# 7.2 The Bohr Theory of the Atom

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1 7.2 The Bohr Theory of the Atom

2 John Dalton

3 Michael Faraday showed that atoms could gain electric charges

4 J.J. Thompson The atomic theory was once again revised, to include his ideas:

5 Ernest Rutherford In 1911, Rutherford proposed his nuclear model of the atom

6 THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM Nucleus = protons + neutrons

7 THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons ELECTRONS: Orbit (move around) the nucleus Charge of -1 (negative) Symbol is e They can be shared or transferred between the atoms

8 THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons Protons: In the nucleus Charge of +1 (positive) Symbol is p They CAN T be shared or transferred between the atoms = they are locked in the nucleus

9 THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM It is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons Neutrons: In the nucleus Charge of 0 (no charge) Symbol is n They CAN T be shared or transferred between the atoms = they are locked in the nucleus

10 THE MODERN VIEW OF THE ATOM The relative size of the nucleus and atom!

11 Inside the Atom

12 Niels Bohr He studied gaseous samples of atoms, which were made to glow by passing an electric current through them.

13 Niels Bohr He used this property of elements, as well as discoveries by other scientists of the time, to solve the problems with Rutherford s model of the atom.

14 Based on his observations, Bohr proposed that electrons surround the nucleus ONLY in specific energy levels or shells. Each energy level or shell has only certain amount of energy!

15 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons can only move from shell to shell (stair to stairs)

16 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons can only move from shell to shell (stair to stairs)

17 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons can only move from shell to shell (stair to stairs)

18 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons can only move from shell to shell (stair to stairs)

19 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons can only move from shell to shell (stair to stairs) = you can never find them between the shells (between the stairs)

20 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electron in the closest shell to the nucleus have the LOWEST energy = It is on the lowest step of the stairwell

21 Think of these electron shells as stairs The electrons in the furtermost shell to the nucleus have the HIGHEST energy = It is on the highest step of the stairwell

22 So the electrons closer to the nucleus have less energy than the electrons further from the nucleus

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24 1. Which electron has higher energy? 2. If the blue electron wanted to reach the shell in which the red electron is, would the light be given off or not?

25 1. Which electron has higher energy? 2. If the blue electron wanted to reach the shell in which the red electron is, would the light be given off or not?

26 1. Which electron has higher energy? 2. If the blue electron wanted to reach the shell in which the red electron is, would the light be given off or not?

27 The Number of Shells for an Element Each shell can hold ONLY certain number of electrons First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons Fourth shell: 18 electrons

28 The Number of Shells for an Element The number of shells (orbits) in an atom depends on the number of electrons in that atom First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons Fourth shell: 18 electrons

29 The Number of Shells for an Element For example, an element with six electrons has two electrons in the first shell and four electrons in the second shell First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons Fourth shell: 18 electrons

30 Drawing electrons The Bohr Model of the Atom Draw 3 electrons Draw 11 electrons Draw 14 electrons Draw 20 electrons

31 CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY VOCABULARY WORD VOCABULARY WORD SUBATOMIC PARTICLES SHELLS (ORBITS) ATOMIC NUMBER BOHR DIAGRAM IONIC COMPOUND ATOMIC MASS (Mass Number) POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION ION CHARGE

32 Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus OR the number of electrons (in a neutral atom) What is the ATOMIC NUMBER of gold?

33 ATOMIC MASS (Mass number) the number of protons in the nucleus + the number of neutrons What is the ATOMIC MASS of potassium? UNITS for ATOMIC MASS =

34 Standard Atomic Notation Elements are written to show the Atomic Mass Number and the Atomic Number MASS NUMBER = # of protons + # of neutrons ATOMIC NUMBER = # of protons (or # of electrons) # of neutrons = MASS NUMBER ATOMIC NUMBER

35 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in potassium. Write the symbol for this element using Standard Atomic Notation. potassium - 39 # of protons = Atomic Number = Z = 19 # of protons + # of neutrons = Mass Number = A = 39 # of neutrons = Mass Number Atomic Number = A Z = = 20 neutrons # of electrons = # of protons = 19

36 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in a cation of K 39. Write the symbol for this element using standard atomic notation. potassium # of protons = Atomic Number = Z = 19 # of protons + # of neutrons = Mass Number = A = 39 # of neutrons = Mass Number Atomic Number = A Z = = 20 neutrons # of electrons = # of protons 1 = 18

37 How many protons and neutrons do the following elements have? What is their atomic mass (mass number)? Carbon Oxygen Sodium Atomic mass = #of protons + #of neutrons

38 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in K 39. Write the symbol for this element using standard atomic notation. potassium - 39 # of protons = Atomic Number = # of protons + # of neutrons = Atomic Mass Number = # of neutrons = Atomic Mass Number Atomic Number = = neutrons # of electrons (in NEUTRAL ATOM) = # of protons =

39 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in each of the atoms. Write a symbol for each element using Standard Atomic Notation. # of protons: # of protons: # of protons: # of electrons: # of electrons: # of electrons: # of neutrons: # of neutrons: # of neutrons: Standard Atomic Notation: Standard Atomic Notation: Standard Atomic Notation:

40 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in each of the atoms. Write a symbol for each element using Standard Atomic Notation.

41 Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons present in each of the atoms. Write a symbol for each element using Standard Atomic Notation. # of protons: # of protons: # of protons: # of electrons: # of electrons: # of electrons: # of neutrons: # of neutrons: # of neutrons: Standard Atomic Notation: Standard Atomic Notation: Standard Atomic Notation:

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47 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory

48 BOHR DIAGRAMS There is a pattern to the arrangements of electrons in atoms Atoms have SHELLS of electrons around the nucleus

49 BOHR DIAGRAMS Now you know how to FIND the number of electrons in an atom and how to DRAW them

50 Niels Bohr showed how electrons are arranged in an atom = A BOHR MODEL DIAGRAM

51 A BOHR MODEL DIAGRAM

52 Other BOHR MODEL DIAGRAMs Some diagrams show the electrons as dots. Others just have figures indicating the number of electrons in each shell.

53 BOHR DIAGRAMS Practice (worksheet) First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons Fourth shell: 8 electrons Draw Bohr Diagrams for: hydrogen sodium phosphorus neon calcium

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55 BOHR DIAGRAMS Practice (worksheet) First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons Fourth shell: 8 electrons Draw Bohr Diagrams for: hydrogen Sodium ion Phosphorus ion Neon ion calcium ion

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