2 Chapter 1, Section 1: Inside the Atom Introduction 1. Atoms are the particles of an element that still have the element s. 2. How many atoms would fit at the period at the end of the previous sentence? Parts of the Atom Nucleus 3. What are the two particles contained in the nucleus? 4. This is a very tiny part of the atom, but contains most of the atom s 5. Explain how the size of the nucleus compares to the size of the entire atom? Protons 6. The proton is the part of the nucleus with a charge. 7. The number of protons is unique and gives each element their chemical 8. Can different elements ever have the same number of protons? Neutrons 9. Where are neutrons found? 10. What is the charge of a neutron? Electrons 11. Where can electrons be found? 12. All electrons have a charge. 13. The number electrons usually equal the number of.
3 14. Fill in the chart below: Subatomic Particle Electrical Charge Location in Atom proton in nucleus electron negative neutron Atomic Number and Mass Number 15. have almost no mass. 16. Where is the majority of the mass of an atom located? 17. The SI unit for the mass of the atom is the otherwise known as the AMU. 18. Electrons basically have a mass of zero, but protons and neutrons both have an individual mass of AMU s. 19. What is the atomic number of an atom? 20. What is the atomic mass of an atom? 21. If an atom has an atomic number of 10 and a mass number of 22, how many protons, neutrons, and electrons does this atom have? The nucleus is at the center of an. It contains protons and neutrons. electrons constantly move about the. Atomic is the number of in an atom. It is unique for the atoms of each. number is the number of plus in an atom. It is about to the mass of the atom in mass units (AMU).
4 Chapter 1, Section 2: Modern Atomic Theory Introduction 1. Who were the two major scientists involved in the development of atomic model theory? Bohr Model of the Atom 2. The Bohr model of the atom became the widely accepted explanation of what an atom looks like. Please draw the Bohr model with the nucleus and three energy levels labelled below. What Are Energy Levels? 3. Energy levels (AKA: Energy ) are distances from the nucleus and are where are found. 4. How are energy levels like steps of a staircase? 5. Draw an arrow indicating the energy level with the highest energy and the energy level with the lowest energy. 6. Explain how electrons can jump from a lower energy level to a higher energy level. 7. Explain how electrons can jump from a higher energy level to a lower energy level.
5 8. Explain an example of electrons jumping up and down energy levels? 9. In the Bohr model each energy level can hold a maximum number of electrons. How many electrons can be held in each level? a. Energy Level 1: b. Energy Level 2: c. Energy Level 3: 10. Compare how electrons will fill energy levels to people filling in the rows in our auditorium for an assembly. (Include, which rows fill first, and how each rows fills) The Outermost Level 11. Define valence electrons: 12. Why are valence electrons so important? 13. When are atoms most stable? 14. Draw the Bohr model for the element Carbon. (Reference the model in number 5 for help.) Bohr introduced the idea that orbit the at fixed distances, called. Electrons in energy levels farther from the nucleus have more Today, electrons are represented by an electron model. Orbitals in the cloud show where are most likely to be located.
6 Introduction Chapter 2, Section 1: How Elements Are Organized 1. What is the full name of the scientist who organized the elements into a periodic table? Mendeleev s Periodic Table of Elements 2. When arranging the elements Mendeleev made cards with three things listed on them? What are the three things he listed on the cards? A Repeating Pattern 3. Elements are arranged from left to right by. 4. The elements in the same column all had similar. 5. These columns were called or. 6. The rows of the table are called because they have a specific interval of repetitions. Predicting Missing Elements 7. Using the periodic table and the patterns Mendeleev and others filled in all the blanks in the periodic table. What was the first missing element Mendeleev predicted? The Modern Periodic Table of Elements Basis of the Modern Periodic Table 8. The modern periodic table is organized by, not by. 9. Why did Mendeleev not use atomic number to organize his table? Reading the Table 10. For the periodic table in figure 2.3 list all the characteristics for calcium. Periods 11. Periods of the modern periodic table are also known as and are read from to.
7 12. On the left side of the charge are the, followed by the in the middle of the chart, and the on the right side. 13. What increases by one every element as you read from left to right? Groups 14. In the modern periodic table the elements that are in a vertical column are called. 15. How many groups are in the current periodic table? 16. Elements in the same group have similar. 17. In the periodic table below what is the atomic number for Jk? 18. What is the atomic mass for Jk? 19. What two elements are most similar to Jk? Mendeleev developed the first periodic table of the elements in. He organized the elements by atomic mass. He used the table to unknown elements. These were later discovered. The modern periodic table is based on. Elements in each go from metals on the to metalloids and then nonmetals on the. Within, elements have similar properties.
8 Chapter 2, Section 2: Classes of Elements Introduction 1. What are the three classes of elements? Metals 2. List 5 characteristics of metals 3. What are some commons uses of metals? Nonmetals 4. Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table of elements? 5. List 5 characteristics of nonmetals. 6. What are some commons uses of nonmetals? Metalloids 7. How many elements are considered metalloids? 8. In your own words define what a metalloid is? Classes of Elements and Electrons Electrons by Class 9. Which energy level gets electrons first?
9 Valence Electrons and Reactivity 10. Define valence electrons? 11. Which class of elements have low numbers of valence electrons and want to give them away (react) and can conduct electricity? 12. Why would lithium give away its valence electrons? 13. Which class of elements have high numbers of valence electrons and want to gain electrons (react) and do not conduct electricity? 14. Why would chlorine take in more valence electrons? 15. What happens when your outer shell of valence electrons is filled? Metals are elements that are good of electricity. They are the class of elements. Many metals are, and. They are also good conductors of. Almost all metals are at room temperature. Nonmetals are elements that do conduct electricity. They are the largest class of elements. Nonmetals are conductors of heat. The majority of nonmetals are. Solid nonmetals are and. Metalloids are elements that have properties of both and. Some can conduct, but only at certain. They may be shiny, but. All metalloids are at room temperature. Atoms of elements in different classes vary in their number of. This explains their differences in and.
10 Chapter 3, Section 1: Introduction to Chemical Bonds Introduction 1. When elements combine together they are called Chemical Bonding 2. How is a chemical bond formed? 3. When bonding, valence electrons (those in the outermost energy level) can either be or. Chemical Compounds 4. Because all chemical compounds consist of a ratio of elements, water will always have hydrogen and oxygen. Chemical Formulas 5. The chemical formula for water is H2O. What does the subscript 2 after H mean? 6. In the chemical formula for water there is no number subscript written after O. What does that mean? 7. In the chemical formula for glucose CH2O how many of each element are there. Same Elements, Different Compounds 8. Listed below are two chemical formulas both containing Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). Explain why the two chemical formulas below are different compounds H2O H2O2 Types of Compounds 9. List the three different types of chemical bonds? A chemical bond is a force of between atoms. It occurs when atoms or electrons. A chemical is a new substance that forms when atoms of elements forms chemical bonds. A compound always consists of a ratio of elements.
11 Chapter 3, Section 2: Ionic Bonds Introduction 1. Explain how an ionic bonds forms. (Be specific with what happens to the electrons.) Ions 2. Ions form when an atom or electrons. 3. If an atom loses an electron it becomes charged, also called a 4. If an atom gains an electron it becomes charged, also called a 5. Do you think the atom below will form a positive or negative ion? Explain below. Isotopes of Atoms 6. Atoms that have a different number of neutrons, but the same number of protons are. 7. Different isotopes of the same elements generally have the chemical properties. 8. How many different isotopes of Hydrogen are there? List them and explain the differences. Formation of Ionic Bonds 9. What happens when a positive and negative ion get near each other? 10. All ionic bonds are formed between, positive ions, and, negative ions. 11. When bonding occurs metals always electrons, and nonmetals always electrons. 12. Explain, in writing, how Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) bond ionically.
12 13. Show with atomic model diagrams and arrows how Sodium and Chlorine bond ionically. Why Ionic Bonds Form 14. Explain why an element in group 1 likes to bond with an element in group When sodium loses its one electron, it will have a outer energy level. Energy and Ionic Bonds 16. It takes to remove valence electrons during ionic bonding. energy is needed to remove a small number of electrons. energy is needed to break free a number of electrons. 17. Atoms that electrons gain energy, and atoms that electrons lost energy. Properties of Ionic Compounds 18. The negative ion to positive ion attraction in ionic bonds creates a strong and rigid lattice and it takes amounts of energy to break these bond. 19. List 4 properties or characteristics of ionic compounds. Uses of Ionic Compounds 20. Explain one way in which the human body needs ions. If atoms lose or gain, they become or ions. Atoms of the same element that have numbers of are called. An bond is the force of that holds together oppositely charged ions. It forms when atoms of a transfer electrons to atoms of a. When this happens, the atoms become charged ions. Ionic compounds form instead of molecules. Ionic bonds are and the crystals are. As a results, ionic compounds are solids with high and points. In the state or dissolved in water, ionic compounds are good conductors of.
13 Formation of Covalent Bonds 1. What is a covalent bond? Chapter 3, Section 3: Covalent Bonds 2. All covalent bonds are only between a and a. Why Covalent Bonds Form 3. Why do covalent bonds form? 4. The shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of atoms in the bond. 5. Water is an example of a simple covalently bonded molecule. Fill in the electrons on the sketch of the water molecule. Show where the electrons are shared. H H O 6. How many valence electrons does the oxygen atoms share with each hydrogen atom? 7. How many covalent bonds hold the water molecule together? 8. Try to draw a sketch showing the electrons of a covalent bonded molecule of HCl Covalent Compounds 9. A is two or more nonmetals bonded together covalently. An example is. 10. List the three rules in names a simple covalent compound.
14 Properties of Covalent Compounds 11. Because covalent compounds share electrons and make molecules they have different properties. List five characteristics or properties of covalent compounds. 12. What is a hydrogen bond? 13. Draw out an example of a hydrogen bond between water molecules. A covalent bond is the force of that holds together two atoms that a pair of electrons. It forms between atoms of the same or different. In polar covalent bonds, one atom attracts the electrons more strongly and becomes slightly. The other atoms becomes slightly. Covalent compounds form individual rather than. Compared with ionic compounds, they have melting and boiling points. They are also conductors of electricity.
15 Formation of Metallic Bonds Chapter 3, Section 4: Metallic Bonds 1. Explain the Sea of Electrons in metallic bonding. 2. All metallic bonds are formed between a and a. Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals 3. The Sea of Electrons, that allow free movement of electrons, allows metals to be conductors of electricity. 4. What is the difference between metals that are ductile and metals that are malleable? 5. Can metals be both ductile and malleable? 6. Explain how a blacksmith or metal worker can hammer metals into shapes they want without the metal shattering. A metallic bond is the force of attraction between a charged metal ion and the electrons it share with other of the metal. The move freely around the positive ions, which form a structure. With moving electrons, metals are conductors of electricity. The ions of metals can also move within the sea of without breaking the metallic bonds that hold them together. This allows metals to change without breaking.
16 Chapter 4, Section 1: Introductions to Chemical Reactions Introduction 1. What happens in a chemical change? What is a Chemical Reaction? 2. What is a chemical reaction? 3. The substances you start with are and the substances that are produced and you end with are. 4. Draw a representation of a chemical reaction and explain what the arrow means. Breaking and Reforming Chemical Bonds 5. There are three basic steps in a chemical reaction. List them below in order. Reaction Direction and Equilibrium 6. When the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate the reaction has reached. Evidence of Chemical Reactions 7. List the four commons signs that a chemical reaction has occurred. 8. Circle the chemical reactions from the choices below: Photosynthesis Water Freezing Leaves changing colors Baking Soda and Vinegar A chemical reaction is a process in which some change into substances. In a chemical reaction, bonds in reactants and new bonds form in. Evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred include a change in, a change in, the production of a, or the formation of a.
17 Writing Chemical Equations Chapter 4, Section 2: Chemical Equations 1. In this equation, from the flexbook, list the reactants and the products C + O2 CO2 2. In the previous reaction how many carbon atoms are on the reactant side? Oxygen atoms? 3. Are those numbers the same as the number of atoms on the product side? 4. A chemical equation represents changes that occur during a chemical. Balancing Chemical Equations 5. Look at the following equation: H2 + O2 H2O What is wrong with the way this chemical equation is written? Using Coefficients 6. Coefficients are used to chemical equations. Coefficients show how many or of a substance are involved in the reaction. 7. Circle the coefficients in the following equations: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 2H + CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 CaCl + 2AgNO Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + 2AgCl Steps in Balancing a Chemical Equation 8. When you balance equations, change the subscripts in chemical formulas. 9. If you change the subscript you will change the involved in the reaction, only change the.
18 10. Try to balance the following chemical equations by adding coefficients in the spaces provided. If you need help refer to some of the practice problems in the flexbook. H2 + O2 H2O N2 + H2 NH3 Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2 Conserving Mass 11. Why must chemical equations be balanced? 12. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass? 13. In what century did Antoine Lavoisier run experiments to show mass conservation? 14. How was Lavoisier able to prove the Law of Conservation of Mass? 15. What secondary discovery did Lavoisier discover from his experiments? A chemical is a symbolic representation of a chemical. It shows how are in the reaction. Equations in chemistry must. There must be the same number of each type of in the as there is in the. Coefficients are used to chemical equations. They show how many or of a substance are involved in a reaction. Chemical equations must be because matter cannot be or. This is the law of of mass. Experiments by Antoine Lavoisier led to this law.
19 Introduction Chapter 4, Section 3: Types of Chemical Reactions 1. List the four common types of chemical reactions. a. b. c. d. 2. Which type of reaction is most often seen? Synthesis Reactions 3. Write out the general equation for a synthesis reaction. 4. Explain what happens in a synthesis reaction and write out one example. Decomposition Reactions 5. Write out the general equation for a decomposition reaction. 6. Explain what happens in a decomposition reaction and write out one example. Replacement Reactions 7. Replacement reactions involve and there are types of replacement reactions. 8. Ions places in compounds so they are in different places in the products than they were in the reactants
20 Single Replacement Reactions 9. Write out the general equation for a single replacement reaction and give an example. Double Replacement Reactions 10. Write out the general equation for a double replacement reaction and give an example. Combustion Reactions 11. Combustion reactions is when a substance reacts rapidly with. 12. The final products of a combustion reaction are always and. 13. Write out the general equation for a combustion reaction and show an example. A reaction occurs when or more reactants to forms a single In a decomposition reaction, one breaks down into or more. This is the of a synthesis reaction. Replacement reactions occur when elements places in compounds. In a replacement reaction, one takes the place of another in a single. In a replacement reaction, compounds elements. A combustion reaction occurs when a substance reacts quickly with. Combustion is commonly called. Carbon Dioxide,, and heat and light are products of combustion.
21 Chapter 4, Section 4: Chemical Reactions and Energy Introduction 1. During a chemical reaction, is used to break bonds in reactants, and is released when new bonds form in the products. Endothermic Reactions 1. Exothermic reactions take more to break bonds in than is released when new bonds form in the. 2. Write out the general equation for an endothermic reaction. 3. A input of energy is required in endothermic reactions usually in the form of, absorbed from surroundings. 4. The absorption of causes the temperature around the reactants to. 5. is an example of an endothermic reaction. Exothermic Reactions 6. Exothermic reactions take energy to break bonds in the than is released when new bonds form in the. 7. Write out the general equation for an exothermic reaction. 8. When the energy released is, the temperature in the surrounding environment. 9. Examples of energy given off include:, and possibly sound. Conservation of Energy 10. What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? 11. Fill in the missing boxes with the correct terms for the following reactions. Activation Energy 12. Activation Energy is the energy required to a reaction. 13. The activation energy creates the required needed for the reactants to collide.
22 Reaction Rates 14. List the four factors that influence the rates, speed, of a chemical reaction a. b. c. d. Temperature of Reactants 15. When the temperature of the reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is. 16. Why do reactions happen faster at higher temperatures? Concentration of Reactants 17. When the concentration of reactants is higher, the rate of the reaction is. 18. Why do reactions happen faster with higher concentrations of reactants? Surface Area of Reactants 19. Increasing the surface area of reactants, the reaction rate? 20. Why do reactions happen faster when reactants have a greater surface area? Presence of a Catalyst 21. A catalyst is a substance that the rate of a chemical reaction. 22. Catalysts are not and are not used up in a reaction. In an reaction, it takes more to break bonds in the reactants than is when new bonds form in the products. Therefore, an endothermic reaction needs a input of to keep going. In an exothermic reaction, it takes energy to break in the reactants than is released when new bonds form in the. Therefore, an reaction releases enough energy to keep going. In any chemical reaction, there is no change in the amount of. Energy cannot be or. This is the law of of energy. All chemical reactions, even reactions, need energy to get started. Activation energy is needed to bring together so they can react. How fast a reaction occurs is called the. Factors that affect the reaction rate include and the,, and area of reactants. A is a substance that the rate of a chemical reaction but it not changed or used up in the reaction.
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Unit 1: MATTER 1. Define CHEMISTRY: 2. Define MATTER: Use one of the states of matter to complete each statement. (Words will be used more than once.) Solid Gas Liquid Plasma 3. A has definite volume and
CP Physical Science Chemistry: Bell Work, Notes, Study Guides Mr. Banker Fall 2014 firstname.lastname@example.org http://wandohigh.ccsdschools.com/directory/science/banker_ian/physical_science/ Remind101.com
Science 9 Midterm Study Guide Name 1. What are the atomic mass units for protons, neutrons, and electrons? 2. What is the atomic number? 3. What is the mass number? 4. What particles are in equal numbers
name/date/pd: Unit 3 PRACTICE TEST: 1) List the major contributors to atomic theory (in order) in the table below. Then, fill in the rest of the missing information such as their major discoveries, model,
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Name STAAR Review Category 1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter and energy and their interactions. Conductivity Density Luster Malleability Metals Metalloids Non-metals