Support Systems', Workshop on Operating Procedures for Emergency Conditions, Kalpakkam Neelakantan, S., 'Performance of Remote Backup Relays', 5th National Power System Conference, Bangalore Krishnani, P.D., 'Analysis of Lattice Experiments with thorium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Fuel Using WIMS Library', Annals of Nuclear Energy, Jagannathan, V., Jain, R.P., Kumar Vinod, Gupta, H.C. and Krishnani, P.D., 'A Diffusion Iterative Model for Simulation of Reactivity Devices in PHWR's', ibid, Krishnani, P.D., 'Simulation of Reactivity Devices in PHWR's', International Reactor Physics Conference, Wyoming USA Krishnani, P.D., 'An Analytical Method for Computing 80

88 the Higher Harmonics of the Diffusion Equation in R- Z- Q Geometry', ibid. Mehia. S.L, Mistry, A.H., Ramaswamy, LR. and Gopalakrishnart, C.S., 'A Microprocessor Based Facility for Data Acquisition and Wire Scanning Developed for Flux Distribution Measurements in PHWRs', National Symposium on Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation, Bombay (1989). Jangra, LR., Babu, R.M.S., Das, S., Biswas, B.B. and Govindarajan, G., 'A Digital Control System for Nuclear Research Reactor', National Seminar on Microprocessor Based Electronic Systems and ASICS for Industrial Applications, Piiani Babu, R.M.S., Geetha Kumari, Biswas, B.B. and Govindarajan, G., 'APU Enhances DSP Function in a Programmable Digital Comparator System', ibid. Joseph, J. and Patll, R.K., 'Design of Control Centre Instrumentation for Dhruva and Kaminl Reactors', National Symposium on Current Trends in Process Instrumentation and Control, Kalpakkam Suresh Babu, Das, S., Gopa Sen, Sreeraman, R., Biswas, B.B. and Govindarajan, G., 'Fault Detection Techniques Used in Process Control and Trip System in Kamini Reactor', ibid. Gopa Sen, Das, S., Geetha Kumari, Sreeraman, R., Babu, R.M.S., Biswas, B.B. and Govindarajan, G., 'Programmable Digital Comparator System for a Nuclear Power Reactor', ibid. Jangra, LR., Babu, R.M.S., Das, S., Biswas, B.B. and Govindarajan, G., 'Digital Control System for Kamini Reactor 1, ibid. 81

89 FUEL CYCLE 6.1 Ore Dressing The major thrust of activities centered on establishing the feasibility of recovering uranium from low grade ores and from uranium-bearing copper plant tailings. Extensive experiments exploiting the paramagnetic property of uraninite to upgrade the ores are under progress. Based on laboratory studies a process flowsheet has been developed to recover cassiterite from the low grade tin ores of Bastar, Madhya Pradesh. It was possible to obtain a jig concentrate assaying al'ut 62% tin with a recovery of about 60-70%. From the screen fines a lower grade tin concentrate can be obtained, increasing the overall recovery by another 10-15%. The associated columbite-tantalite values are also recovered along with cassiterite. The know how after evaluation would be transferred to Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation Limited. Beneficiation studies on metasedimentary and granite type tin ore samples from Tosham, Haryana, have indicated the feasibility of optimum recovery with a multistage complex flowsheet. Detailed studies carried out on the tungsten ore from Khobna, Maharashtra, and from M3durai, Tamil Nadu indicated the feasibility of economic utilisation of these ores. Studies on selective flocculation of uranium fines using polyacrylamide tv<p R reagents are in progress. Modelling studies on fro'u) flotation using distribution rate constant modeii -'ere carried out and an alternate method to estimate the rate constant distribution have been developed. Uraniumphos-phoric acid-sulphuric acid system was studied for using it for the fluorimetric estimation of uranium. Petromineralogical studies of several tungsten and tin ores have also been carried out. 6.2 Uranium Metal Production Production of uranium metal in the uranium metal plant was continued. The metal was made available for fabrication of nuclear fuel for Dhruva and Cirus reactors. Studies have been carried out to integrate the processes involved in extraction of uranium from ore by UCIL and purification of uranium by NFC, at their proposed plants at l uramdih near Jamshedpur. The flow sheet evolved is proposed to be tested by NFC to evaluate its acceptance. Plans are underway to set up a commercial scale plant at FACT, Cochin, based on the solvent extraction process developed to recover uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. The technology available is being evaluated by a joint team of BARC - FACT to finalise a plan of action. 6.3 Fuel Fabrication Requirements of fuel and fuel assembly components for Cirus and Dhruva reactors were met. A total of 158 metallic uranium fuel elements (X-rods) and 2112 sub-assembly components were delivered to Cirus. A number of uranium fuel clusters, aluminium shields, seal and shielding plugs, split collars and tray rod tubes were supplied to Dhruva. Development work was carried out for investigating the feasibility of following the extrusion route, instead of the hot rolling route for getting uranium-rods. One cluster made out of extruded rods has been fabricated and delivered to Dhruva for in-pile testing. Development work was also carried out on determination of optimum diameter of rolled Uranium-rods so as to have minimum loss in machining and copper cladding of U before hot rolling. The Kamini core consists of 9 fuel sub-assemblies, each having 8 aluminium clad AI-20% U-233 plate fuel elements. Based on earlier experiments at Trombay in the fabrication of Al clad Al-Pu plate fuel elements in the early 70's, a flow-sheet for Kamini fuel was evolved with aluminium and uranium metals as starting materials. Addition of small amounts of zirconium in the melt was found to minimise the formation of the brittle phase and prevent cracking of the alloy during rolling. A novel roll-swaging technique was developed for fabricating the fuel subassembly. The oxide pilot plant in BARC was extensively utilised for fabrication of high density sintered uranium oxide pellets for Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. More than 3 tons of high density depleted and natural uranium oxide pallets, conforming to PHWR fuel specifications, were fabricated and supplied to NFC. The modifications incorporated in the fabrication flowsheet were : (i) Milling and sieving of the uranium oxide powder received from NFC to eliminate hard agglomerates; (ii) Addition of binder to the granules before pelletisation, and later removing the same by dewax- 82

90 ing treatment; and (iil) Using tungsten carbide diepunch set for pellet pressing. The overall recovery in the fabrication campaign has been more than 75%. Mixed uranium piutonium monocarbide (MC) and mononitride (MN) containing 15-20% Pu are being considered as advanced fuels for the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). A process flowsheet has been developed for fabrication of low density (< 85%T.D.)MC andmn pellets based on the "powder-pellet" route using UO 2 ' and PjO a powders as starting materials. The two major steps in the fabrication flowsheet are carbothermic reduction of tabletted UO 2, PuO 2 and carbon powder mixture in vacuum or inflowing nitrogen for MC and MN, respectively, and crushing and milling of MC and MN clinkers, followed by cold-pelletisation and sintering. Fabrication of PFBR fuel will involve large scale (a few tons a year) handling of radiotoxic piutonium with high beta-gamma and neutron dose. Further, MC powder is pyrophoric and MN powder is susceptible to oxidation and hydrolysis. Keeping this in mind, an alternative sol gel microsphere pelletisation (SGMP) process is being developed for fabrication of mixed uranium plutonium oxide, carbide and nitride pellets, starting from the heavy metal nitrate feed solutions. The SGMP route avoids handling and generation of fine powders and in turn minimises radiotoxic dust hazard, and ensures excellent microhomogeneity. The dust-free and free-flowing microspheres make automation and remotisation easier. Initial trials with uranium oxide, carbide and nitride have yielded encouraging results. Out-of-pile properties of MC and MN of both uranium and piutonium rich compositions have been evaluated. This consists of measurement of thermal conductivity upto 1800 C and hot hardness upto 1500 C, and evaluation of chemical compatibility with SS 316 clachjng upto 700 C for 1000 hours. The mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant at Tarapur is at an advanced stage of completion. The installation, testing and commissioning of equipment for production of ceramic fuel pellets has been completed. Assembling, testing and commissioning of the glove box in ihe continuous sintering plant, which is the most critical equipment in MOX fuel fabrication, has been carried out. Trial production ofphwrtype UO; pellets will start shortly afar getting safety clearance. PHWR fuel assembly equipment such as spacer pad welding machine and end plate welding machine have been indigenously developed and installed. End cap welding machine for PHWR fuel rods is being procured. The work on installation of physical and chemical quality control equipment was started. 6.4 Quality Assurance Quality surveillance jobs on fuel bundles, zircaloy components, garter springs, coolant and calandria tubes for PHWRs, fuel bundles for TAPS, various stainless steel and other materials and components were carried out. Several NDT techniques were adopted for quality control of the casting, the rolled alloy plate, and the final fuel elements. The bond between the core and the cover plates was inspected by blister test and ultrasonic technique. 6.5 Post-Irradiation Examiation (PIE) Three reload Dhruva fuel sub-assemblies of modified design were examined. These assemblies had experienced burn-up of 771, 1155 MWD and 1294 MWD/t. The first two sub-assemblies were suspected to have failed during irradiation. The PIE revealed that both the assemblies had failed due to blistering of fuel pins. The third assembly, incorporating the latest design modi-fications, performed satis-factorily and no defects were noticed in PIE. In none of the three sub-assemblies fretting was observed, revealing that the design modifications have over-come the vib-ration induced problems. A failed 19 pin fuel bundle from MAPP-II was also examined in the hot cells facility. The fuel bundle had experienced burn-up of 4,725 MWD/t. PIE revealed that the end plugs of two fuel pins of the bundle had circumferentially split near the weld. Massive hydriding was observed at the failure location. 6.6 Fuel Reprocessing The Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FREFRE) at Tarapur and the Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay have been operating satisfactorily, the former processing spent PHWR fuel from the power reactors and the latter, spent fuel frorr t,j research reactors at Trombay. The reprocessing plant pres- 83

91 ently under construction at Kalpakkam (Project KARP) to treat the spent fuel discharged from the Madras Atomic Power Station is making steady progress. Fabrication of all the critical process equipment is being carried out to stringent specifications under a strict quality surveillance programme. Action has been initiated for the procurement and fabrication of all the hardware required for the small engineering scale facility (Project FUS) attrombayforsep&ration of U-233 from irradiated thorium fuel elements. Work on conceptual design of larger reprocessing plants to treat the spent fuel arisings from the 10,000 MWe nuclear power programme, and to create a plutonium base for the future > as! Breeder Reactor (FBR) programme has been taken up. R & D activities are being pursued in a variety of areas such as process chemistry and engineering, instrumentation, mea-surement methods, and corrosion. Significant results are obtained in the R&D efforts aimed at exploiting electrochemical methods for controlling the process parameters and in fixing the long lived fission product radionuclides on a newtype of macroporous, double metal loaded strong base resin which will result in reducing the radioactivity in the liquid effluents discharged from the reprocessing plants. A continuous precipitation system for uranium reconversion from solution to solid, a newly developed CALMIX system for spent solvent clean-up and a direct reading flow rate meter for radioactive process streams were developed for adoption in reprocessing plant applications. Some o* the important collaborative activities carried out are : (i) Design and installation of the plutonium Scrap Recovery Facility as a part of the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant being built at Tarapur, (ii) Recovery of U 233 from the graphite crucibles and U- Al alloy scrap generated during the metallurgical operations and fabrication of fuel elements for the experimental reactor KAMINI at Kalpakkam, (Hi) Fabrication of remote handling gadgets of different configurations for radioactive laboratory applications, (iv) Engineering of a gas injection box for the development of C0 2 laser system for shearing the spent fuel bundles, and (v) Development of non-destructive assay systems for dynamic material accounting of fissile inventory in a reprocessing plant. The reprocessing plants and the associated radioactive facilities continued to maintain excellent all round safety record. 6.7 Radioactive Waste Management The storage module of the Solid Storage Surveillance Facility at Tarapur for interim storage of vitrified high level radioactive waste canisters is ready for operation. Work on the facility meant for the characterisation and evaluation of the vitrified waste product in simulated environmental conditions is in an advanced stage of completion. Construction of proves? building and ancillary structures of the Waste Immobilisation Piant at Trombay Is in progress. Design work of the Waste Immobilisation Plant, Kalpakkam, has been started. Testing and commissioning of the Waste Management Plant at Narora Atomic Power P'oject (NAPP) is in progress. Design of the major equipment and systems of the Waste Management Plant of Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP) has been completed. Design work for the expansion of Waste Management Facilities consequent to the additional nuclear power plants coming up at Kota and Tarapursites has been taken up. Aneffluenttreatment scheme for the thorium plant at OSCOM site and the design of shallow evaporation ponds for low level liquid wastes arising In IGCAR at Kalpakkam site have been finalised. The Waste Immobilisation Plant at Tarapur is ready for hot operation. Radioactive waste management facilities at Trombay, Tarapur, Rajasthan and Kalpakkam functioned satisfactorily. Different types and categories of solid and liquid radioactive wastes were processed for treatment and disposal. Discharges made at different sites were less than 16% of the authorised regulatory health and safety limits. The radioactive concentrates were conditioned in suitable matrices before disposal in engineered containment systems such as RCC trenches and tile holes at the solid waste management facility at each site. Surveillance of the disposal sites was done at regular intervals at each site through sampling and analysis of samples from monitoring bore wells. No migration of any radioactivity at any site was noted. The thrust of laboratory scale studies Is towards development of new processes and techniques for the treatment and safe containment of a variety of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes generated at different stages of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. 84

92 Substantial progress has been made in the development of suitable solid matrices like organic resins, inorganic absorbants and molecular sieves for fixing theradionuclides present in the low and medium level active effluents from chemical plants; suitable glass mixes for wastes in the form of sludge; pyrolytic as well as chemical methods for the treatment of degraded solvents from reprocessing operations; precipitation followed by ultrafiltration techniques for the removal of long lived radioisotopes; and processes for the treatment of wastes from ceramic fuel fabrication. Investigations are also being carried out on the teachability of activities fixed in solid matrices to evaluate the long term effectiveness of the containment procedures. The efficacy ofpolyurethane matrix for chemically fixing Co-60 is being evaluated. New techniques have been developed for monitoring the migration of radionuclides in the soil. A chamber at 1000 m depth has been established in an existing mine for inactive experimental works connected with the 'Repository for Immobilised High Level Radioactive Waste Products'. Simulation experiments to study the thermomechanical behaviour of host rock consequent to heating are in progress. Valuable data on temperature distribution, induced stresses and extensions in the host rock are being recorded continuously at different power levels. Another underground chamber is under construction for multiheater experiments at the same depth. Rock-waste interaction studies using radioisotopes of cesium and strontium with granite and basalt rocks are continuing. 85

93 Publications Navale, A.S., 'Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Tungsten and Molybdenum with Dithiol 1, BARC-1373 (1987). Navale. A.S., 'Output Formatting in Applesoft Basic', BARC-1374 (1987). Rao, N.K., Rao, M.M. and Shukla, S., 'Studies on Beneficiation of Low Grade Wolframite Ore from Degana, Rajasthan', Proc. of National Workshop on Tungsten Resources Development, Bhubhaneshwar, (1987). P.99 Iyer, N.V., Venkitakrishnan, R.R., Navale, A.S., Sivaramakfishnan, K. and Murthy, P.S., 'A Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Tungsten in Low Grade Ores and Beneficiation Products', ibid, 147. Shukla, S.K., Rao, M.M., Subrahmanyam, N.P., Iyer, N.V. and Rao, N.K., 'Laboratory Investigations on Recovery of Wolframite from Low Grade Granite-type Ore from Degana, Rajasthan', BARC-1408, Natarajan, R., Shukla, S.K., Sreenivas, T., Narasimhan, D., Iyer, N.V. and Rao, N.K., 'A Preliminary Report on the Beneficiation of Low Grade Tin Ores from Tosham, Haryana', Report Submitted to Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited, Natarajan, R., Padamanabhan, N.P.H., Sridhar, U., Rao, M. and Rao, N.K., 'Beryl Crushing and Grinding Operations at Modified Mill Facility in Ore Dressing Section, Hyderabad', ODS Report, Padmanabhan, N.P.H., Iyer, N.V. and Rao, N.K., 'Feasibility of Beneficiation by Jigging of Low Grade Iron Ore Samples from SIIL', Report Submitted to Sponge Iron India Limited, Rao, M.M., Shukla, K., Narasimhan, D., Iyer, N.V. and Rao, N.K., 'Recovery of Scheelite from Tungsten Ore from Karungalakudi, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu', Report Submitted to Geological Survey of India, Sh/aramakrishnan, K., Navale, A.S., Venkitakrishnan, R.R., Murthy, P.S. and Iyer, N.V., 'Uranium-Phosphoric Acid Fluorescence System: A Detailed Study', VI I.S.A.S. Symposium, Shillong Jha, R.S., Natarajan, R., Sreenivas, T., Sridhar, U. and Rao, K., 'Amenability of Uranium Ores of Singhbhum to Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separation', BARC/l-947, Ganguly, C, 'Sol-gel Microsphere Pelletisation Process for Fabrication of High Density ThO 2 Blankets and ThO 2 Based PHWR Fuels', Trans, of IIM, 41(3), Ganguly, C, Zimmer, E., Borchardt, J.andLangen.H., 'SGMP - An Advanced Method for Fabrication of UO 2 and MOX Fuel Pellets', Journal of Nuclear Materials, 152, 169 Ganguly, C, 'Sol gel Microsphere Pelletisation of Ceramic Nuclear Fuels', Materials Science Forum, V , 845, Ed. Trans. Tech. Publications Ltd., Switzerland, Ganguly, C, 'Advanced Methods for Fabrication of Mixed Uranium Plutonium Oxide Monocarbide and Mononitride Fuels for Fast Breeder Reactors', Transaction of the Indian Ceramic Society, 51, Panakkal, J.P. and U n, J.K., 'A Sirr;'? Model for Neutron Radiography of Uranium Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel Pins'. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 153, 82 Ganguly, C. and Sengupta, A.K., 'Out of Pile Chemical Compatibility of Hyperstoichiometric (Pu 0 7 U 0 3 )C with Stainless Steel Cladding and Sodium Coolant', ibid. 158, 159 Ganguly, C, Jain, G.C., Ghosh, J.K. and Roy, P.R., The Role of Process Control and Inspection Steps in the Quality Assurance of SS 316 Clad Plutonium Uranium Carbide Fuel Pin for FBTR', ibid., 153, 178 Ota, S.B., Rao, T.V.C., Viswanadham, C.S. and Sahani, V.C., 'The Maximum Sintering Temperature and Electrical Characteristics of the High-T c Superconductivity of Ba z Cu 3 0 7)1 >, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (UK), 21,1308 Basak, U., Sengupta, A.K. and Ganguly,, 'Hot Hardness and Thermal Conductivity of ThO 2 -PuO? ;and 86

94 ThO a -UO 2 )'. JOM-Letters, 7, 12 Ganguly, C, Hegde, P.V. and Sengupta, A.K.,'Status of (UPu)C and (UPu)N Fuel Development in BARC, Proc. Tech. Meet, of Advanced Fuel for Fast Breeder Reactors, IAEA-TECDOC-466, Vienna, Ganguly, C, 'Emerging Nuclear Fuels', Proc. of the National Seminar on Advances in Metal Sciences, Calcutta Ganguly, C, 'Advanced Methods for the Fabrication of PHWR and LMFBR Fuels', BARC-1421 Sethumadhavan, V., Jathan, V.P. and Sah, D.N., 'Quantitative Fractography of Impact Tested Specimens', BARC/l-962 Srivastava, B.B. and Ghosh, J.K., 'Neutron Induced Alpha Autoradiography - A Novel Technique for Studying Boron Distribution in Materials', National Conf. on Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Bombay, Purushotham, D.S.C. and Kamath, H.S., 'Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Experience and the MOX Plant', Symposium on Nuclear Fuel Fabrication, Bombay Bharghava, V.K., Noranha, D.M. and Sharma, J.,'A New Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Microamounts of Uranium', Radiochemistry Radiation C h 3mistry Symposium, Bombay Bhargava, V.K., Oak, M.S., Ramaswami, A. and Satya Prakash, 'Absolute Yields of Fission Products "Mo and 13Z Te in the Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf', ibid. Kasar, U.M., Sagar, V.B., Joshi, A R. and Bhargava, V.K., 'Studies on Controlled Potential Coulometric Determination of Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Samples', ibid. Chandrasekharan, K.N., Panakkal, J.P., Patil, B.P. and Ghosh, J.K., 'Quantitative Assessment of Beam Effect in Radiography of Nuclear Fuel Plates and Its Removal by Digital Image Processing', British Journal of NDT (U.K), 30, 170 Chandrasekharan, K.N., Panakkal, J.P. and Ghosh, J.K., 'Quantitative Evaluation of Diverse Nuclear Fuels Using Radiography Techniques', 9th International Conference on Nondestructive Evaluation in the Nuclear Industry, Tokyo (1988), ASM, p Panakkal, J.P., Ghosh, J.K. and Roy, P.R., 'Nondestructive Characterisation of Mixed Oxide Pellets in Welded Nuclear Fuel Pins by Neutron Radiography and Gamma Autoradiograpy', Proceed. Third International Symposium on Nondestructive Characterisation of Materials, Saarbruken, F.R.G. (1988) Ed. P.Holler, Springer Verlag, Berlin. Pankkal, J.P., Peukert, H. and Willams, hi/nondestructive Characterisation of Material Properties by an Automated Ultrasonic Technique', ibid. Panakkal, J.P., 'Nondestructive Characterisation of Material Using Ultrasonic', Fraunhefer Institute for NDT, Saarbruken, F.R.G. Report No IZFR No TW. Prasad, A.N., 'Uranium Reserves Mobilization in India', Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Management - Indian Experience, Indo - Egyptian Seminar on Nuclear Energy, Egypt Raju, R.P., Subbalaxmi, I. and Kumar, S.V., 'A PC Based Process Performance Analysis System for a Reprocessing Plant', Nat. Symp. on Personal Computers in Science and Engineering, Bombay Siddiqui, H.R., Raju, R.P. and Kumar, S.V., 'PC - An Elegant MIS Tool', ibid. Chhokra, R.S., 'Computerised Central Radiation Protection Control for a Radiochemical Plant 1, ibid. Jayaram, M.N., 'Enhancing the Usability of MS-DOS with an On-line Monitor', ibid. Joshi, M.V., Kulkami, V.T., Kulkarni, P.G., Dhakras, S.P. and Pant, D.K., 'An Emission Spectrographic Method for the Determination of Zirconium in the Process Solution of a Fuel Reprocessing Plant', National Symp. on Analytical Spectroscopy Including Hyphenated Techniques (AE 13), Hyderabad 87

95 Moorthy, A.O., Singh, R.K., Babbar, R.K.. Udagatti, S.V., Subramanian, S.P., Pawar, S.S. and Joy, M.D., 'On- Une Measurement of Uranium In Product Solution of a Reprocessing Plant by Passive Gamma Ray Spectrometry', Radtochemlstry and Radiation Chemistry Symp., (RA-35), Bombay Gurba, P.V., Ohakras, S.P., Chaugale, G.A., Venkateswaran, S., Singh, R.K. andsundareshan, M., 'Controlled Potential Secondary Coulometric Determination of Plutonium in Presence of Silver', (RA-8) ibid. Singh, R.K.., Gurba, P.V. and Sundareshan, M., 'Preferential Plutonium Dioxide Dissolution Using Silver Catalysed Electroiyser', ibid. (CT-03). Gopalakarishnan, V., Kannan, R., Ramanujam, A.A and Dhumwad, R.K., 'Recovery and Purification of U- 233 from U-233-AI Alloy Scrap 1, ibid. (CT-04). Kulkarni. R.T., Gopalakrishnan, V., Kutty, P.V.E., Mukherjee, A., Ramanujam, A. and Dhumwad, R.K., 'Separation and Purification of U 233 from Boron and Other Impurities', ibid. (CT-05). Kartha. P.K.S., Ravi, S., Achuthan, P.V., Das, S.K., Madhusudan, A., Janardanan, G, Rao, SreenivasaK., Ramanujam, A. and Dhumwad, R.K., 'Anion Exchange Purification of Plutonium at Lower Acidities', ibid. (CT-06). PintuSen, Divakar, S.D. and Varadarajan, N., 'Feasibility Studies for the Removal of Entrained and Dissolved TBPfrom Purex Stream UsingDuolite-S861', ibid. (CT- 11). Shah, B.V., Kaimal, C.K.R., SkJdiqui, I.A. and Kumar, S. V., 'A Direct Reading On-line Flowrate Meter for Use in Radiochemical Plant', BARC-1387 Sirgh, R.K, Moorthy, A.D., Chandrasekhar, R.R., Gurba, P.B., Babbar, R.K. and Udagatty, S.V., 'Analysis of Uranium and Plutonium Using a Multicollector System Thermal lonlzation Mass Spectrometer', 4th National Symp. Mass Spectrometry, (NT 2), Bangalore, Moorthy, A.D., Babbar, R.K., Udagatti, S.V., Subramaniam, S.P., Chandrasekar, R.R., Gurba, P.B. and Singh, R.K., 'Double Spike Technique with Interfering Isotope Correction for the Accurate Isotope Ratio and Concentration Measurement of Plutonium', ibid. Kumar, S.V., 'Process Control Aspects in a Radiochemical Plant', The Visitex - 88, Bombay, Moorthy, A.D., Chandrashekhar, R.R. and Singh, R.K., 'Software Development in Basic Language for Laboratory Applications in Repro-cessing Plant', National Symp. on PCs in Science and Engg., (EA11), Bombay Kumar, S.V., 'Material Balance in Chemical Industry', Workshop on Environmental Impact Assessment Guideline, Bombay Siddiqui, I.A., Shah, B.V., Tadpale. S.H. and Kumar, S.V., 'A Continuous Process for Precipitation of Ammonium diuranate from Uranyi Solution - Part I', BARC Dhumwad, R.K., Patwardhan, A.B., Kulkarni, V.T. and Radhakrishnan, K., 'An ICP-AES Method for Quality Control of Water Required in Nuclear Facilities', National Symposium on Analytical Applications in Earth Sciences (p.33), Shillong Chhokra, R.S., Siddiqui, I.A. and Kumar, S.V., 'Role of On-Line Monitors in Radiochemical Plant', Indo- German Workshop on Techniques for Materials Characterisation, Hyderabad 88

96 RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND PROTECTION 7.1 Health Physics Radiation protection surveillance to ensure radiation safety in the various DAE installations covering the entire nuclear fuel cycle was provided. Health physics services were effectively provided for Dhruva reactor at the various stages of operation. Argon - 41 release from Dhruva was measured as 46.6 TBq/d (1260 Ci/d) and was found to be in agreement with theoretical estimates. Feasibility studies for standardising a continuous stack monitor for reactor to give a complete radionuciide inventory using a germanium detector are being carried out at Cirus. Assistance was given in the planning of radiation protection aspects in the design of new plants such as KARP, WIP and PEP. Health physics surveillance is being provided to the Pelletron facility at TIFR. Investigations for developing techniques for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry have been carried out at VEC. A novel technique of unfolding pulse height spectra using "maximum entropy principle" was developed. The shielding design for the new synchrotron to be installed at CAT, Indore, was evaluated. The environmental surveillance programme at Trombay showed that the average exposure due to consumption of fish obtained from Bombay harbour bay is only 1 usv/y, and the maximum external exposure even at the effluent discharge point is 65 usv/y, same as in the last year. A microprocessor based Radon Working Level Monitor and a continuous radon monitor were developed and are being used at the uranium mines at Jaduguda to control further internal exposure to workers from radon daughter products. The personnel radon dose monitoring programme was continued and steps are being taken to extend it to all workers. Active assistance was given in the site selection for the new uranium oxide and zirconium oxide plant of NFC and in their environmental impact analysis. Work on the distribution of radium in the Periyar river in the vicinity of the Indian Rare Earths Plant at Alwaye was continued. Monitoring of ground water around RCC waste trenches at the plant site showed no seepage of activity. Environmental surveillance for nitrate at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, was pursued. A steel room Is being set up there for providing internal dosimetric service to uranium workers. The steel room at the Health and Safety Laboratory at Tarapur is in the final stages of commissioning. A computer based whole body scanner for medical applications was set up at the KEM Hospital, Bombay. The internal dosimetric service for all radiation workers was continued. Radiological safety surveillance was provided for the normal and special operations of the TAPS, RAPS and MAPS nuclear power plants. The collective and individual doses to workers were effectively controlled. Active help was given in the planning and execution of the feed water sparger inspection work at TAPS. Environmental dose and activity measurements around Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) sites were continued. Health physics and environmental surveillance work was initiated at Narora. The Environmental Survey and Meteorological Laboratory has started functioning and necessary base line data have been collected. The average radiation background for Narora has been estimated as 0.9 msv/y to 2.43 msv/yuptoa distance of 26 km. Assistance was given for the emergency preparedness programme and for the emergency drills at TAPS, RAPS, MAPS and NAPP. The country-wide external dose measurements using TLDs are being augmented with internal dose measurement from radon and daughter products to assess the background radiation levels. Work is initiated to establish base line cancer risks in the work population in DAE. Food stuff monitoring for mandatory clearance from radioactivity for imports and exports was carried out. Safe limits of radioactivity in food stuffs were derived. Investigations on aerosol physics have led to the development of a BARC aerosol generator, which is now internationally accepted for use in lung scintigraphy for nuclear medicine applications. A number of these units have been supplied to hospitals in India and abroad. The Site Emergency Control Centre for Trombay is being organised. The Centre is already equipped with remote environmental dose-logging system using VHF telemetry and meteorological data acquisition systems. It is being equipped with other data processing systems and radiation survey instruments to meet any emergency in the Trombay 89

97 site. Work on a main frame computer-based emergency preparedness system with on-line subsystems and remote terminals has been initiated at Tarapur for eventual deployment at nuclear power plant sites. 7.2 Radiological Protection Radiation safety programme was continued to be implemented in all institutions in the country using radioisotopes and radiation sources for medical, industrial and research applications. Personnel monitoring service was provided to 32,865 radiation workers in 2777 institutions from both DAE and non DAE establishments using film and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The average dose received by all the radiation workers during the year was 1.68 miilisievert (msv) per person as compared to 2 msv during the last year. Indigenously developed and fabricated TLDs for personnel monitoring were made in large numbers in collaboration with a local firm and its use was progressively increased. Approval was accorded to the installation of a number of medical and industrial radiography equipment, linear accelerators for radiography and a high intensity gamma irradiation facility for sterlization of medical products. Radiological protection surveys were conducted in 55 medical and 235 industrial installations. Source loading operations were supervised in 18 radiotherapy installations. 1,582 mgm of radium was collected for disposal from various medical institutions. Radiography sources lost from two institutions were recovered. Safe transport of radioactive materials within the country was ensured. A high purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a large diameter proportional counter were set-up for standardization of radionuclkjes. The HPGe is being used for international intercomparison of Selenium- 75. A new facility using Cobalt-60 source has been set-up for calibration of radiation protection instruments. Under the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP), an intercomparison for radiation exposure has been carried out using the newly installed kv X-ray machine. Both active and passive type thermal neutron detectors for use in a multisphere neutron spectrometer have been tested. Postal dose intercomparison using TL dosimeter was carried out for 102 gamma teletheraf machines. A postal dose intercomparison service f< medical accelerators using the FBX chemical dosim ter was started. The number of companies using tr coloured indicators for identification of radiatic sterilized medical pro-ducts has increased to mo than 100, and about 15 lakh indicators were supplier A number of radiation dosimetry instruments ar radiation sources were calibrated. Service facili for instruments was also provided. Specialise instruments required for radiation safety programrr like TLD badge readers, secondary standard dosirrn ters, radiation monitor, etc. were fabricated and als a few were supplied to outside institutions. Among the new instruments developed are (i) An instrument for quality assurance testing i diagnostic X-ray units, (ii) Microprocessor controlle interface for the optical dens'rtometer with a PC f< fast reading of personnel monitoring films, data sto age and dose computations, (iii) Clinical dosimeter ft brachytherapy, (iv) Scintillation monitor for monitorin very low radiation levels, and (v) Compact radiatic monitor for monitoring radiation levels upto 0.2 G> hour. A number of new instruments were develops for monitoring environmental pollutants. About 1500 samples of food products froi import and export consignments, including dairy ar farm products, cereals, pulses, etc. were analysed f< radioactivity. Country-wide environmental radii activity monitoring programme was continued. E vironmental samples were analysed for measurir radioactivity of Chernobyl origin. Monitoring ofindo radon, particularly in high back-ground areas, w< carried out. Ten fall-out monitoring stations at varioi places in the country have been established to dete any nuclear releases to the environment. Trace el ments in coal and fly ash; hydrocarbons, toxic gas and heavy metals in atmosphere; and microwa radiation around radiofrequency sources we determined at various locations in and around Boi bay to assess the environmental impact of the pollutants. 7.3 Occupational Health and Industrial Safety Inspection of various units of DAE has be carried out for ensuring the compliance with t statutory requirements of the various factories ac relevant parts of Atomic Energy Rules and other ac 90

98 Inspection reports were submitted to the Atomic give data pertaining to hazardous ingredients were Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The Atomic Energy prepared. Instruments were procured to monitor the (Factories) Rules of 1984 were revised on the basis of levels of some harmful substances present In the operational experience. Safety Data Sheets which work environment. 91

99 Publications Basu, A.S., Bhat, I.S., Venkatesan, S. and Nambi, K.S.V., 'External Radiation Monitoring in TAPS Environs Using TLDs ( )', BARC-1428 Dang, H.S., Pullat, V.R., Jaiswal, D.D., Parameswaran, M. and Sunta, CM., 'Daily Intake of Uranium by an Indian Population 1, Proc. 2nd International Conference on Low Level Measurement of Actintdes and Long Lived Radionuclides in Biological and Environmental Materials, Akita City, Japan Katoch, D.S., Bhasin,B.D.,Ghatikar 1 C.B. 1 Vidhani, J.M. and Sunta, CM., 'A MicroprocessorBased Whole Body Linear Profile Scanner for Clinical Applications', Annual Conference of the Society of Nuclear Medicine in India, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh Nambi, K.S.V. and Soman, S.D., 'Comments on Alternatives to the BER Relative Risk Model for Explaining Atomic Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality by Cohen, B.L 1, Health Phys. 55(3). 579 Nambi, K.S.V. and Soman, S.D., 'Cancer Population Density and Environmental Radiation in India - Reply to Archirs Comments', ibid, 55(55), 826 Nambi, K.S.V., Suntiaram, V.K. and Soman, S.D., "Indian Life-Table and Radio Carcinaglnic Risk Estimates in Radiation Protection Practice'. Proc. of IRPA 7 Congress Sydney, Pergamon Press, v.3, p Nambi, K.S.V. and Soman, S.D., 'A - Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality Data : Risk Estimates and Predictions', Proc. of IAEA Meeting on Radiation Protection in Nuclear Energy, Sydney Sunta, CM., 'Dosirnetry and Special Application of Activation Analysis', Proc. 4th Inter-national Symposium on Radiation Physics, Sao Paulo, Brazil Sunta, CM., Dang, H.S., Jaiswci, D.D. and Soman, S.D., Thorium in Human Serum, Clot and Urine - Comparison with ICRP Excretion Model', Proc. 2nd international Conference on Low Level Mea-surement of Actinides and Long Lived Radionuclides in Biological and Environmental Materials, Akita City, Japan Abani, M.C., Murthy, K.B.S. and Sunta, CM., 'Organ Burdens and Excretion Rates of Inhaled Uraniurr Computations Using ICRP Model', BARC-1435 Abrahm.J.V., 'Solvent Extraction Studies of Uranium Alkyl Phosphoric Acid System', M.Sc. Thesis, Bombay University Abrol, V. and Shirvaikar, V.V., 'Effect of Stack Efflux Velocity on Routine Gaseous Discharge Rate Specification', BARC/l-944 Babar, A.K., Saraf, R.K. and Sanyasirao, V.V.S., Technical Note 'Reliability Improvement in Electric Motor Operated Values', Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 23,159 Bapat, V.N., Abrol, V. and Shirvaikar, V.V., 'Extreme Value Analysis for Evaporation Pond Facilitiy', BARC/I- 936 Bhasin, B.D., Kathuria, S.P. and Moharil, S.V., 'Some Pecularities of Photo-Transfer Thermoluminescence inuftld-100', Phys. Stat Sol. (a), 106, 271. Bhasin, B.D., Kathuria, S.P. and Sunta, CM., 'A Low Temperature Study of Photo-Transfer Thermoluminescence in Lif TLD-100', Rad. Eff., 106. (1-2), 77. Chandrasekhar, M.V.S., Venkateswara, N., Bhuloka Reddy, Satya Narayana, G., Sastry, D.L., Iyer, M.R. and Sahasrabudhe, S.G., 'Anomalous Conversion oi 127 KeV (E-3) Transition in 134 Cs', Z. Phys. A. Atomic Nuclei, 330,161 Hukkoo, R.K., Bapat, V.N. and Shirvaikar, V.V. 'Manual for Dose Evaluation from Atomospherk Releases', BARC/l-1412 Bhanti, D.P., Gone), CO., Joshi, V.B., Bhagwat, A.M and Nambi. K.S.V., 'Callibration of CR-39Tract Detecto Film for the Passive Meaurement of Radon Thoronarx Their Daughters in Air', Fifteenth Conference on Radia tion Protection, Regional Research Laboratory Hyderabad Basu, A.S.. Mehta, N.K., Nambi, K.S.V. and Sunta, CM 'A Five Year Report on the Gamma Radiation Surve TLD in Power Station nvirons'. ibid. 92

100 lyengar, T.S., Rajasekhara Rao, B., Iyer, M.R. and Somasundaram, S.,'Analysis of Radiation Exposure Data Among Patients of Radiation Medicine Practices Using MIRD Methodology', ibid. Joshi, S.N. and Doshi, G.R., M38 I In Environment Around A Nuclear Reprocessing Plant', ibid. Katoch, D.S., Bhasin, B.D. and Sunta, CM., 'Selection of Civil Construction Material for Thorax Counting Facility at NFC, Hyderbad', ibid. Krishnamoorthy, T.M., Nair, R.N. and SarmaJ.P., 'Effect of Ocean Dumping of "C on Collective Dose Equivalent Commitment to World Population, ibid. Krishnan Narayani, Tommie Hirayama, Sahasrabudhe, S.G. and Iyer, M.R., 'Analysis of Uranium in Effluent with Super Equilibrium Content of ^h', ibid. Khan,A.H.,Gohel,C.O. 1 Raghavayya, M. and Nambiar, P. P. V.J.,'Measurement of the Potential Alpha Energy of Thoron Progeny in Air', ibid. Nair, P.S. and Sharma, R.M., 'A Gravity Sample for Air- Bome Tritium Measurements', ibid. Nambi, K.S.V. and Viswanathan, P.S., 'X-Ray Exposure Levels from Colour TV Sets', ibid. Narayanan, K.K.,Jain, V.K., Pillai, K.C.and Subbaratnam, T.,'Permissible Level of Radio-nuclides in Food Items - The Indian Approach', ibid. Oommen, I.K., Sengupta, S. and lyengar, T.S., 'Solid State Gamma Dosimetry in Mega Range by Optical Measurements', ibid. Paul, A.C., Pillai, P.M.B., Komalan Nair, S., Velayudhan, T. and Pillai, K.C., 'Mobilisation of Radionuclides in Natural Radiation High Background Areas', ibid. Pillai, P.M.B., Manian, C.G., Paul, A.C., Iyer, M.R. and Pillai, K.C., 'A Field Method for the Determination of Thoron Daughter Working Level in Monazite Processing Plants', ibid. Pimputkar, D.P., Mogal, M.P., Patil, A.S. and Mehta, S.K., 'Source Transit Exposure at Gamma Irradiation Facilities at BARC, ibid. Pradhan, S.D., Mehta, N.K., Kirthi, K.N. and Nambl, K.S.V., 'Radiation Survey Around a 4 MeV Electron Accelerator', ibid. Pullat, V.R., Dang, H.S., Jaiswal, D.D. and Sunta, CM., 'Comparison of Three Analytical Techniques of Thorium Estimation in Bioassay', ibid. Pushparaja, 'Suggested Guidance Level for Natural Uranium in Drinking Water', ibid. Rajasekhara Rao, B., Babu, D.A.R., Samant, R.K., lyengar, T.S. and Somasundaram, S., 'Ambient Radiation Levels from Patients Administeded with Different Radiopharmaceuticals', ibid. Ramamritham, B., Varadhan, R.S., Chudalayandi, K. and Viswambharan, K.R., 'Radiation Dose Distribution Pattern : A Study', ibid. Rangarajan, R., Sawant, P.B., Watawmar, S.B. and Nambiar P.P.V.J., 'Application of ALARA Principle in Airborne Radioactivity Releases During Machinising Operations of Uranium Rods', ibid. Ravi, P.M.. Kamath, K.V. and Mehta, S.K., Trapping Efficiencies of an Activated Charcoal Chartidge for Organic and Inorganic Forms of Iodine', ibid. Ravi, P.M., Iyer, M.R., Bhat, I.S., Somasundaram, S. and Subramanian, M.S.,'Specific Activity of 1Z9 I in Environmental Sample;, ibid. Sachan, S.R. and Filial, K.C., Technet;um-99 in Trombay Marine Environment', ibid. Sastry, V.N., Raut, S.J., Kulkarni, V.V., Dey, N.N., Bapat.V.N., Desai.M.V.M. and Pillai, K.C.'Evaluationof Dilution Factors Available for Radioactive Effluents Discharged into Bombay Harbour Bay', ibid. Kumar, S.S., Desal, M.V.M. and Pillai, K.C., 'Dasorption of 137 Cs from Bottom Sediment of Bombay Harbour Bay', ibid. 93

101 Sawant Jyotl, V., Thampan, S., Bangera, V.S., Dalvl, S.A.andKamalaRudran. 'Internal Radiation Dose from Tritlated Water in Workshops Handling Tritium Activated Self-luminous Paint', ibid. Sharma, R.C., Haridasan, T.K., Surendran, T., Viswanathan, S., Surya Rao, B.and Sunta, CM., 'Inhalation Safety Status in NFC Plants as Reflected in the Results of In-vivo Thorax Monitoring', ibid. Thampan, S., Sawant Jyoti, V., Kamala Rudran and Sunta, CM., 'Excretion of Plutonium and Americium Following a Case of Exposure by Inhalation', ibid. Vashi, V.D., Sah, B.M.L and Subbaratnam, T., 'Environmental Monitoring Programme for Kakrapar Atomic Power Station - A Review', ibid. lyengar, T.S., Iyer, M.R., Subbaratnam, T., Somasundaram, S. and Pillai, K.C., 'Annual Report on Health Physics Surveillance Activities in BARC and Other DAE Facilitaies in Bombay for 1987', BARC/l-941 lyengar, T.S., Chakraborty, P.P. and Iyer, M.R.,'Report on R&D Activities of Health Physics Division', BARC-I/ 942 lyengar, T.S., Sengupta, S., Oommen, I.K., Kirthi, K.N., Mehta, N.K., Nambi, K.S.V. and Somasundaram, S., 'Radiological and Conventional Safety Assessment of a 7 MeV Pulsed Electron Accelerator at Trombay', Indian J. of Physics, 62A(6), 631 Kale, M.S., Joshi, V.B., Bhagwat, A.M.M., Sharma, D.N.Jyer, M.R. and Chaddha, V.K,'A Versatile Microprocessor Based Image Analysis System for Application in the Field of SSNTD', National Symp. Cum- Workshop on Advances in Imaging & Image Processing, Bombay Krishnan, S., Subbaratnam, T. and Sarma, T.P., 'Environmental Considerations in Siting of Nuclear Power Stations', Energy Environment Monitor, 4, (1) Kathuria, S.P., Bhasin, B.D. and Moharil, S.V., 'On the mechanism of Photo-Transfer Thermduminescence in L«TLD-TLD-100 1, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 647 Khatua, R., 'Analysis of Per-sonnel Radiation Expo sures in Nuclear Installations of DAE for the year 1986' BARC/l-945. Khatua, R., Analysis of Per-sonnel Radiation Exposures in Nuclear Installations of DAE for the year 1987', BARC/l-952. Khatua, R., Srivastava, D.N. and Somasundaram, S.,'A System of Phonetic Code for Radiation Workers', 7th International Congress of International Radiation Protection Association, Sydney, v. 3, p Kulkarni.R.N., Kadle, V.P., Unnithan, U.,Rao, V.V.S.S., Chellam, Y. and Babar, A.K., The Use of Personal Computers in Level I Probabilitstic Safety Analysis', National Symposium on Personal Computers in Science and Engineering, BARC Sharma, D.N., Suri, M.M.K., Raman, N., Sharangpani, K.K., Joshi, G.H., Jethmalani, P.S., Kale, M.S. and Iyer, M.R., 'Interfacing of the Intel 8085 based HPD 4K-MCA with an IBM-PC", ibid. Mogal, M.P., Bhagwat, A. M., Venkatramani, R., Swaminathan, N. and Rangarajan, C, 'Radiation Induced Changes in Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Insulating Materials', Bull. Rad. Prot, 11, (1&2), 115 Moharil, S.V. and Kathuria, S.P., 'Rapid Read-out Studies of Thermoluminescence in LiF TLD-100' Crystal Lattice Defects and Amorphous Materials, Nair, R.N., Krishnamoorthy, T.M. and Sarma, T.P. 'Role of Sediment on Migration of Radionuclide: in Rivers', Ind. J. Environmental Health, 30(1), 7 Paranjpe, S.K., Gaonkar, V.G., Suri, M.M.K., Kale, M.S and Sharma, D.N., 'IBM-PC Based Dose Acquisitio and Control System for Powder Neutron Diffractome ter', News Letter of Neutron Beam Research Grour. BARC, 1(2) Pimputkar, D.P., Mogal, M.P., Patil,AS.and Mehtf 94

102 S.K., 'Source Transit Exposure at Gamma Irradiation Facilities at BARC, Bull. Radiat. Prot. 11 (1&2), 69 Pushparaja,, Abraham, J.V., Sawant, P.B. and Nambiar, P.P.V.J., 'Operational Health Physics Experience in Uranium Metal Plant at Trombay after Expansion ( )', BARC/l-960 Sangurdekar, P.R. and Mehta, S.K., 'Fast Neutron Response of Quartz Fibre Pocket Dosimeters', Bull. Radiat. Prot. 11 (1&2), 17 Sangurdekar, P.R. and Sudershanan, M., 'Solvent Extraction Studies of Mixed Chelates of Europium', Indian Journal of Chemistry, 27A, 523 Sangurdekar, P.R. and Sudershanan, M., 'Synergism in the Extraction of Thulium', Proceedings of Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Symposium, Bombay Shirvaikar, V.V., 'A Personal Computer Program for Radiological Impact Evaluation after Accident', BARC/l-1401 Sitaraman, V., Abrol, V. and Shirvaikar, V.V., 'Emergency Dose Manual for Atmospheric Release during LOCA', BARC/l-943 Khandekar, R.N., Tripathi, R.M., Raghunath, R. and Mishra, U.C., 'Simultaneous Determination of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in Surface Soils', Indian J. Environ. Health, 30(2), 98 Tripathi, R.M., Khandekar, R.N. and Mishra, U.C., Toxic Trace Metals in the Atmosphere of Moradabad (India)', Environmental Health, July, Tripathi, R.M., Khandekar.R.N., Radha Raghunath and Mishra, U.C., 'Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Atmosphere in India 1, International Conference on Tropical Micrometeorology and Air Pollution, Delhi Sachdev, R.N., Swarup, G. and Rajan, K.K., 'Safety Surveys of a Few Industrial and Laboratory Optical Source at Trombay Using a Fast Radiometer', Bull. Radiat. Prot. 11(3), v.1, p. 346 Sachdev, R.N., Swarup, G. and Rajan, K.K., 'Safety in the Use of Non-ionising Radiation: A few Sample Surveys', Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of IRPA, Sydney Sachdev, R.N., 'Effect of Absorption of Non-Ionising Electromagnetic Radiation in Animals and Human Beings - A Review', National Symposium on Biohazards of Radiation Zoology (1988) (Invited Talk). Nair, P.V.N., 'Growth of Particles of Mixed Composition in the Atmosphere as a Function of Relative Humidity, 1988', European Aerosol Conference, Lund, Nair, P.V.N. and Sathe, A.P., 'Effect of Nucleation and Condensation in a CNC on Trace Levels of SO 2 Present in Atomospheric Air Samples', Lecture Notes in Physics, 309, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Aerosols and Nucleation, Vienna, Eds. Paul E. Wagner and Gabor Vali, 616. Joshi, P.V., 'Density of Atmospheric Aerosols', ibid, 134. Gupta, J.P., 'Microwave Radiation Hazards from Radars and Other High Power Microwave Generators', Defence Science Journal, July Gupta, J.P., 'Microwave Radiation Field Around Radars and Other High Power Microwave Generators', 15th Conference on Radiation Protection, Hyderabad Sawant, V.D., 'Studies on the Concentration of Condesation Nuclei in the Atomosphere', M.Sc. (Thesis), University of Bombay Mohan Rao, A.M. and Pandit, G.P., 'Gas Chromatographic Determination of C 2 -C 10 Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Air by Preconcentration at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature', International Seminar on Analytical Techniques for Monitoring the Environment, Tirupati (1989). Shaikh, G.N., Pandit, G.G., Mohan Rao, A.M. and Mishra, U.C., 'Determination of Ethylene and Other 95

103 Reactive Hydrocarbons in Indian Tobacco Source In Evaluation of Risk from their Inhalation', The Science of the Total Environ., 74,67 Subba Ramu, M.C., Muraleedharan, T.S. and Ramachandran, T.V., 'Calibration of a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector for the Measurement of Indoor Levels of Radon and its Daughters', ibid, 73,245 Mohan Rao, A.M. and Pandit, G.G., 'Concentrations of C 2 C S Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Air at Deonar In Relation to Possible Sources', Atmos. Environ., 22(2), 395 (1968). Pandit, G.G. and Mohan Rao, A.M., 'Evaluation of Autoexhaust Contribution to Atomospheric C 2 C 5 Hydrocarbonsat Deonar, Bombay', Int. Symp.on Micrometeorology and Air Pollution, New Delhi SubhaRamu, M.C., Shaikh, G.N., Muraleedharan, T.S. andramchandran,t.v., 'A Study of Seasonal Variation in the Indoor Concentration of Radon and its Progeny', Bui. of Radiat. Prot., 11, (1&2), 81 Ramachandran, T.V., Muraleedharan, T.S., Subba Ramu, M.C., Khan, A.J. and Varshney, A.K., 'Calibration of CR-39 Nuclear Track Detectors for the Measurement of Indoor Radon and its Progeny Concentration in Dwellings', ibid, 11, (1&2), 109 Khan, A.J., Varshney. A.K., Rajendra Prasad, Thyagi, R.K. and Ramachandran, T.V., 'Calibration of CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors for Radon Monitoring', 14th Int. Conf. on SSNTD, Lahore Ramachandran, T.V., Subba Ramu, M.C. and Mishra, U.C., 'Assessment of Radiological Effect of Indoor Radon and its Progeny', BARC-1432 Ramachandran, T.V. and Mishra, U.C., 'Radiological Impact of Air Borne Releases from Coal Fired Power Plants in India', Int. Conf. on Environmental Impact Analysis in Developing Countries.New Delhi Subba Ramu.M.C, Shaikh, G.N., Muraleedharan, T.S. and Ramachandran, T.V., 'Evaluation of an Average Effective Dose Equivalent to the Public from Indoor Radon and Its Progeny in India', Workshop Environmental Radiations, Univ. of Mysore Khandekar, R.N., Tripathl, R.M., Raghunath, R. a Mishra, U.C., 'Differential Pulse Voltametry in Monit ing of Trace Metals In Air and Water', National Semii on Electroanalytic Techniques, Mysore (1987). Ashawa, S.C., Khandekar, R.N. and Mishra, U. 'Concentration Levels of Cadmium, Lead, Copper a Zinc in Precipitation at Urban and Remote Area Us! DPASV, ibid. Mishra, U.C., 'Comparable Behaviour of Radionuclki from Chernobyl Reactor Accident and from Global R out'. Second Int. Conf. on Low-Level Measurements Actinides and Long-lived Radionuclides inbiologii and Environmental Samples, Akita City Sadasivan, S., Negi, B.S. and Mishra, U.C., 'Atmc pheric Lead Levels in Some Cities in India', Ind. En\ ron. Health, 29, 4,280 (1987). Negi, B.S., Sadasivan, S. and Mishra, U.C., 'Fad Analysis in the Interpretation of Aerosol Compositi Data', ibid, 30,1, 32 Sadasivan, S. and Mishra, U.C., 'Studies on Fade from Chernobyl Reactor Accident', 7th Natio Conference on Radiation Physics, Mangali (1987). Anand, S.J.S., Rangarajan, C. and Mishra, U. 'Aerosol Residence Time Calculations Using Bi-2' Pb-210 Activity Ratios of Atmospheric Pariculati 12th Int. Conf. on Atomspheric Aerosols and Nucl tion, Vienna Nair, P.V.N. and Mishra, U.C., 'An Analysis of Press Variation In a Condensation Nucleus Counter Dui Expansion', ibid. Mishra, U.C., 'Radioactivity Measurements at Ant; tica', Workshop on Antarctica Studies, NPL, New D Mishra, U.C., 'Role of Automatic Air Monito of Pollutants in Disaster Control and Emerge 96

104 Preparedness', Air Pollution, '88 National Convention, Bombay Mishra, M.C., 'Wonders of Atomic Energy (In Hindi)', NCERT. New Delhi Mishra, U.C., 'New Developments in Instrumentation for Air Quality Monitoring 1, ENVIROTECH, '88 International Conference, Bombay Mishra, U.C., 'Studies on Aerosol Composition and Size Distribution', European Aerosol Conference, Lund Mishra, U.C. and Mahadevan, T.N., 'Concepts in Disaster Prevention Managmement and Control for a Typical Industrial Area', Conference on Disaster Management-Control-Prevention-Precautions and Planning Institute of Mech. Engineers, Bombay Mishra, U.C. and Mahadevan, T.N., 'Gaseous Pollutants Sampling and Analysis for Thermal Power Stations', Workshop on Environmental Pollution from Thermal Power Stations and Its Control, CPRI, Bangalore Ramachandran, T.V. and Mishra, U.C., 'Radiological Impact of Airborne Releases from Coal Fired Power Plants in India', International Conference on Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries, New Delhi Mishra, U.C., 'Environmental Monitoring and Safety Instrumentation', Seminar on Technology Spin-Off from Electronics in Space, Atomic Energy and Defence, Bombay Negi, B.S. and Sadasivan, S., 'Factor Analysis in the Interpretation of Aerosol Composition Data', Indian J. Environ. Health, 31(1), 32(1989). Mahadevan, T.N., Negi, B.S. and Meenakshy, V., 'Measurements on Elemental Composition of Aerosol Matter and Precipttation from a Remote Background Site in India', International Conference on Tropical Micro-Meteorology and Air Pollution, Delhi Sadasivan, S., 'Major, Minor and Trace Elements Characterisation by EDXRF and INAA: Use In Studies on Antarctic Rock Samples', National Symposium on Analytical Applications in Earth Sciences, Shlllong Sadasivan, S., Techniques for Measurement of Radioactivity in the Environment', Workshop on Environmental Radiations, Mysore Bhat, R.M., Narayan, G.R., Nllekani, S.R. and Gupta, B.L, 'Dose Assurance Programme for High Dose Radiation Facilities Using Free Radical Dosimetry (Spectrophotometric Readout)', National Conf. on Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Bombay Nilekani, S.R. and Gupta, B.L, 'A Simplified Procedure for Dosimetry of Radiation Processing Plants Using Glutamine Free Radical Dosimeter 1, ibid.. Gupta, B.L. and Niiekani, S.R., 'Use of Glutamine Dosimeter for Electron Beams used in Radiation Curing', Proc. of Conf. on Radiation Curing, Asia, 391, Tokyo. Gupta, B.L., 'Radiation Dosimetry in Industrial Irradiators', UNDP/IAEA/RCA/ Regional Training Course on Industrial Radiation Sterilizatin Quality Control and Compatibility of Materials, Bombay Sharma, D., Shahani, M.G. and Phadnis, U.V., 'CR-39 Response Measurements to Neutrons in the Energy Range 0.45 to 14.7 MeV, IARP Symposium, Hyderabad Nathuram, R., Sundara Rao, I.S. and Mehta, M.K., 'Photoelectric Cross Section for 6-20 KeV Photons in Beryllium.Carbon, Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Copper and Lead', Phys. Rev. A, 37, 12 Nathuram, R., Subrahmanian, G. and Thontadarya, S.R., 'Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Beta Particles in 4II Geometry', Physica, C-151, 547 Shanta, A., Vijayam, P.N.M.R. and Mishra, U.C., 'Calibration of lridium-192 Wire Sources', AMPI Medical Physics Bulletin, 13(1), 29 97

105 Pradhan, A.S, and Bhatt, R.C., TL Emission Spectra of Glow Peaks of CaF,:Tm', Radial. Prot. Dosim., 20, 237(1987). Pradhan, A.S., 'Fast neutron Response of Sensitised LiF TLD-700', Int. J. Appl. Instr. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 13, 111 (1987). Pradhan, A.S. and Nakra, A.N., 'Highlights of the Seventh National 3ymp. on Radiation Physics', Bulletin of Radiat. Protect., 10,87(1987). Chandra, B., Shinde, S.S., Lakshmanan, A.R. and Bhatt, R.C., 'Radiation Damage in LiF (Mg, Ti) and CaSO,:Dy TLD Phosphors', ibid. 10, 173 (1987). Chandra, B., Shinde, S.S., Lakshmanan, A.R. and Bhatt, R.C., 'Effect of Doping with Monovalent Cation Impurities on the Thermoluminescence Response of CaSO 4 :Dy Phosphor', Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 103, 599 (1987). Srivastava, J.K. and Supe, S.J., 'Activation Energy Distribution of LiF (Mg, Cu, P) TL Phosphor', 7th National Symposium Radiation Physics, Mangalore University, (1987). Pradhan, A.S., 'High-lights of the Ninth Conference on Medical Physics (AMPI), Trivandrum 1, Medical Phys. Bulletin, 13,67 Pradhan, A.S. and Nakra, A.N., 'Seventh Symposium on Radiation Physics', Phys. News, 19, 116 Chandra, B., Lakshmanan, A.R., Shinde, S.S. and Bhatt, R C, 'LaserHeating as Potential Replacement for the Conventional Heating of TLDs - A Comment', Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 18, 114(1987). Srivastava, J.K., 'Role of Non-Radiative Transmition Processes and Mechanism of Linear and Non- Linear-Thermoluminescence Effects (Invited Talk)', International Conference and Intensive Tutorial Course on Semiconductor Material, New Delhi Srivastava, J.K. and Supe, S.J., The Thermoluminescence Characterisation of LiF (Mg, Cu, P) Phosphor', J. Phys. D.: Appl. Physics, 21, 643 Srivastava, J.K. and Supe, S.J., Trap Distribution Analysis of LL,B 4 O 7 :Cu Thermoluminescence Phosphor', Oecond National Symposium on Defects in Insulating Solids, Paper No. B 16, Madras Srivastava, J.K. and Supe, S.J., 'On Mechanism of Linear and Non linear Thermoluminescence Effects', ibid. Shinde, S.S., Lakshmanan, A.R., Bhatt, B.C. and Bhatt, R.C., 'Phototransfer Thermoluminescence in CaSO 4 :Dy - Grain Size Dependence', Nucl. Instrum. and Methods, B 31, 592 Lakshmanan, A.R., Chandra, B. and Bhatt, R.C., The Glow Curve Shapes of Some Thermoluminescence Materials for Alpha and Gamma Radiations', Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Part A, 39(3), 203 Lakshmanan, A.R., Shinde.S.S., Bhatt, R.C. and Supe, S.J., 'Grain Size and Dy Concentration Effects in Thermoluminescent CaSO 4 :Dy', Rad. Prot. Dosim., 22(3), 173 Lakshmanan, A.R., 'Comments on Removal of Sodium from TLD CaSO 4 :Dy', ibid. 22(3), 203 Lakshmanan, A.R., Chandra, B. and Bhatt, R.C., 'Role of F-Centres on the Thermoluminescence Process in Pure and Doped Lithium Fluoride Crystals', Cryst. Lattice Defects Amorphous Mater., 17(4), 431 Lakshmanan, A.R., Bhatt, B.C. and Bhatt, R.C., 'Simultaneous determination of Dose and Elapsed Time After Radiation Exposure using CaSO 4 :Na, Dy 1, 15th IARP Conference on Radiation Protection, Hyderabad (1988) Abstr. No. IARP/15/22(0). Kher, R.K., Gupta, S.K., Singh, D.R. and Supe, S.J., TLD Personnel Monitoring Service', ibid. Abstr. No. IARP/15/89(S). Popli, K.L, Kher, R.K., Khokhar, M.S.K. and Supe, S.J., 'Study of LiF Doped with Different Cations for Dosimetric Applications', ibid. Abstr. No. IARP/15/32 (0). Kher, R.K., Popli, K.L., Sethumadhavachar, H.R. and Mehta, S.K., 'Development of AI 2 O 3 - Teflon Discs for

106 Dosimetric 15/32(0). Applications', ibid. Abstr. No. IARP/ Kundu, H.K., 'Fast Neutron personnel Monitoring Service', ibid, IARP/15/92 (S). Dere, A.V., Raman, N.V., Phadke, B.D. and Kher, R.K., 'Application of PC for Country Wide Personnel Monitoring Service', ibid. Abstr. No. IARP/15/30 (P). Sankaran, A. and Patki, V.S., 'A Novel X-ray Transmission lonization Chamber Dosemeter for Patient Dose Measurements in Diagnostic Radiology', British Journal of Radiology, 61, 613 Mittal, H., Uma Gaonkar and Gangadharan, P., 'A Semiautomatic Film Badge Dosemeter Reader', National Symp. on Personal Compu-ters in Science and Eng., Bombay, Sankaran, M.P., 'A Review of Some Stipulations in the Radiation Protection Manual for Nuclear Facilities (Revision-2)', Bull. Radiat. Prot., 3(3), Arun Kumar, Massand, O.P. and Subrahmanian, G., 'Some Recent Incidents in Radioactive Well Logging', ibid. 10(4), 21(1987). Massand, O.P., 'Investigations of the Characteristics of Some Neutron Monitoring Systems', Ph.D Thesis, Bombay University (1987). Marathe, P.K., Krishnan, D., Massand, O.P. and Dhond, R.V.,'Need for National Registry of Radiation Workers in India', Fifteenth IARP Conference, Hyderabad, Pandey, R.L, Pathak, A.S., Hivaraye, S.S. and Patei, P.H., 'Accuracy test of Film Badge Dosemeters Used in Personnel Monitoring Service', ibid. Pandey, R.L, Dhond, R.V., Patel, P.H. and Supe, S.J., 'Analysis of High Level Radiation Exposures of Radiation Workers in Medicine, Industry and Research Institutions', ibid. Dhond, R.V., Sankaran, M.P., Patel, P.H. and Supe, S.J.,'Exempt Quantities of Radioisotopes for Issuing Personnel Monitoring Dosimeters', ibid. Massand, O.P., Dhairyawan, M.P., Marathe, P.K. and Marathe, P.K., Krishnan, D., Massand, O.P. and Dhond, R.V.,'ANeedfor National Registry of Radiation Workers in India', ibid IARP/15(0). Gupta, S.K., Kher, R.K. and Supe, S.J.,'Calculation of Spatial Distribution of Energy Absorbed by Beta Radiation in TL Disk Used for Personnel Monitoring', ibid. Sadagopan.R., 'Use of Computer in Dose Records Maintenance', ibid. Sadagopan, R., Pardasani, P.H., Supe, S.J. and Patel, P.H., 'Analysis of Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Industry', ibid. Subrahmanian, P. and Agarwal, S.P., The Need for Adoption of a Design Safety Standard for Nucleonic Gauge Source Housing', ibid. Murthy, B.K.S. and Lakshmipathy, A.V., 'A Radiation Accident Involving Source Pigtail Detachment in a Remotly Operated Gamma Radiography Equipment', ibid. Sadagopan, R., 'Software Development for Compatability of Works Stations and Personal Computer in Science and Engineering', National Symposium on Personal Computer, Bombay Murthy, B.K.S. and Subramanian, V.G.R., 'Safety Requirements of Remotely Operated Radiography Equipment', IARP Subramanian, V.G.R. and Subrahmanyam, P.,'An Analysis of Radi-ation Accidents in Industrial Radiography During the period ', NAARRI Conf., Bombay Subramanian, V.G.R., et al., 'Emergency Preparedness Pocedures for Handling Radiation Accidents in Industrial Radiography', Workshop for Radiological Safety Officers, Bombay Gaur, P.K., etal., 'Radiation Safety in Luminous Point

107 100 Workshops', National Conference on Industrial Applications of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Bombay Rao, B.S., Anjaria, K.B., Sankaranarayanan, N. and Madhvanath, U,. 'Modification of Low Level Radiation Induced Genetic Damage by Environmental Agents', 14th L. H. Gray Meeting on Low Dose Radiation-Biologica! Basis of Risk Assessment, New College, Oxford Rao, B.S., 'Application of Hyperthermia in the Treatment of Cancer 1, AMPI Med Phys Bull., 13, 161 Rao, B.S., 'Role of Repair and Recovery Processes in Radiation Carcinogenesis', National Symposium on Biohazards of Radiation, Jaipur Rao, B.S., Anjaria, K.B., Sankaranarayanan, N. and Madhvanath, U., 'Induction of Gene Conversion in Yeast Exposed to Combination of Beta and Gamma Radiation", XVI International Congress of Genetics, Ontario (1988) Abstr Rao, Q.S., 'Potential of Hyperthermia in Radiation Therapy (Invited Talk)', First Afro-Asia-Oceania Congress of Anatomists, New Delhi

108 ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION 8.1 Electronics A physical protection system for perimeter protection and access control was designed, installed and commissioned at Madras Atomic Power Station. A new feature of the access control system at MAPS is an IBM-PC based database which can produce reports of entry and exit of personnel according to any desired format. A similar system has been installed and commissioned at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Design of a physical prote ction on system has been completed for Narora Atomic Power Plant. A Video Multiplexing Unit was developed for the CCTV of MAPS which resulted in considerable cable saving. The system is being installed at MAPS. This design has been standardised for NAPP, and for the five Heavy Water Plants at Baroda, Kota, Manuguru, Talcher and Tuticorin, where the physical protection systems are in various stages of implementation. Indigenously developed Turnstile Gates have been evaluated by carrying out environmental and life tests. A detailed manual has been prepared for quality assurance of the production lot. Six Turnstile Gates were installed at MAPS and PREFRE Expansion Project. These indigenous Turnstile Gates cost only half as much as imported ones, and can find application in high securitv areas of many sensitive installations, other than in DAE, where access control of personnel is required. The Pilot Project of Phonetic Coded Civilian identity Cards was completed with the issue of nearly 1,52,300 identity cards in 440 villages. The scheme has now been extended to a continuous belt in the border area covering an additional 1,136 villages. The issue of phonetic coded identity cards in Gujarat has been started. A team of officers from Punjab were trained at BARC in the implementation of Phonetic Code Scheme. Signal Processing and image Analysis Three IBM-PC based image processing and analysis systems were fabricated, tested and installed at Physical Metallurgy Division, Atomic Fuels Division and Radiometallurgy Division of BARC. CD These systems consist of a monochrome T.V. camera, video frame grabber, an IBM-PC/XT, a colour monitor and a printer. Software support consists of utilities written in C4anguage. The systems are open ended for up- gradation as per user requirement. A feasibility report was prepared for development of a System for Image Processing and Spectroscoy(SIMAX). Interfacing details were worked out for image acquisition from Scanning Electron Microscope installed at IGCAR, Kalpakkam. An IBM- PC compatible 512x512 pixel re-solution image store card was developed. A microprocessor-based 'Hydrogen Concentration-in-air Monitor' was developed in collaboration with Chemistry Division. An instrument based on the technique of transmission of fast neutrons and detection of thermalised neutrons scattered back by the matter under observation was developed for the detection of explosives. Hardware for an IBM-PC based ultrasonic flow measurement system based on cross-correlation technique was developed. Application interface hardware and software were also developed for flow monitoring. Ten optical encoders of 100 counts/rotation were made for use in the indigenous X-ray diffractometer and neutron spectrometer at Dhruva. One prototype optical encoder of 500 counts/rotation was also developed. 8.2 Instrumentation The capacitor storage bank for the entire 1kJ glass chain has been wired and all control units for charging and diagnostics have been assembled and tested. Design of a self energized electronic credential system, "Electronic entry badges" has been taken up. Procurement of various types of instruments for the Centralised Process Instrumentation Unit (CPIU), and setting up of a flow calibration facility for a flow of Ipm are under progress. Evaluation tests were carried out for strap on type RTDs, tube fittings, solenoid valves, etc. for use in future power reactors. Consultancy services were provided for improving the process instrumentation and controls for the Acid Generation Plant, OSCOM, IRE, Orissa. Liquid scintillation counting system has been upgraded and two re-entrant type Ion chambers were

109 fabricated and tested at high source strength level. Four tritium sensitive flow type ion chambers and one dose calibration unit have been supplied. A software for peak analysis has been implemented in the MCA system. A number of radiation detection and process control instrumentation systems were supplied and commissioned for the Narora Atomic Power Project. A fast event sequence recorder was fabricated and supplied to the Tuticorin Heavy Water Plant and a neutron monitor has been supplied to MEHIA Project. A failed fuel detection system based on Intel 8085 has been installed at Dhruva reactor. Twenty Ion Chamber amplifiers were supplied to RAPP. Six amplifiers based on mean square voltage and DC current measuring technique were supplied to TAPS. Polycrystalline substrates for deposition of high Tc superconducting film were prepared. Single crystals and thin crystalline films ofybagcujo^were prepared. Neodymium doped YAG laser crystals, non-linear crystals and IP. detector crystals were grown. Growth of scintillating crystals for nuclear particle detection was initiated. Routine production of alkali-halide and KDP crystals and different types of semiconductor surface barrier detectors was continued. The Process Mass Spectrometer and the Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectrometer are undergoing final tests. Fabrication of a mass spectrometer for analysis of solid samples, and of a high resolution double focusing mass spectrometer is in progress. Design of a total gas analyser for reactor fuel elements and a glow discharge ion source have been initiated. A UHV gas extraction system based on ultra high vacuum was supplied to National Atomic Energy Agency, Indonesia. A heavy water mass spectrometer was installed at HWP, Manuguru. A DC Power Supply rated upto 7 ma and 25 kv capable of being operated either in constant current or constant voltage mode was designed and fabricated for use in the tandem ar-iterator. The control console with interlock facility for tne cold neutron source in Dhruva is completed. Two 600 kw variable DC power supplies were fabricated and operated in parallel to deliver 1.2 MW for the testing of reactor components. A 2 MeV/30 kw linear electron accelerator (ILU-6) operating in pulse mode was installed and commissioned. A variety of devices like differential coaxial movement mechanism, toggle operated bellows sealed valves and linear and rotary motion feedthroughs were designed and fabricated. Xenon flash lamps of various dimensions, BA gauge heads, hollow cathode lamps, glass-to-metal seals, GM tubes and pocket dosimeters were routinely produced and supplied to various users in DAE and outside. Performance of ion pumps of 140 lit/sec capacity, and a xenon flash lamp of 600 mm arc length is being evaluated. 8.3 Computer Based Instrumentation CAMAC crate controller interface for IBM-PC, two data way modules for testing the module subsystems and a medium power crate with four layer PCB back plane have been developed. CAMAC modules were also supplied to Pelletron Instrumentation Project. A video frame processor having bidirectional image transfer capability has been developed for image processing, analysing and template matching. It is being improvised for technology transfer. An electromyograph system based on IBM-PC is under development.

110 Publications Kekre, H.B., Madan, V.K. and Bairi, B.R., 'Application of Radar Transform to the Analysis of Nuclear Spectral Data", Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A269, 279 Aruna. V., Behere, A., Ghodgaonkar, M.D. and Bairi, B.R., 'Development of CAMAC and FAST BUS Instrumentation', BARC Haridasan, G., Singh, B. and George, J., 'Assessment of Excitation and Reconstruction Tachniques for Ultrasonic Imaging Systems', Proceedings of National Symposium-cum-Workshop on Advances in Imaging and Image Processing & 12th Annual Convention of Biomedical Engineering Society of India, Bombay Haridasan, G., 'Image Processing Activities and Their Applications in Nuclear Industry, Nuclear Medicine and Advanced Research Fields', ibid. Singh, B., George, J. and Haridasan, G., 'Development of Image Processing Software for Medical and NDT Applications', ibid. Singh, B., George, J. and Haridasan, G., 'Development of Software for Binary Image Analysis', ibid. George, J., Singh, B. and Haridasan, G.,'Algebric Reconstruction Technique - Modelling Experiment', ibid. Joshi, V.M., Patankar, V.H., Fernandes, I.A., Pednekar, S. and Haridasan, G., 'Video Frame Data Acquisition and Processing Unit', ibid. Saxena, S.K., Shah, A.A., Singh, B. and Haridasan, G., 'Salient Features of Emerging Trends in Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques', ibid. Menon, S.S., Majumdar, R., Shah, A., Saxena, S.C., More, S.R. and Haridasan, G., 'An Analysis of Acoustic Imaging System for Ocean Studies', ibid. Haridasan, G., 'A Review of Modern Imaging Modalities for Medical Applications', ibid. Joshi, V.M., 'Functional Aspects and Features of Imaging Processing Systems', ibid. Jindal, G.D., Paranjpe, AS., Harisingh, Subbanna, C.S., Goyal, J.P. and Deshpande, A.K., 'Role of Non- Invasive Techniques in the Evaluation of Non-Conventional Medicine', ibid. Gupta, S.K., Katti, V.R., Gandhi, D.P.,Gadkari, S.C. Sabharwal, S.C., Gupta, M.K., Rajarajan, A.K., Gupta, LC. and Vijayaraghavan, R.,'On the Preparation and Characteri-sation of Superconducting Thin Films of YBa z Cu.,O 7. x ', Pramana - J. Phys., 30(4), 341 Aswal, D.K., Muthe, K.P.,Karandikar, S.C., Mirza, T., Gadkari, S.C., Gupta, S.K., Rajarajan, A.K., Gupta, L.C., Sabharwal, S.C. and Gupta, M.K.,'Depositio of Superconducting Thin Films ofyba 2 Cu 3 O a on Sintered SrTiO 3 Substrates', ibid, 31(2),151 Sabharwal, S.C., Gadkari, S.C. and Gupta, M.K., 'Crystal Growth of High Temperature Superconductors', High Temperature Superconductors : Eds. S.V. Subramanyam and E.S. Rajagopal, Wiley Eastern Ltd. Jagriti Singh, Rajarajan, A.K., Gupta, L.C., Vijayaraghavan, R., Katti, V.R., Gupta, S.K., Mirza, T., Sabharwal, S.C. and Gupta, M.K.,'Josephson Links in a Thin Film of YBa g Cu 3 O x ', Jaipur Conference Muthe, K.P., Gadkari, S.C., Karandikar, S.C., Singh, K.D., Sabharwal, S.C. and Gupta, M.K., 'Effect of Bismuth Concentration on 85 K Superconducting Phase in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-Oxide System', Proceedings of S.S.P. Symp., 31C, 197 Gadkari, S.C., Muthe, K.P., Gupta, S.K., Singh, K.D. and Sabharwal, S.C., 'Preparation of 85K Superconductor in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-Oxide System', ibid, 198 Katti, V.R., Karandikar, S.C., Mirza, T., Gandhi, D.P., Gadkari, S.C., Gupta, S.K., Sabharwal, S.C. and Gupta, M.K., 'On the Preparation of Superconducting Thin Films of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca ) Cu.,O x on Sintered MgO Substrates', ibid, 199 Aswal, D.K., Mirza, T., Gupta, S.K., Sabharwal, S.C., Gupta, LC. and Gupta, M.K., 'YBa 2 Cu 3 0 x Superconducting Thin Films on Polycrystalline Zirconia', ibid, 200 Gupta, S.K., Aswal, D.K., Katti, V.R., Gandhi, D.P., Sabharwal, S.C. and Gupta, M.K., 'Resistance

111 Anomalies Observed in High T c Thin Films of YBa 2 Cu 3 0 K \ ibid, 202 Kothiyal, G.P. and Bhattacharya, P.K., 'Optical Properties and Strokes Shift Lamp Annealed InGaAs/GaAs Strained Layer Superiattices', J. Appl. Phys., 63,2760 Kothiyal, G.P. and Seo, K.S., 'The Electrical and Optical Behaviour of Lamp Annealed Si Implanted Inp(Fe)', J. Phys (D) Applied Physics, 22, 1504 Baird, R.J., Potter, T.J., Kothiyal, G.P. and Bhattacharya, P.K., 'Indium Diffusion in the Chemical Potential Gradient of ln OM Ga O47 As/ln O52 AI 048 As Interface', Applied Physics Letters, 52, 2055 Baird, R.J., Potter, T.J., Lai, P.., Kothiyal, G.P. and Bhattacharya, P.K.,'lmpurity Induced Layer Disordering of InGaAs/ln AlAs 1, ibid, 53,2302 Baird, R.J., Potter, T.J., Lai, R., Bhattacharya, P.K. and Kothiyal, G.P., "Interdiffusion Phenomena in ln 053 Ga 047 As/ln 052 AI 048 As Heterostructure and Quantum Wells', Electronic Material Conference EMC, Boulder Co., USA Kothiyal, G.P., 'MBE for the Growth of Novel Laser and Strained Layer Structures', Indo-USSR Workshop, BARC Ghosh, B. and Sahoo, D., 'Growth and Characterisation of MCT', ibid, (Invited Talk). Kothiyal, G.P., 'Strained Induced Effects in MBE Grown InGaAS/GaAs and GaAs/lnGaAIAs SLS/MQWs', Seminar by Semiconductor Society (India) Bombay Chapter, I.I.T., Powai Kothiyal, G.P., 'Excitonic Absorption and Luminescence in Strained Layer Super Lattices/Multi Quantum Wells Grown by MBE, International Conference and Intensive Tutorial Course on Semiconducting Materials, Delhi Sahoo, D., Prasad, R., Srikantiah, R.V. and Ghosh, B., 'Modified Zone Growth of Hg >o.78 Cl ( W e Crystals'. ibid. Srikantiah, R.V., 'Detectors for Heavy Ion Spectroscopy: (Review)', Indian Association of Nuclear Chemists and Allied Scientists Bulletin, Oct., Srikantiah, R.V., 'Detectors for Environmental Radiation Studies (Invited Talk)', Workshop on Environmental Radiation, University of Mysore Shetty, H.J., Balani, S.J. and Srikantiah, R.V., "One Dimensional Silicon Position Sensitive Detector Preparation and Performance', Proc. Symp. onn.p., 31 B, Jadhav, R., Srikantiah, R.V. and Chaudhry, R.K., 'A CaF 2 -NE2i3 Based Poshwich Detector', ibid. Biswas, D.C., Srikantiah, R.V., Sawant, M.S. and Chaudhry, R.K., 'A position Sensitive lonization Chamber for Heavy Ions', ibid. Anjali, S., Pawar, P.S., Gogawale, S.V. and Nair, C.V.G., 'Development of UHV System for Investigation of Discharge Cleaning Process', IVS National Symp. on Vacuum Science and Technology, Bombay Nimje, V.T., Korgaonkar, A.V., Thakur, N.M. and Sethi, R.C., 'Design of Vacuum System for the RFQ Accelerator', ibid. Rama Rao, V.V.K. and Prahallada Rao, B.S., 'A Simple Correction for the Effect of Fringing Field on Ion Beam Refocussing', Fourth National Symposium in Mass Spectrometry, Bangalore Handu, V.K., Mohanan, C.P. and Trupti, M.N., 'Microprocessor - Based System for the Control of Sample Inlet and Processing of Data in a Multicollector Isotope Ratio's Mass Spectrometer', ibid. Kulkarni, M.P., Rao, N.V., Chaudhry, N.S., Halbe, S.R. and Rao, B.S., 'Improvements in the Sensitivity of Helium Leak Detector', ibid. Halbe, S.R. and Rao, V.V.K.R., 'An Automatic Gas Sample Inlet System for a Mass Spectrometer', ibid. Devaki Ramanathan, 'Physical Processes in Ultrahigh 104

112 Vacuum (Invited Talk) 1, Workshop on Vacuum Technology in Plasma and Fission Applications, Bhave, B.D. and Sunder Singh, V.P., 'Detection of Hot Objects with Image Conver Tube', National Symposium in Instrumentation, Mysore John, B., Nijasure, A., Kataria, S.K., Rao. S.M.D., Gokhale, V.H. and Chaugaonkar, M.P., 'Response of BaF a Scintillation Detectors with Pulse Shape Analysis', DAE Symp. on Nucl. Phy., Somayazulu, M.S., Rao, S.M.D. and Wadhwan, V.K., 'Direct Observatrion of Ferroelastic Switching in YBCO Single Crystals', Solid State Physics Symp., Bhopal Sabharwal, S.C., 'Superconductor Technology Research (Invited Talk)', National Seminar on Technical Spin off from Electronics in Space, Atomic Energy and Defence, Bombay Sabharwal, S.C. and Gadkari, S.C., 'Pyroelectric Materials and Devices (Invited Talk)', Indo-USSR Workshop on Laser and Non-Linear Crystals, Bombay Sabharwal, S.C.,'Crystal Growth of High T c Superconductors', National Workshop on High T c Superconductors, Bangalore Mohan, L.R., Singh, D.B. and Ramamurthy, H., 'Design Evolution and Performance Review of the Fuel Channel Activity Monitoring System of the Dhruva Reactor', BARC I

113 ENGINEERING SERVICES 9.1 Civil Engineering Architects of BARC continued to render architectural services in the design of buildings for BARC, HWP, NPCand other units under DAE including aided institutions. Architectural services were also provided to other departments and outside agencies such as Department of Electronics (for SAMEER at Powai and New Bombay) and Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Exhibitions related to the work of the Department of Atomic Energy were organised at various places in India and USSR. Construction of a New Glass House and additional space for some of the laboratories was completed. Construction of the superstructure and 100 meter RCC stack of WIP, underground water tank for alternative water supply line to BARC and a low cost shed for DPS at Trombay Village, totally costing around Rs crores is in progress. Major repairs and maintenance work on the facilities at Trombay at a cost of Rs. 77 lakhs were carried out. Facilities at Beryllium Plant at Vashi were augmented at a cost of Rs lakhs. Plans are underway for extension of Beryllium Machining Facility and to construct a new dispensary totally costing about Rs lakhs. At Tarapur, residual works for Solid Storage Surveillance Facility and construction of pedestal chambers were completed. Construction of 230 quarters at a cost of Rs. 311 lakhs and primary school building costing Rs lakhs are in progress. Detailed planning and designing of the civil work for National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of High Purity Materials at Hyderabad with a component of Rs. 177 lakhs for civil works is in progress. Work for extension to Laboratory Building at N.R.L (Phase III) costing Rs. 42 lakhs will commence shortly. The outlay on civil work of BARC including outstation works during was Rs lakhs and for the year is Rs lakhs. 9.2 Electrical and Mechanical Services Operation and maintenance work on all the electrical power systems, electrical installations at various laboratories and workshops, air-conditioning and ventilation plants, vacuum system, water supply system, cranes, etc. was carried out. Electrical and mechanical services for the Solid Storage Surveillance Facility, Common Facility (Phase I) at Vashi, the Reactor Control laboratory and workshop, etc., with a total sanctioned cost of Rs lakhs, were completed. Major on-going projects are PREFRE Expansion (Phase-ll), construction of another 230 quarters in BARC colony at Tarapur, Labelled Compounds Laboratory Project at Vashi, alternate water supply line from Trombay high level Reservoir of Bombay Muncipal Corporation at Anushaktinagar to BARC complex, providing cables for computer and telephone network in BARC complex. National Centre for Characterisation of Pure Materials at Hyderabad, Common Facility (Phase-ll) at Vashi etc., totally costing about Rs lakhs. 9.3 Central Workshops Central Workshops at Trombay continued to design, develop and manufacture different types of equipment for the various constituent units of DAE. Equipment worth Rs. 5.5 crores was fabricated. An air cushion based neutron spectrometer and a number of precision goneometers for neutron spectrometers were designed and are in advanced stage of manufacture. Two neutron spectrometer monochromators, with unique wedge system for a wider range of scattering angles were fabricated. A neutron spectro-meter with improved features has been designed for export purpose. Technical design of a variety of equipment such as molecular beam, scattering chamber, target chambers, monochromators, triple axis optical spectrometers, RFQ accelerator, etc. have been carried out, and are being manufactured. Design of the cryostat for superconducting linear accelerator for MEHIA Project, and detailing of components required for vacuum shroud for cold neutron source for use at Dhruva is in progress. Electron beam welding of copper components of RF resonator assembly for Pelletron work has been done using indigenously developed welding chamber and CNC work table. Extensive work on developing explosive welding of tubes of materials like monel, incoloy, zircaioy, etc. to stainless steel (SS) tube sheet is in progress. A deep ionisation chamber with grid assembly 106

114 and a scattering chamber for Pelletron Project, a neutron radiography rig for the metallurgy programme of IGCAR, an ultra high vacuum electron beam chamber, two precision scanning stage assemblies, an automated equipment for the inspection of fuel pins and a large number of fuel components for Cirus and Dhruva reactors were fabricated. A transportable onion irradiator, a scattering chamber of 950 mm diameter for VECC, monel and stainless steel condensors, electro-magnet assembly, 5 kj blumlien pulse generator and a centrifugal extractor bank for IGCAR are under fabrication. Four numbers of fuelling machine (FM) heads for KAPP have been assembled, tested and delivered, and two numbers of FM heads for RAPP-III Project are under manufacture. Manufacture of FM heads, work on end-fittings and liner tubes and develoment work in respect of seal discs by nickel deposition in Inconel 718 were taken up for 500 MWe PHWRs. A large number of Secondary Shut Down System (SSDS) components for NAPP-II are under manufacture. End fittings and liner tubes for KAPP have been completed and delivered. Outer flow tube extension assembly for reactivity mechanism for KAPP has also been taken up. 9.4 Remote Handling and Robotics The pneumatic 'Pick and Place Robot' has proved to be an ideal building block in automation, and it has been made the central mechanism for an impact sample handling system being completed for use in Hot Cells for rapidly recovering samples from low temperature Dewar flasks and placing them on the anvil of an impact system. One Pick and Place Robot has also been supplied to Machine Tool Prototype Factory, Ambernath. A plastic vial cleaning system has been delivered to PREFRE Expansion Project, Tarapur. Several dedicated, automation devices specifically designed for use in NFC are nearing completion. An Automatic Spacer Pad Placement system, currently nearing completion involved the development of special bowl and linear feeders. The mechanism picks up the spacer pads and places them on the fuel element for welding three at a time. Mechanism for handling pellets for placement of helical spacer etc. are also being design. A PC controlled robotic system for handling fuel pellets in PREFRE Expansion Project, Tarapur, has been completed and is undergoing extensive testing prior to installation. Work has also been taken up for the vision system to aid the robotic system in unloading sintered pellets in the tray. The mechanical and electrical components of LABOT (Laboratory Robot System) have been procured and the mechanical system has been assembled. The electronic control drives and software are being developed. Design work of a 5-axis robotic system for remote programmed positioning of samples for neutron radiography at Kamini, is nearing completion. The 5-Axis Servo Robot has been assembled and successfully tested. It is undergoing several trials for control of trajectory, speed and other parameters. Using AC induction motors, the system should prove very reliable for use in radiation environments. The development of two phase drag cup type AC induction motor has been completed. Ten such motors have been assembled and tested satisfactorily. The control servo amplifiers for the A.C. servo robot are compatible with these motors as well. Development of several other types of motors including D.C. brushless motors, is under progress. A prototype printed circuit motor has been assembled and is undergoing trials. Work on computer aided telemanipulation system has been taken up. In the ultimate configuration it will be possible for the operator to remain seated in a control room and perform operations in a radioactive hot cell, maintaining visual contact on CCTV and exerting bilateral control through the servo manipulator, by sharing tasks through a computer. The computer will supervise and correct commands given from the master station and issue them to the slave arm. This is necessary as the only contact is through CCTV. A prototype walking mechanism with a tripod gait and servo control steering has been developed for use in surveying and monitoring of radioactive areas. An arm has also been mounted on the mechanism for trials in lifting and placement of small objects. Work on the 18-degree of freedom 6-leg walking mechanism is progressing. Design of advanced power manipulator system using AC motors for use in KARP project has been taken up. 107

115 Inexpensive and effective control systems for AC induction motors are being developed. The advanced power manipulator system will have monitor screen, relaying maximum possible information regarding position, orientation, speed, loads, etc. to the operator. The mechanical design of a gamma teletherapy unit with many novel features is nearing completion. A Macrograph, a hot cell optical equipment, which is an import substitution item, is being assembled for use in RML Hot cell, IGCAR. A remote lighting and viewing equipment was installed in the core of FBTR for viewing the interior. A special purpose machine for remote cutting of a bent guide tube of FBTR was developed, fabricated and successfully used at site. Designing of machinery and tooling required for replacement of end shields for RAPS-1 was taken up. 9.5 Scientific and Technicall Information During this year about 1,700 books, 17,800 technical reports, 230 patents and standards were added to the BARC Library. Currently about 1,800 scientific and technical journals published in India and abroad are being received in the Library. The present holding of BARC Library consists of about 79,000 books, 58,500 volumes of bound periodicals, 22,250 patents and standards and 6,35,800 technical reports. Using a database related to the scientific and technical journals being received in BARC Library, which was completed during last year, a catalogue of current periodicals was published during This publication, in addition, lists out titles of journals which were discontinued during the year, the titles of journals which ceased to be published, and those journals which continue to be published under different titles. Operation of the book circulation unit is now completely computerised. Further progress has been made in the creation of the database containing the details of books available in BARC Library. However, substantial additional work needs to be done before the database is completed. Computerisation of the working of current periodicals unit involving processing of subscription renewal, maintaining a record of copies of the journals that are received and sending reminders to those which are overdue was started by using a Wipro PC/XT. Active participation in the International Nuclear Information Systern(INIS), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency at Vienna, was continued. During this year, 800 items of literature published in India and falling under INIS subject scope were submitted to the INIS database. Processing the INIS output tape and providing INIS SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) service to about 150 scientists and engineers within DAE and outside was continued. Retrieval of information from the INIS database covering the period from 1976 onwards, that is maintained at Vienna, was continued. Maintaining one month's INIS output available on-line on the computer at Trombay, and the terminal in the Library for INIS search, were also continued. In order to bring about wider awareness of INIS among the DAE community and to make the scientists and engineers familiar with the procedure to be followed in making use of INIS, a number of half-day Workshops consisting of about 10 participants in each session were conducted. A CD-ROM equipment was installed and commissioned. Trial runs have been satisfactorily completed using the INIS CD-ROM that was produced on an experimental basis, and a Cancer CD-ROM that was received on a trial basis. Action has been initiated to procure additional databases on CD-ROM. A number of technical and scientific reports, a booklet on"fourty Years of Atomic Energy in India" and a number of brochures were published. Proceedings of all the scientific and technical symposia held under the auspices of BRNS were brought out. A technical annual report for the whole of BARC for the year 1987, was also brought out. Compiling and editing work on bringing out "BARC Highlights 1988" was completed, and the publication has been released. Assisted the University Grants Commission in reviewing the pro-ject for networking of Univer-sities and Colleges Libraries. The Centre participated in the programme of Management Information System being set up by the Department of Science and Technology. Considerable work was done in support of the effective participation of DAE in the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) set up by the Cabinet Secretariat. Work has been initiated to set up databases 108

116 related to technology, expertise and equipment available within the constituent units of DAE. Creation of a database containing thedetails of all scientific and technical publications issued from BARC from its inception has been started. A proposal for networking of libraries in all the constituent units of DAE has been approved, and work on the implementation of the project is being taken up. Two proposals, one on the construction of a new building for a Nuclear Information Centre, and another for an Information and Image Storage System were prepared for consideration as part of the Vlllth Five Year Plan. Translation of technical papers and reports published in foreign languages was continued at the request of scientists and engineers belonging to all DAE units. About 180 articles in different foreign languages such as French, German, Italian, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish were translated into English during the year. Copies of translations were continued to be deposited in the National Science Library, New Delhi. Interpretation service was rendered whenever the need arose. 109

117 Publications Bnatia, V.K., Srikrlshnamurty, G. and Challappa, S., 'Monitoring of Maintenance Cost of Vehicles', National Symposium on Personal Computers in Science and Engineering, Bombay Srikrlshnamurty, G., Kanjilal, D., Pawa, M.L and Sinha, A.K., 'Computers for General Engineering Design', ibid. Jayandranath, M. and Padmanabhan, R., 'Computation of Metal Cutting Time using PC Spread Sheet', ibid. Sinha, A.K., 'Hydraulic 5 Axis Manipulator for Transporting 250 Kg Uranium Ingot, Seminar on Design and Selection of Linkages for Material Handling Equipment', Institute of Engineers, Calcutta Krishnan, J., 'An Experimental Investigation into Velocities in Tube to Tubeplate Explosive Welding Using An Impactor', International Conference on Welding Technology, Roorkee Lahiri, B.N., Koppikar, R.S. and Challappa, S. 'Electron Beam Welding-A Decade of Experience and Progress as Production Tool', ibid. Koppikar, R.S., 'Development of Electron Beam Welding Systems in BARC, National Welding Seminar (IIW). Cochin (1968). Suthar, R.L, 'Remotely Operated Mobile Screw Conveyor', National Workshop IPROMM-88, VRCE, Nagpur Krishnan, J., 'Selection of Welding Process for Tube to Tubeplate Quality Joint', Annual Welding Seminar, Indian Institute of Welding, Bombay Kamat, G.R., 'Some Aspects of Quality Control in the Nuclear Equipment Fabrication', Welding Seminar, IIW, Bombay Kamat, G.R., 'Solid State Diffusion Welding of Nickel to Stainless Steel', Welding Journal, 67,44 Balakrishnan, M.R., 'Az Optikai Informaciotarolas Muszaki Alapjai (Optical Storage of Information)', Tudomanyos es Muszaki Tajekoztatas 35,

118 LIFE SCIENCES Molecular Biology One of the genes (amia) required for tandem amplification of chromosomal DNA segments in E.coli has been cloned in a mini-mu vector and from there subcloned into PBR322. Evidence indicating that hypoxic conditions enhance DNA amplification in E.coli has been obtained. E.coli strains in which the RecBCD enzyme is inactivated by a mutation in the recd gene were shown to be transformable by chromosomal DNA. This would permit use of transformation for genetic analysis in this organism. A model of general recombination in conjugation crosses with wild type recipient cells has been proposed. In this model the RecBCD enzyme plays a dual role in repairing some of the otherwise recombinogenic lesions and in the integration of double-stranded DNA. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) technique was used to screen antibiotic producing streptomyces strains for the presence of giant linear plasmids. One out of the ten strains screened so far shows the presence of a giant linear plasmid. In continuation of the isolation and characterisation of phage WHR05, four more actinophages have been isolated from soil samples and their host range compared with thai of WHRO5. The latter was found to have the widest host range amongst these temperate phages. The "mutator" property of WHR05, was studied with respect to pigment production, loss of aerial mycelium and change in antibiotic spectrum. UV-repair gene mbo2 was self-cloned in H.influenzae. RM30, a strain of R. meliloti locally isolated from the root nodules of fenugreek, has earlier been shown to harbour a 90 kb plasmid. This plasmid does not hybridize with DNA probes of nifykdh and the common nod genes from R.leguminosarum. Another megaplasmid from Rm30 which is more than 200 kb long was isolated. The kinetics of loss of capacity for photoreactivation of viability during post-uv dark incubation of the cyanobacterium Anacystisnidulans was similar to the kinetics of loss of capacity for photorestoration of the UV-inactivated PSII functions like electron transport and oxygen evolution rate. These observations were consistant with the hypothesis earlier proposed that in cyanobacteria, both DNA and PSII are lethal targets of far-uv radiation. Effect of ultraviolet light (UV) on thermoluminescence, oxygen evolution and slow component of delayed light was investigated in chloroplasts and Pothous leaves. The result indicate involvement of photosystem II in the generation of practically entire thermo-luminescence and slow component of delayed light in photosynthetic materials. The smallest (1.5 kb) of the three plasmids in Plectonema boryanum was cloned earlier in pbr322. It was mapped for the unique Clal, Hpal, Acc\ and Xmnl sites. For the other 17 enzymes tested, it had no sites. P.boryanum genomic DNA hybridized with an E. coli glna probe and with Azotobacter vinelandii ntrc and ntra probes but did not hybridize with K.pneumoniae ntrc probe. Pulse labelling experiments using sulfur-35 labelled methionine demonstrated that at least four polypeptides are induced within 15 minutes after exposure ofanabaena L-31 to 50 mm sodium chloride. The 3.5 kb Hindlll Hincl\ fragment cloned earlier from B. thuringiensis HDI was mapped for the cleavage sites for several restriction endonucleases. Restriction map of the cloned gene resembles a toxin gene sequenced from strain HD73. An 0.75 kb EcoRl fragment from the cloned gene was used as a probe to examine homology in total plasmid preparation from HDI. In the Hindlll digested plasmid DNA, two bands of about 6.6 kb and 5 kb hybridize with this probe suggesting the presence of at least two endotoxin genes in this strain. Earlier other workers have reported evidence for the existence of three such genes. A fully concerted sequential model for enzyme catalysis withsubunit interaction has been proposed for maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase. According to this model, thecatalytically inactive dimeric form of the enzyme gets converted to the tetrameric form, which is catalytically competent in the presence of magnesium. The experimental proof for the model was provided by kinetic data, sedimentation studies and fluorescence changes monitored using external fluorescence probe. 111

119 Studies have Indicated that in the en2yme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisco) isolated from dark leaves, inhibitor bound RuBisco shows as much activity as that isolated from illuminated leaves when assayed using linked assay involving phosphoribose isomerase and phosphoribulokinase. It appears that the localised high concentration of RuBP due to channelling may be responsible for the release of the inhibitor which is implicated in the regulation of RuBisco activity during dark-light transition. RuBisco I labelled with O-phthaladehyde (OPA) showed energy transfer from tryptophan residues to the OPA bound at the active site on excitation at 295 mm. Evidence suggesting that the environment at the active site is non-polar was obtained. Using a tryptophan selective chemical agent, dimethyl (2 hydroxy - 5 nitro) benzyl sulfonium bromide, it has been demonstrated that spinach RuBisco contains one critical tryptophan per promoter as indicated by the earlier energy transfer experiments. Some of the selections made at BARC from wheat variety, Kalyansona, although having high yield potential, exhibited poorer grain forming ability (~ 35%). Plant growth regulators (PGRs) improved yields by affecting grain forming ability, seed size and seed numbers in several of these strains. Naphthyl Acetic Acid (NAA) favourably affects the extension growth of wheat primary leaf sections. Monitoring of RNA and protein synthesis and their inhibition by actinomycin-d showed that the primary NAA effect is at the transcriptional level. Effect of ionizing radiation on immunoregulatory cells was studied in mice. Afferent suppressor T (Ts aff) cells were observed to be more resistant than their precursors but were more radiosensitive than effector T cells for delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response. Studies using biological dose modifiers were initiated to explore the possibility of circumventing of immunological damage or its recovery in the event of accidental exposures. Heterologous antilymphocyte sera (ALS) were prepared in rabbits against lymph node cells of mice sensitized by minor histocompatibility antigens ofallogenic skin grafts. These sera are being assessed for their ability to specifically suppress the minor H in compatible allograft rejection and their antidiotypic character. The cellular mechanisms involved in the protection against sarcoma 180 and lymphosarcoma- A(LS-A) by ailosensitization were investigated. NK cell activity in normal Swiss mice and alloskin graft sensitized mice were not significantly different, indicating that they were not the major effector cells. Cytotoxicity studies using immune lymphocytes from tumour immune mice showed that these cells lysed their respective tumour targets as well as other tumour cells. These results support the cross protection observed in vivo. Studies using monoclonal antibodies to inhibit tumour cell lysis by class I restricted Lyt2 + T cells and class II restricted L3t4* T cells revealed the involvement of both cell types even in case of sarcoma 180 cells which do not express class I or class II MHC antigens. Anfitumour antibiotic bleomycin sulphate was shown to interact with the plasma membrane of the cell as indicated by the inhibition of a membrane integral protein, acetyl choline esterase. Studies on biological dosimetry were carried out in 23 referred cases to estimate radiation exposure dose with the help of a computerized automatic image analyzer. The biological dosimetry was found to be a highly useful component of the radiation safety programme. Attempts are being made to standardise a rapid and simple method based on micronucleated lymphocytes to serve as a biological dosimeter. Efforts were continued to develop suitable protocols to identify such high risk persons with relatively higher risk during exposure to genotoxicant agents using chromosomal damage. Based oncytogenetic analysis of the chromosomes of lymphocytes growing under folate deficient conditions, two mentally retarded brothers were tentatively identified as fragile-x positive. Hybridization with anx-chromosome specific DNA probe, F-9, revealed restriction fragment patterns of these two brothers as well as a normal individual to be different from the previously reported European subjects. Flow cytometric analysis of the testes cells of growing AKR mice from the age of 10 to 59 days showed the first appearance of haploid cells around 23 days. The analysis allowed quantitative measurement of three haploid cell populations, viz., the round spermatids, the elongated spermatids and the testi- 112

120 cular sperms, diploid, synthetic phase and tetraploid cells. The ratio of various cell types can be used to study toxicity of different chemicals or radiation on the germinal cells. Significant changes in the relative proportions of different cell types were observed in benzo(a) pyrene treated mice and these observations correlated weli with the impairment of the fertility induced by this agent. Microscopic evidence for a marked disturbance of the maturation process of the mouse spermatogenesis was also observed by gossypol, an antifertility agent. Unlike males, females reared from paternal exposures to methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) before matings do not show any transmissible damage in early embryonal development, indicating a sex dependent transmission of the genetic changes, expressing as lethais in the subsequent generations. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in C 57 BI 6 mice shows sexual dimorphism with females exhibiting higher activity than males. Studies with weanling animals showed that this difference in the ADH activity develops only after the 4th week and is traceable to a decline in the activity among males at the 8th and 12th weeks. Involvement of hormones in this sex related differences in the developmental pattern of hepatic ADH activity is indicated Biochemistry Studies have been continued on biochemical mechanisms in growth, development and differentiation of living organisms, on metabolic basis of important human diseased conditions and on delineation of molecular events in animals after chemical and radiation exposures. Studies on biochemical applications useful for research, clinical diagnosis and industry are also underway. New methods, including those of gene cloning, DNA sequencing, immunologies! identification, and advanced radiotracer techniques, are increasingly being used in these studies. Evidence was obtained for the presence of a DNA primase in yeast mitochondria. The enzyme supports synthesis of oligoribonucleotides of residues on single-stranded natural and synthetic DNA templates. Other studies suggest that the primase may participate in the initiation of replication of L- strand mitochondrial DNA. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT), postulated to be an important component of recombinase complex catalyzing T cell receptors/lg re-arrangement In immune lymphocytes, was found to be tightly associated with the high-salt resistant nuclear matrices in the thymus nuclei of younger rats. Using affinity purification and gradient centrifugation, it was established that the isolated complex (1.3 megadalton) is a discrete multienzyme assembly comprising, besides TdT, DNA ligase, 3-5-exonuclease. Studies on the well-known extracellular staphylococcal nuclease in Staphylococcus aureus and two intracellular nucleases, showed that, despite many similarities such as molecular masses and heat stabi-lities, the intracellular enzymes are distinct from the extracellular enzymes in their modes of DNA degradation and immunological attributes. Characterization of some useful enzymes of the industrially important microbial species of coryneform group of bacateria has been undertaken. A genomic library of Corynebacterium murisepticum was constructed with pbr322 as the vector. Two clones of this library functionally complemented a lacz mutation in Eacherichia coli and produced Corynebacterial betagalactosidase as evidenced from immunological cross-reactivity. The enzyme from one of the clones was of higher molecular mass than that of C. murisepticum enzyme, indicating that in this clone the enzyme protein is expressed as a fused product. An unusual enzyme system capable of degrading raffinose to melibiose and fructose, and synthesising sucrose from glucose and fructose has been detected in Corynebacterium murisepticum and is found to be extracellular. Studies on the structure of biomembranes using diverse physiochemical approaches have been continued. NMRand calorimetric studies have revealed that antileprotic drug DDS (diamino diphenyl sulfone) residing at the membrane interface interacts more efficiently at temperatures greater than the chain melting transition temperature. The presence of ribulose diphosphate carbozylase and ribulose 5-phosphate kinase was disovered in Halobacteria. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases from diverse sources of Halobacteria were found to exhibit antigenic homology among themselves and with the enzyme from spinach. Antibodies of tetramers of glyceraldehyde 3-P dehydro- 113

121 genase from Halobacterium vallismortis cross-react with other halobacterial counterparts but not with the rabbit enzyme. Studies have revealed that fructose is metabolised in these organisms through an ATPmediated phosphorylation by hexokinase. Similar enzyme is found in mammalian liver but is absent in other bacteria. Studies on the biochemical events associated with several pathological conditions that lead to manifestation of hyperoxaiuria and consequently kidney stone formation are underway. The conversion of glyoxalate to oxalate in the rat liver was found to be brought about by two different enzymes, viz. glycolic oxidase without a co-factor, and lactate dehydrogenase in the presence of NAD +. The impairment of mobility of sperms in man, brought about by enhanced levels of inhibin, was found to be associated with increased lipid peroxidation and membrane damage in sperms. The uterus of the rat during development was found to exhibit low rate of lipid peroxidation indicating less damage to membrane structure. Evidence has been obtained to suggest that early in the differentiation of stromal cells to decidual cells, a new membrane protein appears in the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on the hormonal imbalance and metabolism pertaining to the action of thyroid and Insulin were continued. During hormonal imbalance in-vdving thyroxine, folate metabolism gets deranged; thus hypothyroid state of rats caused increase in the levels of hepatic folyl conjugase, tota 1 fclates and blood folates, in contrast to lower levels of these folates in hyperthyroid condition. In strepto2otocin-induced diabetic condition, inaulin status was found to influence the metabolism of tissue protein as observed by elevation incathepsind activities. The extracts of Jaman seed and Banyan bark could effectively reduce blood sugar levels in diabetic rats. The active hypoglycemic principles were found to be heat-liable and nondialysable. Investigations on the role of dietary factors in the etiology of heart diseases and associated biochemical indications were continued. Administration of heated groundnut, sunflower and coconut oils in rats caused increase in carbonyl values, peroxide values 114 and free fatty acids, but these did not lead to any discernible indication of the hardening of arteries (atherogenesis). An integrated study of cardiovascular risk indices, such as plasma lipids, iipoproteins, platelet aggregation and dietary factors, has been carried out and the findings have shed light on the role of these risk factors in the etiology of heart diseases in the Indian population. An inverse correlation between plasma copper ions and platelet aggregation was prominent in hypertensive patients. Differential generating capacities of endogeneous vasoconstrictor (thromboxane) and vasodilator (prostacyclin) were observed in hypertensive patients. Immunochemical and fibrin-binding techniques indicated that the plasminogen activator of Yoshida sarcoma contained thrombolytic principle of non-urokinase nature for effective dissolution of blood clot in coronary heart conditions. Programmes on biochemical aspects of cancer and possible biochemical mechanisms responsible for malignant formations are being continued. Isozymic forms of glutathione S-transferases, a key enzyme in drug detoxification and chemical carcinogenesis, were inducible by nicotinamide, phenobarbital, 20-methylchol- anthrene and diethylnitrosamine. The enzyme induction patterns elicited by the drugs distinctly differed from one another. Administration of hepatotoxic tumour-promoting agents to rats brought about inhibition of levels of hepatic cytochrome P 450-dependent-microsomal drug metabolising enzymes, while levels of conjugating UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and serum transaminases were increased. A factor responsible for inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes of the liver was identified in Yoshida sarcoma cells transplanted in Wistar rats. The factor was a heterodimer protein containing subunits of 48,000 and 12,000 molecular mass. Adequate vitamin A supplementation seems to restore hepatocarcinogen-induced anomalies including the detoxification mechanism, elevated DNA-adduct formation and molecular reactivity of aflaxtoxin B r The protection by vitamin A against the biochemical effect of carcinogen was accompanied by reduced mutagenic expression in bacteria. Trace elements, several phenol compounds and a few other vitamins show similar effects. A potential anticancer role for several amino acid derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of plati-

122 num has been envisaged on the basis of in vitro transcription capacity of isolated nuclei altering gene expression. Elevated levels of urinary pteridine were prominent in cervical cancer patients. Antitumour activity of several heat-inactivated bacterial cultures against fibrosarcoma in mice was attributed to the possible differential immune system rather than to the macrophage activation. Further improvements were made in the membrane-en2yme strip method for determination of oxalate in urinary samples from patients suffering from kidney stone diseases. The enzyme oxalate oxidase could be isolated by simple and inexpensive procedures from banana fruit peel and beet stem. Methods for subsequent immobilisation in acrylamide membrane strips have been standardised. The membrane strips have been independently evaluated and found to be useful by ether medical research institutions in the country Bio-Organic Chemistry The phytochemical and biological investigations on medicinal and other related plants were continued in order to isolate therapeutic agents and other bioactive compounds which could be used in integrated pest management programmes. The exhaustive phytochemical work on Piper species of plants has led to the isolation of a large number of diversified classes of natural products of known and unknown structures which could possess promising varied pharmacological activities. A detailed investigation of the plant lady's lace, Pimpinella monoica, has led to the isolation of khellin and other related compounds. This is the first report of an Indian plant as a practical source of khellin. A method of separation of khellin and visnagin from the extract of the plant has been developed for the first time. Khellin has recently been shown to possess lipid altering and anti-atherosclerotic properties. From Phyllanthus niruri (Khedanilli), a plant reported for its use in liver ailments including viral hepatitis B infections, several alkaloids have been isolated and characterised. Work on the isolation of active principle of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is underway. The dimerisation of p-estradiol, an estrogenic hormone, has been carried out successfully and its estrogenic action is being studied. A detailed study of the extracts of the plant, Atalantiaracemosa, has been carried out and new pyrano compounds and known atalantoflavone and racemoflavone have been Isolated and characterised. A few of the compounds isolated exhibit significant antifeedant activity. Facile alternate methods have been developed for the synthesis of insect pheromenes for control of agricultural pests. Chiral pheromones of row beetles, oriential hornet, etc. have been synthesised by utilising carbohydrate derived synthons and prochiral intermediates using asymmetric enzymatic reactions. A detailed study of antimoulting hormone activity of plumbaginonred cotton bug has proved that it inhibits moulting hormone production. The role of certain food-related compounds in inhibition of the formation of carcinogenic nitrosoamine has been investigated. Synthesis of some nitrosoamines of phenols and nicotine have been accomplished and further studies on this are being processed. The additional proof to establish the stereochemistry of naturally occurring sequiterpene compounds, picrotin and picrotoxinine from dry berries of Anamrita cocculus was established by using Carbon-13 (C-13) and 2D NMR Nuclear Agriculture Development of improved varieties of crop plants using radiation induced genetic variability is an important component of nuclear applications in agriculture. New varieties of pulses - pigeonpea mungbean and biackgram - developed at BARC have become popular with the farmers in Maharashtra State. The new pulse varieties were grown over an area of 2.2 lakh hectares according to the estimates made by Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth (PKV), Akola. Maharashtra State Seed Corporation distributed over 390 metric tonnes of certified seed of these varieties. An area of about 325 hectares was planted with these varieties for foundation seed production at PKV. Seed multiplication of groundnut variety TG-3 and jute variety TKJ40 (Mahadev) was taken up by Orissa Agricultural University. Rice variety TR-21 derived from a mutant obtained after exposing seeds to fast.neutrons which was under minikit trials at cultivators' fields was 115

123 116 released as 'Hari' for commercial cultivation in the Telangana region by Andhra Pradesh Seed Corporation. This variety has long, slender grains, and gave about 20% higher yield over the checks and has been taken up by Andhra Pradesh Seed Corporation for seed multiplication. Mungbean variety TAP-7,already recommended for Kharif cultivation, was also approved for rabi season. Groundnut variety TAG-24 was recommended for pre-release seed multiplication in the Vidarbha region. Mustard varieties TM-2 and TM-4 were recommended for cultivation in the Brahmaputra valley zone by the Assam University One variety each of rice (TR-17), groundnut (TG-9) and mungbean (TAP-7) were included in minikit trials in different parts of the country. Thirty seven new cultures of rice, pulses, oilseeds and jute were included in the advanced trials and thirty eight cultures in the initial evaluation trials of the Coordinated Crop Improvement Projects. Over five metric tonnes of breeders' seed was supplied from Trombay and Seismic Array Station, Gauribidanur. Using immunological techniques, the presence of Apa, Apb, Ape and Apd gene products was searched in the wild, ancestral species of cultivated groundnut and all four were found in closely related Arachis monticola. The genes found in other species were : A. batizocoi (Apb and Ape); A. duranensis and A. cardensaii (Apb and Apd) and A. correntia (Ape). Apa gene product could not be found in the ancestral diploid species examined. The potential of Sesbania rostrate which produces nitrogen fixing nodules on the stem and root as a green manure for the rice crop was evaluated. Profuse nodulation on the stem was obtained after spraying the plants with bacterial culture isolated from stem nodules. The yield of rice from plots having Sesbania rostrata as green manure was equal to the plots fertilized with 60 kg/ha of nitrogen from chemical fertilizers. Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a new fertilizer as a source of phosphorus in comparison to diammonium phosphate (DAP) and single superphosphate (SSP), was evaluated at ten locations in the trials by the Directorate of Rice Research. Mean response to APP was higher at three locations, viz., Raipur, Bhubaneshwar and Patna, compared to DAP and SSP and equal at other locations. Green house experiments indicated that Indian rock phosphates were as good a source of phosphorus as SSP, DAP and APP for flooded rice in acid soils. Utilization of phosphorus from rock phosphates was further augmented by addition of organic manures. Indiscriminate use of pesticides leads to a build up of residues in the soil affecting the growth of plants. Among the cereals, pulses, oilseeds and fibre crops screened, inhibition of plant growth by DDT residues in the soil was greater in oilseed crops. Studies with Carbon-14 (C-14) labelled DDT showed that growth inhibition was not correlated to the uptake and translocation of the insecticide. The oil content of the oil seeds appears to be correlated to growth inhibition Biotechnology Micropropagation studies on Sandalwood and Mulberry were continued, and efforts were intensified to develop and field test a large number of in vitro derived plants in collaboration with Rastriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd. under a laboratory-toland programme. Investigations on developing methods for regeneration of plants from tissue cultures of cereal, millet and legumes were pursued. Parameters were defined for obtaining high frequency plant ^generation through a process of somatic embryogensis in tissue cultures of rice (Oryza sativa), jowar (Sorghum bicolor), bajra {Pennisetum americanum) and ragi (Eleusine coracauva). The plants are being evaluated in the Trombay field. In the grain legumes studied such as soyabean (Glycine max) and green gram (Vigna radiata), somatic embroys were induced to develop in tissue cultures. Studies on isolation, culture and regeneration of protoplasts were continued. Complete plants were regenerated from mesophyll protoplasts of mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia) while in green gram (Vigna radiata), black gram (V. mungo) and cowpea (V. unguiculata) protoplasts were divided and developed into callus tissue. Work on genetic manipulation of crops using suitable vectors was undertaken. In the case of V. aconitifolia, mesophyll protoplasts were transformed with Agrobacterium tumaefaciens having the NPT II gene conferring resistance to Kanamycin sulfate. The protoclones selected for Kanamycin resistance

124 were differentiated into plants and are currently being studied for heritability of the gene. Investigations on production of biologically active alkaloids from cell cultures of Sarpagandha (Rauwolfia Serpentina) were continued. A medium has been standardised for the growth of Sarpagandha cells. The cells synthesised significantly high levels of ajmaline (0.20% d.w.) in a period of five weeks. The culture medium also contained 52 mg ajmaline per litre indicating the suitability of the system for cell immobilisation studies. The cell cultures have been successfully grown in a 20 litre capacity bio-reactor. dose-dependent fall in electrical conductivity suggesting the possibility of using this parameter to identify ir- jj potatoes from the non-irradiated ones. I Men. -luminescence pro-perties of common salt could be utilised to develop a detection method to identify irradiated spices and curry powder. Methods were developed to improve the colour of pectin, colour and texture of raisins and shelf life of pomfret steaks. Surimi prepared from Ooma, an underutilized fish, was superior to that from other fishes. Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from Doma was comparable to any standard protein in its nutritional quality. Tissue cultures have been established from five genotypes of the Chinese plant Artemisia annua, which is a source for the new anti-malarial drug artemisinin. Two of the genotypes (plants) synthesised higher levels of artemisinin. These have been taken up for further studies Food Technology The research activities were broadly directed into development of methods for food processing involving gamma radiation as well as conventional technology and of detection methods to identify irradiated foods, studies on food toxins and foodborne pathogens, nutritional and toxicological investigations and research relating to enzymology and microbial technology. Various treatments such as warm water dip, salicylic acid or sodium hypochlorite dip, etc. were ineffective in reducing microbial decay in irradiated potatoes occuring during extended storage at 15 C. Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) was found to be a suitable packaging material for the storage of prepacked cereal and legume products after irradiation. The maximum permissible microbial load for spice irradiated at 10 kgy could be fixed at a standard plate count of and 2ero for E. coli and 8. cereus. Gamma-irradiation of pre-packed lamb/sheep meat extended its shelf-life upto 4 weeks when stored at 2-4 C; but by a combination treatment consisting of dip in hot water, chilling and packaging prior to irradiation, the shelf-life could be further extended to 5-6 weeks. Install-ation and trial testing of inlet and outlet conveyor systems for the transportable bed onion irradiator have been completed. Irradiated potatoes showed a 117 Aflatoxin-producing potential of Aspergillus parasiticus spores did not increase after gammairradiation of spores and subsequent growth on a synthetic medium. Presence of nearly a dozen hydrolytic enzymes was shown in A. flavus and A. parasiticus of which an aminopeptidase was strongly inhibited by aflatoxins. The major onion pathogen, A. niger, was highly resistant to sulphur compounds of onion as well as to the disease-resisting phenol ics but was sensitive to steam distilled garlic oil, potassium metabisulphite at more than 1000ppm and to chemical fungicides at 10 ppm, such as benomyl and bavistin. A polyvalent radio-vaccine, earlier tested in mice, was also found to significantly protect chicks when challenged with S.gallinarum ands. polluram. Gamma-irradiation at a dose of 4.0 kgy completely eliminated Salmonella from frozen shrimps preinoculated with 10 7 cells of S. typhimurium/g. B. cereus, a food-borne pathogen, occurred widely in various marketed foods. Selected isolates of this organism produced a non-hemolytic toxin that was lethal to adult Swiss mice. Analysis of lipid profiles of a number of Indian fishes, both fresh water and marine water, showed the presence of significant amounts of the highly unsaturated(n-3) fatty acids: G^and C B6 which are known to be physiologically important as precursors of prostaglandins and as regulators of blood cholesterol levels and are not present in the commonly consumed vegetable oils. Thioglycollate elicited peritoneal macrophages from protein malnourished rats showed an initial lag period of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production and oxidative burst capacity, probably due to the significantly higher endogeneous catalase levels in these cells. A permitted food

125 colourant, viz., Erythrosine, altered the spectral characteristics of calf-thymus DNA on binding, and also increased the transmembrane conductance to some ions in a bilayer lipid membrane prepared from goat brain lipids. The mutagenic potential of quercetin, a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, was decreased significantly following the action of rat caecal cell-free extract. The alkaline fraction of caramel showed mutagenicity to TA 100 and 97A tester strains after activation with caecal microbial enzymes. A new enzyme, ferroxidase, isolated from the oxygen evolving complex of spinach chloroplasts, was purified to homogeneity; ferrocyanide-dependent oxygen uptake and hydrogen feroxide dependent dark oxygen evolution activities of this enzyme suggested a possible role for it in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. The photosystem I (PS I) from green potato tubers functioned independently of PS II, withpyruvic and chlorogenic acids as endogeneous electron donors. Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, the last enzyme of the 4-aminobutyrate shunt pathway, was purified from potato tubers to homogeneity. The non-particulate localisation of cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase from potato tubers was demonstrated convincingly. A natural cofactor of this enzyme was purified from potato tubers and was found to be a folate-peptide complex with a molecular weight of 10,000 kda with the peptide portion containing an unusual component, phosphoethanolamine. ADP could replace ATP as a phosphoryl donor for phosphofructokinase, the glycolytic enzyme from banana. mrna isolated wounded potato tuber tissue was used to construct a cdna library in an expression vector, PUC 8 plasmid. A sulphydryl activated metalloproteinase, which acts on azocoll optimally at ph 7.3 was identified as an autolytic enzyme from shrimp muscle. Aminopeptidase, an autolytic enzyme from the fresh water fish Tilapia, was purified to homogeneity. Two novel proteinases, optimally active at 2.8 and 8.5 and containing serine in the active site, were identified in pure lysosomes isolated from buffalo kidney cortex. <$. The total phenol ics and piperine content of pepper was found to vary with different varieties. A novel phenolic amide, isolated and identified from green berries for the first time, was found to be an active substrate for pepper polyphenol oxidase. A system containing yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads could be used to remove sugars from eggmelange. The product was free of yeast odourand the entrapped yeast cells could be reused without loss in efficiency. The feasibility of using an ureolytic organism containing an alkaline urease surface immobilized on bagasse or cotton cloth; for continuous treatment of urea effluent is being ascertained. Plaster of Paris, an inexpensive non-toxic and thermally stable matrix, was used to immobilise yeast cells. Process conditions for conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose using this system were standardised. 10.7Radiobiology Several alternative methodologies have been explored to improve cure of experimental animal malignancies. An anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin has been demonstrated to enhance the curability of a transplantable fibrosarcoma in Swiss mice when treated with gamma-rays. Its continued administration for four days after radiation therapy has further improved the outcome. Some of the techniques tried in the treatment of tumours resulted in complete regression of a significant proportion of the tumour as well as of certain types of carcinoma and sarcoma in Swiss mice. None of the tumours thus regressed showed any recurrence. A combination of this modality with radiotherapy is being investigated. Hyperthermia is another well known adjuvant to radio-therapy, but the above mentioned tumours were found to develop thermotolerance which reached maximum at 16 hours after exposure to heat, but thereafter decayed completely in hours depending on the tumour type. Methods to overcome this problem are being developed. Combined effects of ionising radiations and mercuric chloride, an industrial pollutant, are being studied on reproductive performance and occyte maturation in Swiss mice. Overall losses in total and live implants amounted to about 40% on wholebody exposure of animals to 50 R X-rays. The administration of the chemical at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight, before or after irradiation did not cause any further effect, notwithstanding the fact that the chemical itself caused more than 20% losses. At a still lower dose of 20 R, the toxic effect of the chemical was reduced. A similar result was also observed in mice carrying preimplantation embryos at treatment. These results indicate antagonistic effects of radiation on mercury 118

126 toxicity, the mechanisms of which are being studied. A theoretical model has been proposed for the mechanism of action of photoreacting enzyme (PRE), and the role of its RNA co-factor. This model successfully explains the functional properties of photoreacting enzyme Radiation Medicine Nuclear medicine service was offered for clinicians to conduct clinics for investigation and treatment of thyroid disorders, and several research projects on varied aspects of medical applications were carried out. In-house radiopharmacy has prepared 23 batches of 1250 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals for patient studies. These include DTPA, phytate, sulphur colloid, glucoheptonate and DIPIDA. Extensive quality assurance tests were conducted before administering them to patients. A total of about 3000 GBq (80 Ci) of Tc-99m have been handled for preparation of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. About 13,000 procedures were conducted during the year including liver scans, brain scans, bone scans, renal, cardiac, hepatobiliary and CBF. Thyroid scan and other studies were performed for diagnosis of a variety of clinical disorders. A total of 800 serum thyroglobulin assays were performed as a measure of evaluating presence of metastasis in patients with thyroid cancer. 350 patients were studied for PBI 131 as evidence of spread of thyroid cancer. In 540 samples ATA and AM A were assayed in patients with thyroid disorders. A total of 7883 thyroid function tests were performed on patients who were referred with suspicion of thyroid disfunction. Tubercular antigen and antibody were assayed on 1020 samples of CSF, blood or pleural and ascitic fluids. Around 3000 new patients were given treatment and diagnostic facilities. 232 patients of thyroid cancer have been treated with radioiodine amounting to a total 1517 GBq (41 Ci) over a period of 1 year and 157 thyrotoxic patients were administered radioiodine, totally amounting 32 GBq (0.865 Ci). A method to estimate trace levels of Mo-99 in large amounts of Tc-99 has been standardised. A method for on-line quality assurance and control of injectable Na" m TcO 4 has been perfected. A process technology has been deve-lcped to salvage Tc-99m and re-convert it into useable form. Biokinetics of Tc- 99m phytate and hepatobiliary agents have been studied in animal models of cirrhosis, hepatitis and vitamin A and D deficiencies. Tc-99m-TBI, a new radiopharmaceutical for cardiac studies, was evaluated. Extensive Phase III trials were conducted on 50 patients. Comparison with TI-201 was also performed. At present, it is being used as a routine radiopharmaceutical in the assessment of myocardial perfusion defects. Tc-99m-DMSA is now being routinely used in the monitoring of patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. It is found to be capable of replacing 67 G-citrate as a tumour localising agent. ^TI-DDC as a brain perfusion agent is under investigation. RBC labelling kits using stannous oxide is being evaluated in patient studies after having been successfully tested in animals. Mm Tc-S-Colloid scanning and "Tc-DTPA renography are being done in renal transplant patients for evidence of perfusion abnormalities, obstructive features and abnormal concentration of sulphur-colloid as features of rejection, in colloboration with the K.E.M. Hospital, Bombay. Patients proven to have or suspected to have hepatomas are subjected to hepatobiliary scintigraphy after they undergo conventional liver scanning with colloids. The purpose is to detect what proportion of these patients would show positive localization of the hepatobiliary agent in the 'cold' areas seen on the colloid liver scan. To further elucidate the question of whether abnormal concentration on bone scan represents secondaries in bones, combined bone marrow scanning and regular " m Tc-MDP scanning are being done. This is to detect defects on the marrow scan matching the abnormalities seen on the bone scan. Positive evidence of marrow involvement increases the possibility that the bone scan abnormality is due to metastatic involvement. Patients with ischaemic diseases who have either before or after been investigated elsewhere with 119

127 TMTs, coronary angiography, etc., and post-treatment (angioptasty) and post surgery (CAVG), are being assessed for both myocardial perfusion status and left ventricular function. Such patients are subjected to To-labelled isonitriles (TBI) andthallium-201. LV function is determined by the Gated Pool Technique for estimation of ejection fraction. Both the studies are performed at rest followed by exercises on a bicycle ergo-meter. Renovascular disease is being investigated both before and after the administration of Captopril. Patients who have abnormal bone scans, which do not directly suggest secondary involvement, are subjected to CT scan for comparative evaluation. Liver, brain and bone scans are routinely performed before definitive treatment to determine the presence of secondary involvement in any of these organs in the absence of symptoms. A number of children including infants are being investigated by nuclear medicine techniques for a variety of disorders. Mucociliary clearance using Tc-99m albumin aerosols are evaluated in chronic smokers along with ventilation aerosol studies. Estimation of free T 3 and T 4 from serum samples using a modified BARC T 3 and T 4 kit have been standardised and are now being studied routinely in patients with thyroid disorders, nonthyroidal illness, chronic renal failures and hepatic disorders. T 3 binding nuclear receptors were evaluated in neonatal and adult brains with the purpose of trying to evaluate the cause of mental retardation in neonatal hypothyroidism. It was found that malic acid enzyme which is necessary for the process of brain myelination is deficient in neonatal hypothyroid rats and may be an important indicator of poor mental development. In the field of infectious diseases, a number of new diagnostic techniques were evolved. PGL-1 antibody detection assays were evaluated in 157 children in the age group of years residing in a leprasoruin and 75 children from an orphanage. About 12-16% children were found to be positive for leprosy antibodies and about 30-40% of these developed signs of leprosy on a follow-up evaluation within two years. Using the above test and also some others, contacts could be detected and suitably treated before onset of the full-blown disease. A simpler test is being evaluated whereby a spot of blood collected on a filter paper will be adequate for testing. A simple dot-eliza was evaluated for detection of tubercular antigen and antibody in sputum of patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. This semi quantitative visual test can be applied for large scale epidemiological studies. Monoclonal antibodies of 38 KDa and KDa antigens were also evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity of detection. Various parameters of cellmediated immune reactions in patients suffering from tuberculosis were evaluated. Animal models of tuberculosis were established in rabbits and mice. In vivo localisation of radiolabelled antibodies and their kinetics were evaluated. Histochemical methods for localisation of antigen in the experimental models were studied so that this data is of use in the deve-iopment of radioimmuno-scinti-graphic techniques for in vivo localisation of tubercular disease especially in organs other tha the lung. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) service for analysis of patients, samples was offered to medical institutions from BARC, Trombay, and from the Regional Centres set up at Bangalore, Delhi, Calcutta and Dibrugaih. A total of 7,000 samples have been analysed by RIA for various hormones. Assistance was provided for setting up an RIA Laboratory at the Regional Radiation Medicine Centre, Thakurpukur, Calcutta, which will offer RIA service to users from Calcutta. The Regional Centres at Bangalore, Oibrugarh and Delhi supplied ready to use Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals in their respective regions. In the field of radiation medicine the ongoing research contracts with the I.A.E.A./W.H.0. are (i) Radioimmunoassay procedures infilarial infections, (if) Study of immunodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of tuberculosis, (iii) External quality control for RIA of thyroid hormones, (iv) Pharmacokinetics of radio-labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals, (v) Quantitative evaluation of clear medicine imaging procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases, (vi) Quality control survey for gamma cameras in India with simple methods. 120

128 Publications Apte. S.K., Reddy. B.R. and Thomas, J., 'Role of Sodium Transport in the Salt Tolerance of Nitrogen Fixing Cyanobacteria', VII International Congress on Nitrogen fixation, Univ. Cologne, W. Germany Arvindakshan, M. and Chauhan, P.S., Transmissible Genetic Damage Due to Paternal Post-Meiotic Exposure', Xlllth Ann. Conf. EMSI, Hyderabad Bains, G.S. and Dhake, G.S., 'Studies on Immunosuppression', XIV Ann. Conf. Indian Immunology Society and Symposium on Immunodeficency, Srinagar (1987). Bhagwat, A.S., 'Surface Changes and Inhibition of Ribulose 1,5-Biphosphate Carboxylase by Specific and Limited Trypsin Catalysed Proteolysis', Proc. Ind. Nat. Sci. Acad., 53, 415 Bhagwat, A.S., 'Regulation of Ribulose 1,5- Biphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase and Possibilities for its Genetic Engineering', J. Plant PhysioJ. and Biochem., 14,1 (1987). Bhagwat,A.S., 'The Regulation of RuBisco Activity', International Congress of Plant Physiology, New Delhi, Bhagwat, A.S. andverma, N.C.,'Effect of Activation by Mg2 f on the Confirmation of Ribulose 1,5-Biphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase: A Fluorescence Study', Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 25, 244 Bharambe, S.D. and Sainis, K.B., 'Radiosensitivities of the Processes of Antigen Presentation and Induction of Tolerance", XIV Ann. Conf. Indian Immunology Society and Symposium on Immunodeficiency, Srinagar (1987). Abs. No. 99. Bhatt, Bharati, 'Our Hidden Enemies-A Chapter on Toxic Pollutants', "Pradushan no Ajagar", Ed. Nagin Modi', R.R. Sheth Publication (in Gujarati), p. 170 Bhatt, Bharati, 'Systematic Approach in Education for Social Transformation and Nation Building', Association of Scientific Workers of India and Manila Congress(l), Parliament House Annexe, New Delhi (Keynote Address) Bhatt, Bharati, 'Wind Power 1, Proceedings of the Seminar on Renewable Resources of Energy Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, p. 33 Bhatt, Bharati and Balakrishnan, Sreedevi, 'Studies on Chromosomal Aberrations in Cases of Chronic Exposures of Low-Levels of Ionizing Radiations', XV Ann. Conf. Radiat. Protection, Hyderabad Bhatt, Bharati and Desai Jayashri, 'Performance of Girls of Weaker Sections in Science and Mathematics', National Work-shop on Women, Science and Technology, Bangalore Bhatt Bharati Manjula, Mathur and Balakrishanan, Sreedevi, 'Automated Chromosome Analysis by Leitz Tas Plus Image Analyser', National Workshop/ Seminar on Quantitative Image Analysis in Microscopy, Bombay Bhattacharjee, S.K., 'Sensitivity to Far-UV Radiation as a Parameter for the Study ofpsii Particles in Cyanobacteria: An Analytical Model', INDO-US workshop on Application of Molecular Biology in Bioenergetics of Photosynthesis, Jawaharial Nehru University, New Delhi Bhattacharjee, S.K., 'Why Cyanobacteria do not Show Liquid Holding Recovery Against UV-damage?', National Seminar on Photosynthesis, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur Bhattacharjee, S.K. and Mahajan, S.K., 'Cloning of Cup a Dominant Mutation Affecting Carbohydrate Utilization in Escherichia. XVIth Int. Cong, of Genetics, Toronto Book of Abstracts p Bhilwade, H.N., Chaubey, R.C. and Chauhan, P.S., 'Studies on in vitro Modulatory Effects of Cobalt (II) Chloride on Methyl Methane Sulfonate Induced Clastogenicity in Swiss mice', Xlll'th Ann. Conf. EMSI, Hyderabad (1988), Book of Abstracts, p. 44. Chaubey, R.C., Bhilwade, H.N and Chauhan, P.S., 'The Use of Micronucleus Assay to Evaluate Com-parative Clastogenic Effects of Methyl Methanesulfonate in Rats and Mice', ibid, Book of Abstracts, p

129 Chauhan, P.S., 'Genetic Toxicology Monitoring: A Strategy to Minimize Human Cancer and Congenital Motformations due to Exposure to Environmental Chemi cats: Prospects in Developing Country', Advances in Toxicology and Environmental Health, (Eds.)P.K Gupta and Ravi Prakash, (1988) p Chauhan, P.S., 'Genetics and Human Health - a Perspective', Seminar on Genetics and Human Health, Darbhanga (1988), Book of Articles, p. 35. Chauhan, P.S., 'Down's Syndrome: Past, Present and Future', Nature of Genetic Variation in Man. (Eds.) P.S. Chauhanand P.P. Reddy, EMSI, Bombay(1988), p. 283 Chauhan, P.S., 'Genetics and Human Health - An Evolving Relationship', National Symposium on Recent Trends in Genetic Research, Hyderabad (1988), Book of Abstracts, p. 12. Chauhan, P.S., 'Genetic Monitoring as a Part of Occupational Health Care', National Symposium on Occupational Hazards, Hyderabad Book of Abstracts, p. 5. Chauhan, P.S., 'Genetic Effects of Ionizing Radiation: The Hiroshima Nagasaki Experience', Seminar on Radiation Effect Studies Based on A-Bomb Survivors, Indian Societyfor Radiation Physics, Bombay Chapter Chauhan, P.S., Arvindakshan, M. and Sundaram, K., 'Dominant Lethal Test in Swiss Male Mice', IPCS in vivo Assays, (Eds.)J. Ashby etal.,v.2, Cambridge University Press, U.K. p Chauhan, P.S., Chauby, R.C. and Sundaram, K., 'Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test in Swiss Male Mice', ibid, p Chauhan, P.S. and Notani, N.K., 'Radiation Genetics and Its Relevance to Human Being', Workshop on Nuclear Energy with Specific Reference to Kaiga Pro-ject, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Chauhan, P.S., and Reddy, P.P. (Eds), 'Nature of Genetic Variation in Man', EMSI, Bombay, Chauhan, P.S,, Sundaram, K., 'GeneticToxicology: A Strategy for Minimising Human Cancer and Possibly Birth Defects due to Exposure to Environmental Chemicals', Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis, (Eds.) O.S. Reddiand P.P. Reddi, Osmania University Press, Hyderabad p. 99. David, K.A.V., Rane, S.S. and Bhattacharjee, S.K., 'A Case for Photosystem II as a Second Lethal Target of UV-radiation in Cyanobacterium : Evidence from Photoreactivation Studies', International Phycotalk Symposium, Varanasi (1987). David, K.A.V., Rane, S.S., Mathur Manjula and Bhattacharjee, S.K., 'Herbicide Mediated UV-Resistance in Cyanobacteria : On the Role of Photosynthetic Electron Transport System Rather than Replicative DNA as Lethal Target Determining Dark-Survival of Anacystis nidulans', Photochem. Photobiol., 47, 107 Joshi, V.P., and Notani, N.K., 'Decreased Extrachromosomal Fixation of Chimeric Plasmid in Strain N19 of Haemophiluss influenzae Rd.', J. Genet. 67, 113 Joshi, V.P., and Notani, N.K.,'Gene Clonig and Chimeric Plasmid Transformation in Haemophilus influenzae', Symp. on Genetic Engineering Research in India, Bangalore (1988), Book of Abstracts, p. 4 Joshi, V.P., and Notani, N.K.,'Genetic Transformation with Chimeric Plassmid DNA in Haemophilus i n- fluenzae'..symp. on Microbial and Molecular Genetics, AMI Golden Jubilee Meeting, Pune Book of Abstracts p. XIV. Kunierczyk, P., Czarnowska, A., Ooplski, A., Seshadri, M. et al., 'Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Mouse Strains MaintainedattheBAR.C.Bombay, Serological Typing for H-2 Haplotypes and Lymphocyte Differentiation Markers, Arch. Immunol, et Ther. Exp., 35, 423 (1987). Khalap, N.V. and Notani, N.K., 'Heritable Changes Induced by a Phage Follwoing Lysogenization of Strep : tomyceslividans 66', XIII Annual Conference of EMSI, Hyderabad 122

130 Kumar, M., and Chauhan, P.S., 'Cell Kinetic and Sister Chromatid Exchange Analysis of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed in vitro to Ascorbic Acid', Book of Abstracts, p. 64. Lilani, A.T., Joshi, R.K., and Gaur, B.K., 'Morphophysiological Status of Wheat Leaf Sections and Their Age Dependent Response to NAA',!nd. J. Plant Physiology, XXX (4), 380 (1987). Lilani, A.T., Joshi, R.K. and Mishra, S.D., 'Sequential Action of NAA on Protein Synthesis', International Conference of Plant Physiologists of the SAARC Countries on the Role of Plant Physiology in Crop Productivity, Gorakhpur Mishra, S.D., 'Significance of Physiological Studies for Yield Improvement', Natl. Sem. on Photosynthesis, Sambalpur University, Sambalpur (Invited Talk). Mishra, S.D., 'PGR-induced Alterations in Crop Productivity', Natl. Sem. on Recent Advances in Plant Growth Regulator Research, University of Jodhapur (Invited talk). Mahajan, S.K., 'Pathways of Homologous Recombination in Escherichia coli, Genetic Recombination', (Eds.) Smith and R. Kuchelarapatti, American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C. p. 80. Mahajan, S.K. and Mangoli, S.H., 'On the Role of the RecBCD Enzyme in Recombination', Cold Spring Harbor meeting on 'Intermediates in Genetic Recombination'. Cold Spring Harbor, New York Book of Abstracts, p Mahajan, S.K., Pandit, N.N., Sarkari, J.F. andsharma, Gaitri, S., 'Molecular Genetics of DNA Amplification in Escherichia coli Using Tn9 and Tn1721 as Model Amplicons', National Symposium on Recent Developments in Microbial Gene Technology, Hyderabad (Invited Talk). Mahajan, S.K., and Sharma Gaitri, S., 'Hypoxic Conditions Enhance DNA Amplification in Escherichia coli K-12', XVIth International Congress of Genetics, Toronto (Invited Talk). Mahajan, S.K., Vartak, N.B. and Datta, A.R., 'A New Pleiotropic Mutation Causing Defective Carbohydrate Uptake In Escherichia coli K-12: Isolation, Mapping and Preliminary Characterization', J. Bacteriof., 170, 2568 (1968). Mangoli, S.H. and Mahajan, S.K., YecD Mutants of Esherichia coli can be Transformed by Homologous Chromosomal DNA', 57th Annual Meeting, Society of Biological Chemists of India, New Delhi Book of Abstracts, Abst. No Nath, Neeta and Mishra, S.D., 'PGR-lnduced Alterations of RuBPcase Activity in Senescing Barley Leaves', International Conference of Plant Physiology in Crop Productivity, Ghorakhpur (1987). Notani, N.K., D'Souza, M.R. andviegas, P.M., 'Gene Cloning and Transfer to Plants', Symp. on Plant Cell Tissue Culture of Economically Imports, 2 Plants, (Ed.) G.M. Reddy, Secunderabad (1987). Notani, N.K., 'Molecular Genetics Applied to Heritable Diseases, Nature of Genetic Variation in Man', (Eds.) P.S. Chauhan and P.P. Reddy, EMSI, Bombay, p Notani, N.K. and Joshi, V.P., 'Evidence for Recombinational Repair in Haernophilus Influenzae', XVth International Congress of Genetics, Toronto, Canada Book of Abstracts p (Invited Talk). Pai, K.U. and Gaur, B.K., 'Effect of Gamma Radiation on Structural and Functional integrity of Plant Mitochondria', Ind. J. Exptl. Biol., 26, 355 Pandit, N.N., 'Molecular Mechanisms of Recombinatiion and their Bearing on DNAAmplification/Deamplification in Escherichia coli K-12', Ph.D. Thesis, Bombay University Purohit, U.S. and Bhagwat, A.S., 'Inhibition of Ribulose, 1,5 Biphosphate Carboxylase by N-acetyl Imidazode'. Ind. J. Biochem.Btophys.,25,313 Purohit, U.S. and Bhagwat, A.S., 'Inhibition of Ribulose 1,5 Biphosphate Carboxylase byn-acetylmi- 123

131 dazole'. National Seminar on Photosynthesis, Sambalpur Rao, S.R., Marlihalli, G.B., Kamath, 8.G. and Bhagwat, A.S., 'Active Site Studies on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydatase t.om Zea-Mays', ibid. Rao, S.R., Kamath, B.G. and Bhagwat, A.S., 'Inhibition of -Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase from Maize by 2,3-Butanedione', Photosynthetica, 22(3), Sainis, J.K., Purohit. U.S., Verma, N.C., Harris, G.C. and Bhagwat, AS., 'Investigations on Ribulose BiphosphateCarboxylase/Oxygenase', Indo-US Workshop on Molecular Biology of Photosynthesis, New Delhi Sainis, K.B. and Datta, S.K., 'CD.4 4 T Cell Lines with Selective Patterns of Autoreactivity as well as C04* CD8" T Helper Cell Lines Augment the Production of Idiotypes Shared by Pathogenic Anti-DNA Autoanlibodies in the NZB XSWR Model of Lupus Nephritis', J. Immunol., 140, 2215 Samiwala, E.B., Joshi, V.P. and Notani, N.K., 'An Estimate of the Physical Distance Between Two Linked Markers in Haemophilus lnfluenzae\j. Bioscl, 13, 223 Sarkari, J.F. and Mahajan, S.K., 'Detection of Extrachromosomal Cirles Composed of Tn9 Multimers in an Escherichia coli Strain Harboring Tandemiy Amplified Tn9', National Symposium on Recent Development in Microbial Gene Technology, Hyderabad Sundaram, KandChauhan, P.S., 'GenomicAlterations and Cancer, in: Chemical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis', (Eds.)O.S. Reddi and P.P. Reddy, Osmania University Press, Hyderabad (1988) p. 99. Thomas, J.. Apte, S.K. and Reddy, B.R., Sodium Metabolism in Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Fixation and Salt Tolerance', VII International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Univ. Cologne, W. Germany Tuli, R. and Merrick, M.J., 'Over-Production and Characterisation of the nifa Gene Product of Klebsiella Pneumoniae -trte Transcriptional Activator of nif Gene Expression', J. Gen. Mfcrobiol., 134, 425 (1986). Tuli, R., 'Cloningand Organisation of -Endotoxin Gene in Bacillus Turingiensis', Proc. of Symposium on Genetic Engineering Research in India, Instt. of Science, Bangalore (1988), p. 15. Altekar, Wijaya and Dhar, N.M., 'On Archaebacterial Class I and Class II Alddases from Extreme Halophiles', Origins of Life, 18,59 Bhattacharya, R.K. and Firozi, P.F., 'Effect of Plant Flavonoids on Microsome Catalyzed Reactions of Aflatoxin B, Leading to Activation and DNA Adduct Formation', Cancer Letters, 39,85 Bunni, M., Doig, M.T., Donate H., Kesavan, V. and Priest, D.G., The Role of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Thymidylate Synthesis Inhibition in Cultured L 1210 Cells', Cancer Research, 48,3398, De, A.K. and Darad, Rukmini, 'Physiological Antioxidants and Antioxidative Enzymes', Toxicology Letters, 44, 47 Deniz, UshaK., Parvathanathan, PS.,Datta,Geetaand Mirza, E.B., 'Calorimetric Study of Drug-Model Membrane Interactions', Proceedings of the 6th Annual Symposium on Surfactants in Solution Desai, Syamal D., Chetty, K.G. and Pradhan, D.S, 'Dimethyl Sulfoxide Elicited Increase in Cytochrome Oxidase Activity in Rat Liver Mitochondria (in vivo and in vitro)', Chemico-Btological Interactions Devasagayam, T.P.A. and Tarachand, U., 'Pregnancy- Associated Decrease in LJpid Peroxidation in Rat Liver', Biochemistry Internationa! Francis, A.R., Shetty, T.K and Bhattacharya, R.K.. 'Modifying Role of Dietary Factors on the Mutagenicity of Aflatoxin B,: in vitro Effect of Trace Elements', Mutation Res.. 199, 85 (1968). Francis, A.R., Shetty, T.K. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Effect of Certain Trace Elements on the Mutagenicity of N-Methyf-N'-nkro-N-Nitrosoguanidine', Toxicology Letters, 42,193(1968). 124

132 Jethmalani, Sunita, Koppikar, S.V., Viswanatban, G., Bandyopadhyay, C. and Noronha, J.M., 'Separation of Human Plasma Lipoproteins Suitable for Cholesterol Determination by Gel Permeation Chromatography', Indian J. Experimental Biology, (1968). Katyare, Surendra, S. and Rajan, Rema, R, 'Enhanced Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver Mitochondria Following Prolonged in vivo Treatment with Imipramine', Br. J. Pharamacology, 95,914 Katyare, S.S. and Shallom, J.M., 'Altered Cerebral Protein Turnover in Rats Following Prolonged in vivo Treatment with Nicotine', J. Neurochem., 50, 1356 Narurkar, LM., D'Souza, S.J., Kudalkar, J.A. and Narurkar, M.V., 'Modulation of Glutathione S-Transferase Activity in Human Lymphocytes in Health and Disease', Medical Science Research, 16 Nerurkar, MA, Satav, J.G. and Katyare, S.S.,'Insulin- Dependent Changes in Lysosomal Cathepsin D Activity in Rat Liver, Kidney, Brain and Heart', Diabetologia, 31, 119 Newman, E.M., Ly, L, Sabet, M.K., Kesavan, V. and Scanlon, K.J., 'Mechanism of Cross-Resistance to Methotrexate and S-Fluorourcil in an A 2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Subline Resistant to cis-platin', Biochemical Pharmacology, 37,443 Pandey, Virendra N. and Modak, Mukund J., 'Purification of Nucleotide-Linked Peptide', Journal of Chromatography, 444, 133,1988. Pandey, Virendra N. and Modak, Mukund J.,'Affinity Labelling of _E. Coli DNA Polymerase I by 5'-fluorosulfonyladenosine', J. Bio). Chem., 263(13) Pandey, V.N. and Modak, M.J., 'Biochemistry of Terminal Deoxy-nucleotidyl Transferase : Affinity Labelling and Identification of the dntp Binding Domain of Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase', J. Bio). Chem. 263, 3744 Rawal. Nenoo, Kelkar, S.M. and Altekar, Wijaya, 'Ribuiose 1,5 Bisphosphate Dependent CO 2 Fixation in aarchaebacterial Halophile H. Mediterran&i', Biophys. Biochem. Res. Commun., 156,451 Shetty, T.K., Francis, A.R. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Modifying Role of Vitamins on the Mutagenic Action of N-Methyl-N'-Nitrosoguanldlne', Carclnogenesis, 9, 1513 Viswanathan, Gomathy and Naronha, J.M., 'Ribonucleotide Reductase Levels, Deoxyribonucleotide Pools and Nucleic Acid Patterns During Dysdercus Koenigii Embryogenesis', Insect Biochemistry, 18(2), 215 Aboobaker, V.S. and Bhattacharya, R.K., Tissue Levels of Riboflavin Compounds in Rat During N-nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis', 7th Annual Convention, Indian Association of Cancer Research (IACR), Lucknow Bagewadikar, R.S. and Bhattacharya, P.K.,'Effect of N- Methyt-N'- Nitro-N-Nitrosogunnidine on Amino Acid Incorporation into Mucosal Protein of Rat Stomach', ibid. Altekar, Wijaya, 'Halophilic Archaebacteria - A problem in Biochemical Evolution', Conference on Role of Women in the Development of Science and Technology in the Third World, Trieste Amponsah, A., De, A.K., Semenya, K. and Hardy, R.E., 'Evaluation of the Prognostic Value of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Pri-mary Malignancy of the Breast', 32nd Annual Meharry Student Research Day, Nashville, Tennesse Bhattacharjee, D., 'On the Induction of Congenital Defects in the Offspring Derived from Spermatogonial Stem Cells of Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation', 13th Annual Conference, EMSi, Hyderabad (1988) Ab., 29. Bhattacharya, R.K., 'DNA-Binding Assay for Chemical Carcinogens', National Workshop on Screening of Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens in Mammals and Man, EMSi, Hyderabad Deniz, Usha K., Parvathanathan, P.S., Mirza, E.B. and Datta, Geeta, The Influence of the Antileprosy Drug, 125

133 Dapsone, on the Phase Transitions in the Model Membrane, DPPE-H a O\ International Conf. on Bio-membranes in Health and Diseases, Lucknow Desai, ShyamalD., Pasupathy, K., Chetty, K.G. and Pradhan, D.S., 'Evidence for the Presence of DNA Primase Activity in Mitochondria of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae', 57th Annual Meeting of Society of Biological Chemists (India) Devasagayam, T.P.A., 'Decreased Lipid Peroxidationin the Hepatic and Brain Microsomai Fractions of Senescent Rats', International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal Devasagayam, T.P.A., 'Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Tissues as a Function of Age and During Pregnancy', Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Canada., (1988) (Oral Presentation). Devasagayam, T.P.A.,'Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Uterus and Other Maternal Tissues During Pregnancy', McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada (1988) (Oral Presentation). Francis, A.R., Shetty, T.K. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Modifying Role of Plant Phenolic Fiavonoid on the Mutagenesis of Aflatoxin B,\ 13th Annual Conference, EMSI, Hyderabad Krishnamoorthy, R.R., Kamat, J.P., Jagtiani, S.K., D'Souza, S.J., Narurkar, LM. and Narurkar, M.V., The Interrelationship Between Hepatic Mixed Function Oxidases, Tumour Induction and Inhibition', 7th Annual Convention, Ind. Assoc. Cancer Res., Lucknow, Krishnamoorthy, R., Narurkar, L.M., Kamat, J.P. and Narurkar, M.V., 'Nicotinamide-lnduced Isozymic Forms in Rat Livers and Their Implications', 57th Meeting of Society of Biological Chemists (India), Delhi Krishnan, Gomathi and Altaekar, Wijaya, 'Properties of Glyceraldehyde3-P Dehydrogenase from an Extreme Halophile', Ann. Meet, of Microbiofogists of India, Pune Kshirsagar, S.G., '234 Thorium Uptake and Decontamination in Rat', 15th Ann. Conf. on Radiation Protection, Hyderabad Narurkar, L.M., Jagtiani, S.K., Krishnamoorthy, R.R., D'Souza, S.J., Kamat, J.P. and Narurkar, M.V., 'Inhibition of Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats by Nicotinamide', III Biennial Conference, Indo-Soc. Oncology, Bangalore Narurkar, L.M., Kamat, J.P., D'Souza, S.J., Jagtiani, S.K., Krishamoorthy, R.R. and Narurkar, M.V., 'Hepatitoxic Agents and Endoplasmic Reticulum : Implications in Tumour Promotion and Inhibition', International Conf. on Biomembranes in Health and Disease, Lucknow Satav, J.G. and Katyare, S.S., 'Impaired Mitondrial Energy Metabolism Following Paracetamol Treatment', ibid. Nulkar, M.W., Pawse, A.R. and Darad, Rukmini, 'Isolation and Characterization of Plasminogen Activators from Tumour Cells', 57th Annual Meeting of Society of Biological Chemists (India) (1988), Ab. No Shetty, T.K., Francis, A.R. and Bhattacharya, R.K.,"Inhibition by Certain Vitamins and Trace Elements of the Mutagenicity of N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine', 13th Annual Conf., EMSI, Hyderabad Thomas, Mini J. and Katyare, S.S., 'Sexual Dimorphism in Organelle Functions: Studies with Mouse Liver Mitochondria', ibid. Prabhu, A.L., Aboobaker, V.S. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Inhibition of Aflatoxin B, Activation in Livers of Rats Fed Synthetic Antioxidants', 7th Annual Convention, IACR, Lucknow Priyolkar, Mangala S., Nair, C.K.K. and Pradhan, D.S., 'Alpha-Galactosidase of Corynebacterium Murisepticum', XXVIII Annual Conference of Association of Microbiologists of India, Shah, G.M. and Bhattacharya, R.K., Transcriptional Alteration in Rat Liver in Response to Benzo(a)pyrene', 126

134 4th Internatiional Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada Shah, G.M. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Inhibition of Transcription in Rat Liver Nuclei in vitro by a Dldepoxide of Benzo(a)pyrene', XVIth International Congress of Genetics, Toronto, Canada Shetty, T.K., Francis, A.R. and Bhattacharya, R.K., 'Inhibition by Certain Vitamins and Trace Elements of the Mutagenicity of N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine', 13th Annual Conf. EMSI, Hyderabad Badheka, L.P., Desai, S.J., Chaturvedi, R.N. and Mulchandani, N.B. 'Aristolactams and Dioxoaporphinoids from Different Piper Species: Can These be Chemotaxonomic Markers?', The Vlllth Annual Conference of Indian Council of Chemists, Tirupati Mulchandani, N.B., 'Future of Natural Products Research', ibid, (Special Lecture) Desai, S.J., Prabhu, B.R. and Mulchandani, N.B., 'Aristolactams and 4,5-Dioxoaporphines from Piper Longum', Phytochemistry, 27(5), 1511 Choughuley, A.S.U., 'Food Related Factors in the Causation and Prevention of Cancer', Trombay Colloquium, BARC Chattopadhyay, A. andmamdapur, V.R.,'Synthesis of (9Z,12Z)-9, 12-tetradecadien-l-yl Acetate, the Sex Pheromone Component of Many Lepidopterous Insects', Indian J. Chem. 26, 868 Chattopadhyay, A. and Mamdapur, V.R., 'Claisen Orthoester Re-arrangement: Synthesis of Male Melon Fly Pheromone Component', ibid, 27, 169 Banerji, A., 'Natural Products in Insect Control', National Seminar in Hindi on Emerging Frontier in Chemistry, Bombay Banerji, A., 'Alternate Strategies of Insect Control: Natural Products as Potential Biocides', BARC-1416 Banerji, A. and Kalena.G.P., 'Efficient Synthesis of (+-) [2 2 )H 2 ] mevalonolactone (H [2 2 )H 2 ] homomevalonolactone', J. Labelled Compds. Radiopharm. 25,111 Banerji, A. and Chintalwar, G.J.,'One-pot Radiosynthesis psjthiram From Elemental Sulphur', Chemosphere, 17,495 Banerji, A., Luthria, D.L and Prabhu, B.R.,'Prenyfated Compounds from Atalantia Racemose: Isolation and Synthesis of Two New Pyranoflavons', Phytochemistry, 27, 3637 Variyar, P.S., Pendharkar, M.B., Bajerji, A. and Bandopadhyay, C, 'Blackening in Green Pepper Beries', ibid, 26, 715 (1987). Banerji, A., Goomer, N.C. andkaiena, C.P., 'Enolates of Diacetyl Resorcinols: Applications to Synthesis of Benzodipyrans', Indian J. Chem., 27B, 981 GraceMathew, Bhagwat, Arvind, Luthria, D.L., Thomas, J. and Banerji, A., 'Analysis of Early Interactions in Cowpea (Vigna unquiculata) - Bradyrhizobium Symbiosis', DAE Symposium on Phytochemical Studies on Indian Medi-cinal Plants, Jaipur (1987). Joshi, N.K., Lathika, K.M., Banerji, A. and Chadha, M.S., 'Effects of Plumbagin on Growth and Development of Red Cotton Bug DysdercusCingulatus' Fab., Proc. Indian National Sci. Acad. B54, 43 Joshi, N.K., Lathika, K.M., Banerji, A. and Chadha, M.S., 'Effect of Plumbagin on the Prothoracic Glands of Dysdercus Cingulatus', Proc. of the international Conf. on Endocrinological Frontiers in Physiological Insect Ecology. Eds. Sehnal, F., Zabza, A. and Denlinger, D.L Wroclaw Technical University Press, Wroclaw Abraham, V., George, L. and Sreenivasan, V.T., 'Seed Yield and Oil Content of Mustard (Brassica Juncea) (Linn.) Czern and Coss). 1, Curr. Sci.. 57,1019 Abraham, V., George, L, Sreenivasan, V.T. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Yield and Oil Content of Doubled Haploids of Mustard (Brassica Juncea (L) Czern and Coss)', Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.), 98, 405 Bhatia, C.R. and Mathews, H., 'Inheritance of Two 127

135 Somoclonal Variants in Mung Bean (Vigna Radiata (L,.) Wilczek) 1, J. Heredity 79, 122 Chandramouli, D.M.K. and Murty, G.S.S., 'Induced Mutants of Groundnut Cultivar Phule-Pragati', Curr. Sci., 56, 1237 Krishna, T.G. and Mitra, R., The Probable Genome Donors to Arachis Hypogaea Based on Arachin Seed Storage Protein', Euphytica, 37, 47 Krishna, T.G. and Murray, D.R., 'Effects of Cycloheximide and Actinomycin-D on Glycosidase Activities in the Cotyledons of Legume Seeds Following 'mbibitiorv, J. Plant Physiol., 132,745 Joshua, D.C. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Karyotype Analysis of Sesbania Rostrata Brem', Plant Breeding, 100, 154 (1987). Murty, G.S.S, 'Inheritance of Three New Mutants in Sesame', Curr. Sci., 57, 204 Bhagwat, A.S., Joshua, D.C. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Early Uniform Stem Nodulation in Sesbania Rostrata. after Spray of Rhizobium Culture', International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(2), 16 Abraham, V. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Further Progress in the Utilization of Yellow Seeded Trombay Mustard Cultivars in Breeding Programmes', Mutation Breeding News Letter, 31,3 ( Murty, G.S.S. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Lodging Due to Weak Stem, a Major Problem in Sesame Improvement', Sesame and Safflower Newsletter, 3, 9 (1987). Narahari, P., 'TR-RNR-a New Medium Duration Rice Variety Released in Andhra Pradesh (A.P.)', International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(6) 24 Abraham, V., TM-18, an Yellow Seeded Trombay Mustard to Replace Toria Cultivars', Symp. Prospects and Constraints of Increasing Oilseed Production in India, Birsa Agr. Univ. Ranchi (1988), Ab. 69. Bhatia, C.R., 'Induced Mutations for Crop Improvement', FAO/IAEA Seminar on the Improvements of Crops In Africa through the use of Induced Mutations, Lusaka, Ab. 3. Chandramouli, Kale, D.M. and Murty, G.S.S., 'Promising JL-24 Mutants in Groundnut', Symp. Proc. Increasing Oilseed Production In Eastern India, Ranchi (1988), Ab. 70. Krishna, T.G. and Murray, D.R., 'Purification of Alpha- Mannosidasefrom Pea Cotyledons', Ann. Meeting of the American Soc. Plant Physiologists, Reno, Nevada Joshua, D.C., Bhagwat, AS. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Sesbania Rostrata-A Stem Nodulating Legume', National Symp. Recent Trends in Genetic Research, Hyderabad Pawar, S.E., Thakare, R.G. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Genetic Improvement of Pulse Crops Induced Mutations and Their Use in Cross Breeding', Improvement of Grain Legume Production Using Induced Mutations, IAEA, Vienna, 235 Suseelan, K.N., Rao, M.V.P. and Bhatia, C.R., 'Transfer of a Variant Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isozyme Allele Adh-Alb from Triticum Durum to I. Aestivum and Mapping of the Adh-AI Gene', 16th I nternational Congress of Genetics, Toronto, (1988), Ab. 16. Chapke, V.G., Bhujabal, B.M. and Mistry, K.B., 'Efficiency of Ammonium Nitrate Phosphates of Varying Water Soluble Phosphorus Content for Wheat and Succeeding Maize Crops on Different Soil Types', J. Nucl. Agri. Biol., 17, 23 Athalye, V.V., "Uptake and Distribution of Selenium-75 in Lucerne and Mustard Plants', Proc. Int. Conf. of Plant Physiologicsts of the SAARC Countries on the Role of Plant Phsiology in Crop Productivity, Gorakhpur (1987). Athalye, V.V., 'Uptake Distribution and Chemical Characterizatin of Polonium-210 in Phaseolus Vulgaris L\ Proc. Natl. Symp. on Nuclear and Allied Techniques in Agriculture, Medicine and Environment Research, New Delhi (1988), Ab. p. 25. Ramachandran, V. and D'Souza, T.J., 'Mobility of Tri- 128

136 1OQ and Hexavalent Chromium in Two Major Indian soils', ibid, Ab. p. 25. Yadav, V.B. and D'Souza, T.J., 'Residual Effects of Three Phosphatic Fertilizers Blended with Zinc in Three Soil Types.', Proc. Nat. Seminar on Current Trends in Soil Research, 53rd Annual Convention of Indian Society of Soil Science, Bhubaneswar (1988) Ab. 78. Kannan, S., 'Physiological Responses Associated with Fe-Deficiency Stress in Different Plant Species', J. Plant Nutr., 10,1185 Kannan, S., 'Occurence of Iron Deficiency in Important Crops in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu States in India: A Report 1, ibid, 10,1285 Kannan, S. and Ramani, S., 'Iron Deficiency Stress Response in in Crop Plants: An Examination in Linseed Cultivars', ibid, 11, 755 Kannan, S. and Ramani, S.,'Evaluation of Salt Tolerance in Cow Pea and Tobacco: Effects of NaCI on Growth Relative Turgidity and Photosynthesis', ibid, 11,435 Nirale, A.S. andgaur, B.K., 'Chlorophyll Concentration in Leaves of X-ray Irradiated Kidney Bean Seedlings', Ind. J. PI. Phys.,31,65 Nirale, A.S. and Kannan, S., 'Study of Heterosis in Relation to Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Some Sorghum Cultivars', ibid, 30, 415 (1987). Nirale, A.S. and Kannan, S., 'Heterosis Under Fe and N Stess Condition in Sorghum Hybrids', Ann. PI. Phy., 2, 101 Ramani, S., 'An Examination of Fe Deficiency Stress Response in Relation to Fe Uptake in Two Sorghum Hybrids and Their Parent Cultivars', J. Plant Nutr. 11, 107 Ramani, S. and Kannan, S., 'Differential Response of NH 4 -N and NO 3 -N Nutrition to Fe-Deficiency Stress Response in Sorghum Cultivars', International Congress of Plant Physiology, New Delhi (1988) Ab Ramani, S., 'Physiological Response u Rb, ^Na and ^Cl Uptake in Mungbean Cultivars and Sesbania Sp', RCA Meeting, IAEA, Vienna Mitra, J. and Raghu, K., 'Influence of Green Manuring on the Persistence of DDT in Soil', Environmental Technology Letters, 9,847 Raghu, K., 'Fate of HCH in Soils', 4th Workshop of All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Pesticide Residues, New Delhi (1988) Ab Mitra, J. and Raghu, K., 'Effect of DDD and DDE on Soil Microbial Activities', Annual Conference of Association of Microbiologists of India, Pune (1988), Ab Bapat, V.A. and Rao, P.S., 'Sandalwood Plants from Synthetic Seeds', Plant Cell Reports, 7,434 Eapen, S., 'Callus Induction from Mesophyll and Hypocotyl Protoplasts of Vigna Radiata (L) Wilczek', Annals of Botony 62, 441 Eapen, S., Kohler, F., Gerdemann, M. andschieder, O., 'Cultivar Dependence of Transformation Rates in Mothbean After Cocultivation of Protoplast wxh Agrobacterium tumefaciens', Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 75,207 George, L and Eapen, S., 'Plant Regeneration by Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Inflorescence Cultures of Sorghum Almum.', Annals of Botony 61,589 Gill, R., Eapen, S. and Rao, P.S., Transformation of the Grain Legume Vigna Acontifolia Jaq. Marechal by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Regeneration of Shoots.', Proc. Indian Academy of Sciences (Plant Science) 97 Kohler, F., Golz, C, Eapen, S., Kohn, H. and Schieder, O., 'Stable Transformation of Mothbean Vigna Acnnitifolia via Direct Gene Transfer', Plant Cell Reports, 6, 313 (1987). Kohler, F., Golz, C, Eapen, S. and Schieder, O., 'Influence of Plant Cultivar and Plasmid DNA on Transformation Rates in Tobacco and Mothbean', Plant Science, 53,87(1987).

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138 ence of Nitrogen Fractions of Proteinaceous Foods on Aeromonas Hydrophila', J. Food Sci., 53,243 Sharma, A., Padwal-Desai, S.R. and Nadkarni, G.B., 'Effect of AldehydeTrapping on Ethylene and Aflatoxin Biogenesis in AspergHlusParasiticus', J. Agric. Food Chem., 36,546 Bandekar, J.R. and Nerkar, D.P., 'Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Macrophage Stimulating Property of V, parahaemolyticus', Ind. J. Exptl. Bid., 26,661 Bandekar, J.R. and Nerkar, D.P., 'Biological Activities of Lipid A from Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Stimulation of Murine Peritoneal Macrophages", Microbiol. Immunol., 32, 275 Bandyopadhyay, C. andvariyar, P.S., 'On the Volatiles of Pepper Plant (Piper Nigrum L)\ PAFAI J. 10, 25 Deshpande, A. and D'Souza, S.F., 'D-Amino Acid Oxidase of Trigonopsis variahilis', Indian J. Microbiol. 28, 26 D'Souza, S.F. and Kamath, N., 'Cloth Bioreactor Containing Yeast Cells Immobilized on Cotton Cloth Using Polyethyleneimine', Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 29,136 Gandhi, S.R., Kulkami, S.B. and Netrawali, M.S., 'Comparative Effects of Synthetic Insecticides - Endosulfan, Phosalone and Permethrin - on Chlamydomonas rein z hardtii Algal Cells', Acta Microbiologiea Hungerica, 35, 93 Ghadi, S.V. and Ninjoor, V., The Binding Strength of Fish Muscle Rolls', J. Food Sci. and Technol., 25, 26 Ghosh, S., 'Immobilisation of Bakers Yeast Using Plaster of Paris', Biotechnology Techniques, 2, 217 Ghosh, S. and D'Souza, S.F., 'Effect of Temperature and Substrate Concentration on the Operational Stability of Immobilized Yeast Cell Invertase', J. Microb. Biotechnol., 3, 25 Godbole, S.S., Rao, B.Y.K., Bandyopadhyay, C. and D'Souza, S.F., 'Physicochemical Alterations in Desugared Buffalo Milk After Fermentation with Saccharomyces Fragilis', Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.,29,219 Iyer, M.G., Surendranathan, K.K. and Nair, P.M., 'Correlation between Increase in 6-Phosphofrucktokinase Activity and Appearance of Three Multiple Forms In Ripening Banana', Plant Physio!. Biochem., 27, 1 (1989). Jethmalani, S.M., Koppikar, S.V., Viswanathan, G., Bandyopadhyay, C. and Noronha, J.M., 'Separationof Human Plasma Lipoproteins Suitable for Determination of Gel Permeation Chromatography', Indian J. Exp. Biol., 26, 633 Lakdawalla, A.A. and Netrawali, M.S., 'Mutagenicity, Comutagenicity and Antimutagenicity of Erythrosine (FD and C Red 3), A Food Dye in the Ames Salmonella Assay', Mutation Research, 204,131 Lakdawalla, A.A. and Netrawali, M.S., 'Erythrosine, a Permitted Food Dye, is Mutagenic in the.bacillus Subtilis Multigene Spoliation Assay', ibid. 206, 171 Variyar, P.S., Pendharkar, M.S., Banerjee, A. and Bandyopadhyay, C, 'Blackening in Green pepper Berries', Phytochem., 27, 715 Rao, B.Y.K., Godbole, S.S. and D'Souza, S.F., 'Preparation of Lactose Free Milk by Fermentation Using Immobilized Saccharomyces Fragilis', Biotechnology Letts., 10, 427 Shah, R.G. and Netrawali, M.S., 'Evaluation of Mutagenic Activity of Turmeric Extract Containing Curcumin, Before and After Activation with Mammalian Cecal Microbial Extract and Liver Microsomal Fraction, in the Ames Salmonella Test', Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 40, 350 Sherekar, S.V., Gore, M.S. and Ninjoor, V., 'Purification and Characterization of CathepsinBfrom the Skeletal Muscle of Tilapia Mossambica', J. Food Sci. 53,

139 Thomas, P., 'Radiation Preservation of Poods of Plant Origin, Part VI. Mushrooms, Tomatoes, Minor Fruits and Vegetables, Dried Fruits and Nuts', CRCCrit. Rev. Food Sci. and Nutr, 26(4), 313 Thomas, P. and Joshi, M.R., 'Reduction in Chilling Injury in Ripe Alphonso Mango Fruit in Cold Storage by Temperature Conditioning', Int. J. Food Sci. Technoi., 23(5). 447 Warrier. S.B., Ghadi, S.V. and Ninjoor, V., 'Effect of Cold Storage on the Proteoiytic Enzymes of Fish Muscle', J. Food Sci. and Technoi., 25,313 Lakdawalla, A.A., 'Biochemical Toxicity and Mutagaenicity of Synthetic Food Colourant, Erythrosinein Single Cell System', M.Sc. (Thesis), Bombay University George, K.C. and Singh, B.B., 'New Developments in Radiation Therapy of Cancer', Proc. Sym. Dev. Physiol and Appl. Zoology, Baroda Singh, B.B., 'Hyperthermia - A New Arm in Cancer Therapy', Proc. Symp. Biohazards of Radiation, Jaipur Singh, B. B., 'On the Combined Effects of Hyperthermia, Radi-ations and Drugs on Single Cells and Murine Tumours', Proc. Intl Symp. Hyperthermic Oncology, Kyoto George, K.C., Shenoy, M.A. and Singh, B.B., 'Enhancement of Hyperthermic Response of a Mouse Fibrosarcoma, by Membrane Specific Drugs', ibid. Kelkar, S.M., Shenoy, M.A. and Kaklij, G.S., 'Anti-Tumour Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria on a Solid Fibrosarcoma Sarcoma 180 and Ebrlich Ascites Tumour', Cancer Lett., 42, 73 George, K.C. and Singh, B.B., Trimeprazine Modified Chemotherapeutic and Hyperthermic Response of a Mouse Fibrosacroma', Ind. J. Exptl. Biol., 26, 341, George, K.C., Van Beuningen, D. and Streffer, C, 'Growth Cell Profileration and Morphological Alterations of a Mouse Mammary Carcinoma After Exposure to X-rays and Hyperthermia', Recent Results in Cancer Res., 107,113 George, K.C., Streffer, C. and Polzer, T., 'Combined Effects of Ro and Hyperthermia on Growth Necrosis and Cell Proliferation in a Mouse Tumour', Proc. Intl. Symp. Chemical Modifiers of Cancer Treatment, Paris Bhagwat, A.S. andverma, N.C.,'Effect of Activation of Mg +Z on the Conformation of Ribulose - 1,5 - Biphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase - A Fluorescence Study', Ind. J. Biochem., Biophys., 25, 244 Singh, B.B., "Cancer if Curable, Why Not Cured', Proc. Ass. Biophysica, 1 Rajan, M.G.R. and Samuel, A.M., 'Adopting thetotaltriiodothyronine (Tg) Radioimmunoassay Kit to Measure Serum Free T 3 \ Indian J. Med. Res., 87, 179 Rao, B.R., Ajay Kumar, Shah, D.H. and Sharma, S.M., 'Interference cf Antithyroglobulin Autoantibodies in Serum Thyroglobulin Estimations by RIA', ibid, 88,146 Narkar, A.A., Shah, D.H., Swaroop, D., Velumani, A., Dandekar, S.R. and Sharma, S.M., 'Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Thyroglobulin: Production and Characterization', Hybridoma, 7,97 Joseph, L.J., Desai, K.B., Mehta, M.N. and Mathiyarasu, R., 'Measurement of Sepcific Activity of Radiolabelled Antigens by a Simple Radioimmunoassay Technique', International Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 15, ). Mehta, M.N., Patel, M.C., Joseph, L.J., Velumani, A. and Desai, K.B., 'Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Patients With Liver Damage: Evidence of Multiple Abnormalities in Presence of Euthyroidism', Journal of Association of Physicians of India, 36,637 Patel, M.C., Patel, R.B., RamanaP-.-in, P., Ramamoorthy, N., Krishna, B.A. and Sharma, S.M., 'Clinical Evalu- 132

140 ation of Tc-DMSA(V) for Imaging Medullary Card- Med. Metab. Bid \ noma of Thyroid and its Metastasis', Eur. J. Nuc. Med., 13,507 Pahuja, D.N. and Noronha, O.P.D., 'Radiopharmacological Profiles of Tracers Under Pathophysiological Nadkarni, G.D. and D'Souza, N.B., 'Hepatic Antioxi- Conditions : Tc-Methylene Diphosphonate Uptake dant Enzymes and Upid Peroxidatfon in Carbon Tetra- by Bone in Altered Thyroid Status', Nud. Med. Bio)., 15, chloride - Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats', Biochem

141 GENERAL 11.1 Contributory Health Service Scheme The scheme at present covers 66,000 beneficiaries. The hospital at Anushaktinagar, Bombay, and the 10 peripheral dispensaries continued to extend diagnostic and therapeutic facilities to the beneficiaries. About 5.5 lakhs patients benefitted from the CHSS facilities. The bed strength in the hospital remained at 192, including the 23 beds in special areas like Labour Room, Casualty, Pre- and Post- Operative rooms. A full fledged respiratory medicine unit has been established with facilities for doing fibre optic bronchoscopy with videoscopy recording and Trans Bronchial Lung Biopsy in various respiratory ailments. A special care nurseryfor care of sick and premature babies is ready and will start functioning soon. As a part of the family welfare scheme, about 260 Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) cases and nearly 300 permanent sterilizations were carried out. The number of infants added to the scheme was around 730, and annual birth rate is 11.2 per 1000 which is lower than that in the previous years. About 4100 major and minor operations were carried out by the various units of the Hospital. Thrombolytic therapy was continued to be provided at the fully equipped Intensive Coronary Care Unit (ICCU). Initial medical examination and periodical medical examination of the employees was continued, in addition to the occupational health activities and accident prevention programmes. Software packages were developed for the management of patients admitted in the ICCU and a database has been set up for the hospital mortality data covering deaths for the period from 1963 to Technology Transfer Transfer of technologies developed in various Divisions of BARC to outside agencies, both in the public and private sector, so that the results ofr&d work carried out in the laboratories would reach the public, was continued. The following technologies were transferred during the year : (i) Zirconium oxide/oxychloride developed by Chemical Engineering Division to M/s Zircon Products Pvt Ltd., Kala Amb, (ii) Field kit for identification of molybdenum in steel, and (iii) Field kit for identification of chromium and nickel in steel, both developed by Analytical Chemistry Division, to M/s. Alstee (India) Pvt. Ltd. Tumsar (M.S.). The field kits provide a quick, reliable and nondestructive method for identification of materials that have lost their identity during storage on shop floors or during fabrication. A unique feature of these kits is that by comparing the colour developed with that of the standards provided in the kits, a semi-quantitative estimation of molybdenum, chromium and nickel in the specimen of steel can be carried out. These colour tests can be carried out even by semi-skilled workers. Advertisements have been inserted in various leading newspapers and journals inviting interested agencies to receive the transfer of technologies related to seven processes. These are : (a) Video Frame Processor, (b) Microprocessor based Electromyograph, (c) Drag Cup Induction AC servometers, (d) Pick and Place Robots, (e) Hollow Cathode Lamps, (f) Canned Motors, and (g) Aluminium Zirconium Master Alloy. Negotiations relating to the transfer of four technologies on Impedance Plethysmograph, Electron Beam Welding Machine, TLD Batch Reader, and Potentiostat/ Galvanostat are in progress with some of the interested industries. Out of the 82 technologies being handled at present, 42 technology transfer agreements for 31 technologies have been signed with various parties on a non-exclusive basis. 29 technologies are ready for transfer, while 22 technologies are in the process of evaluation. Extensive publicity was given for the technologies developed through publication of articles in selected and reputed journals of industry and by participating in industrial entrepreneur development programmes and exhibitions. Production of Infrared Intruder Alarm, based on the know-how provided by BARC, has been taken up by M/s. ECIL Based on know-how developed in BARC, kilogram quantities of lithium pentaborate was prepared by an indigenous firrm Human Resources Development Two hundred and fifteen trainees belonging to different disciplines successfully completed the 31st course of Training and were absorbed into the various units of DAE. The 32nd course, with

142 trainees made up of 135 orientation and 93 in-plant trainees, commenced in September Unix based multiuser system is being acquired, and action has been initiated to build a process control laboratory for the benefit of the trainees. Facilities for summer training for undergraduates, postgraduates, NCERTscholars etc.,and an orientation programme for new entrants in CSIR were arranged. Assistance was given to other organisations and universities on a continuing basis in their training programmes. In order to prepare and compile data for the use in NTMIS (National Technical Manpower Information System) at Delhi co-ordinated by IAMR, data from various units of DAE was obtained, and as a case study, the data for was analysed. A comprehensive profile for manpower development and training in the Power Sector for Vlllth Five year Plan, applicable to DAE, is under preparation. On-going activities for training and manpower development were continued for reactor operations and maintenance. These include in-plant training of graduate engineers from BARC Training School, licensing and qualification of shift engineers, technicians, plant operators and training of a few physicists of NPC. Students from various engineering colleges were trained for a few wseks in reactor technology topics. Thirtyone in-plant trainees and twenty technicians were given training in various aspects of manufacturing, inspection and maintenance techniques, at the Central Workshops. Training courses in Industrial Radiography, Safety Aspects and other NDT Methods were conducted in collaboration with various institutions and industries in the country. About ninety persons from different industries and establishments were trained to serve as Site In-charge in the field of isotope radiography during the three courses conducted. One Regional Certification Course under RCA Industrial Project Phase-ll was conducted at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad as per IAEA/ISO Draft Standard Document; and twelve participants from various RCA countries participated in the course. A UNDP/IAEA/RCA Training Course on "Radiation Engineering - Gamma Radiation Facilities" was conducted and nine participants from various RCA countries participated. Another UNDP/IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on "Industrial Radiation Sterilization, Quality Control and Compatibility of Materials" for participants from Asia and Pacific Region was also conducted. Training courses on "Radioimmunoassay and its Clinical Applications" are regularly held to train medical and paramedical personnel. Ten medical graduates and four science graduates are undergoing the diploma courses in Radiation Medicine (DRM, DMRIT). Six technologists from other institutes were given in-house training fn the use of gamma cameras. Under an I.A.E.A. fellowship, one medical doctor from Vietnam was trained in radiation medicine. The 26th one year course on Hospital and Radiological Physics was completed and 18 other short term courses on radiation safety were conducted. A one-day 'Workshop for Top Management on Health and Safety at Work- Legislation and Compliance'was organised jointly with AERB to apprise the top management on the statutory requirements to Decompiled with. An International Seminar on "Nuclear Techniques in Parasitic & Communicable Diseases" was sponsored jointly by IAEA and BAR.C. About twentyfive foreign participants from South-East Asia, Korea, China, Japan, U.S.A. and Sri Lanka took part in the seminar. A workshop was organised for the standardisation of methodology for the determination of tungsten in low grade ores for Strategic Minerals Committee of the Ministry of Mines and Metals. Computer courses were conducted for users on "introduction to Personal Computers", "Advanced CAD Systems", UNIX and C-language and Hardware Architecture of IBM PC compatible computers. The total strength of regular, workcharged and other staff of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre 135

143 including all its Units outside Bombay as on was 15,005 comprising of 3,961 Scientific, 6,958 Technical, 1,257 Administrative and 2,829 General Maintenance and Auxiliary staff. About 140 scientists and engineers were deputed abroad for participation in International Conferences, Symposia, Meetings, etc. and for specific Government work. About 40 scientists and engineers were deputed abroad for scientific visits, training and study tours under various aided schemes and bilateral agreements. The services of 9 scientists were placed at the disposal of IAEA on Foreign Service terms for assignment as experts. Fifteen scientists were granted leave (EOL) for post-doctoral work abroad. Under the collaboration scheme between BARC and the various IITs and HSc, Bangalore, that is existing since 1971, fortraining of scientists/engineers of BARC in specialised post-graduate courses leading to M.S./M.E./M.Tech. degrees, 51 scientists and engineers have so far completed their training, and 6 are undergoing the courses under this scheme. Thirty Indian Universities have recognised BARC as a centre for postgraduate studies in various disciplines and 134 scientists of this Centre have so far been accorded the status of University teachers by various Universities. During the year 13 scientists have qualified for the award of Ph.D degree and 4 scientists for M.Sc. degree. Under the collaboration scheme between BARC and the University of Bombay, 46 students of the Bombay University are presently doing research work leading toph.d. degrees. About 18 National and International Seminars/Conferences/ Workshops/ Symposia were organised. A number of courses in health and safety aspects were organised for civil authorities, medical personnel and operational staff. BARC continued to provide training facilities to foreign nationals under the IAEA Technical Assistance Programme and various collaboration agreements. Facilities were offered for training under the IAEA Fellowship Scheme to three scientists from Vietnam, two from Malaysia and one each from Philippines and Tanzania. About 40 Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates were recruited to various posts. BARC Benevolent Fund, set up in 1963 to give aid to the employees of BARC, Department of Atomic Energy and its Constituent Units located In Bombay, in the event of any unforeseen misfortune like prolonged sickness, premature retirement due to sickness, prolonged leave without pay, death etc., continued to function. The total membership of the Fund at present is around 3,400. The amount spent during the financial year is Rs. 51,126/-. Providing transportation to around 12,000 employees of BARC to and from their work places from 23 rallying points in Greater Bombay Municipal Limits and New Bombay and for 700 employees of other DAE Units (viz. HWP, C&S Group, DEM, DPS) from Vikram Sarabhai Bhavan, Anushaktinagar, to 8 rallying points was continued. Manpower programming for operation of around 350 vehicles is done besides conducting training programme and refresher courses for transport staff. Centralised procurement of vehicles as well as condemnation of vehicles for BARC at Trombay, Tarapur, Calcutta and Kalpakkam were also under taken. A Traffic Safety week was organised in BARC for the education of all the drivers and the motorists in BARC. A series of lectures by BEST Officers and Bombay Traffic Police Officers, a film show, a mobile exhibition by Traffic Police and an exhibition by BARC Traffic Section were organised during the Traffic Safety Week. As an incentive to BARC drivers to imbibe a greater sense of road safety, andto practice bettertraffic culture, "Traffic Safety Silver Medals" were awarded to 11 drivers who have accident-free record. The supervision and maintenance of 7 large scale co-operative canteens, one departmental canteen, and 3 canteens and 14 tea pantries run by the contractors was continued. The day-to-day food service was arranged appropriately to cope up with a sale of about Rs. 7.2 lakhs per month without any interruption. The estimated expenditure for the year towards payment of various subsidies to the co-operative canteens and tiffin rooms works out to Rs. 33 iakhs besides Rs. 5 lakhs for the maintenance and repairs of these canteens. The business of the cooperative canteens are well monitored and timely action is taken to run them smoothly. 136

Rb, which had been compressed to a density of 1013

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