TMT4320 Nanomaterials November 10 th, Thin films by physical/chemical methods (From chapter 24 and 25)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TMT4320 Nanomaterials November 10 th, Thin films by physical/chemical methods (From chapter 24 and 25)"

Transcription

1 1 TMT4320 Nanomaterials November 10 th, 2015 Thin films by physical/chemical methods (From chapter 24 and 25)

2 2 Thin films by physical/chemical methods Vapor-phase growth (compared to liquid-phase growth) Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Molecules as vapor, chemical reaction Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Atoms as vapor Evaporation, Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Sputtering (cathodic, magnetron, ion beam) Cathodic arc evaporation Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) Low-energy cluster beam deposition

3 3 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) Chemical reaction of volatile precursors with other gases to produce a non-volatile solid that deposits atomistically on a substrate Chemical reactions can be activated by Heat energy (in hot-walled reactors or in cold-walled reactors where only the substrate is heated) With the help of a plasma Reaction types include: Pyrolysis or thermal decomposition Reduction/oxidation Compound formation Advantages: Moderately high growth rates (1 5 μm/hr) Uniform growth on substrates with complex geometries Disadvantages: Toxic or other hazardous gases Very high temperature in thermally activated CVD process (T > 1200 K)

4 4 Hot-wall: Tubular reactor with walls surrounded and heated by resistor elements Cold-wall: Substrate is directly heated inductively by graphite susceptors

5 5 CVD contd. Can synthesize monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous and epitaxial films Can tailor composition to produce a wide variety of films Thickness is controlled by amount of precursor and reaction times Other types of CVD methods: Plasma enhanced (PECVD) Metalorganic (MOCVD) Low pressure (LPCVD) Pressure enhances mass flux of gaseous reactants and products through the boundary layer between the laminar gas stream and substrates Reduces unwanted gas-phase reactions Laser enhanced (LECVD) Aerosol-assisted (AACVD) Ultrahigh vacuum (UHVCVD) Hot wire (HWCVD)

6 6 Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) Deposition of thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate Chemical reactions occur after creation of a plasma of the reacting gases The plasma is generally created by RF (AC) frequency or DC discharge between two electrodes, the space between which is filled with the reacting gases Reduced substrate temperature compared to CVD while maintaining high deposition rates due to the enhanced reactivity of the precursors and the possibility of accelerating active species towards the substrate in ionic form NTNU NanoLab PECVD Based on Si materials Si, P, B, N, O, C, H

7 7 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) Transferring growth species from a source or target and deposit them on a substrate to form a film The processes proceed atomistically and mostly involves no chemical reactions Molecular dynamics computer simulation of the basic physical process underlying physical vapor deposition: a single Cu atom deposited on a Cu surface. Wikipedia

8 8 PVD contd. Variations of PVD include: Evaporative deposition: the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electrically resistive heating in "low" vacuum Electron beam physical vapor deposition: the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electron bombardment in "high" vacuum Sputter deposition: atoms or molecules are dislodged from a solid target through impact of gaseous ions (plasma) Cathodic arc deposition: A high power arc directed at the target material blasts away some into a vapor Pulsed laser deposition: A high power laser ablates material from the target into a vapor Ion implantation: Differs from deposition, ions are implanted into the substrate material to form inclusions or metastable materials

9 9 Evaporation The growth species are removed from the source by thermal means Pressure 10-3 to torr Thermodynamic equilibrium Typically large grain films Multi-component materials are difficult to deposit (fractionation)

10 10 Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) Special case of evaporation for single crystal film growth Ultrahigh vacuum: ~10-10 torr The molecular beam(s) is generated by heating the precursor using resistive heating Effusion cell (Knudsen cell) The evaporated atoms or molecules do not interact with each other in the vapor phase due to the low pressure Main attributes: Extremely clean environment Low growth temperature Slow growth rate (up to 1 m/h) Simple growth mechanism better understanding of process due to ability to individually control evaporation of sources Variety of in situ analysis capabilities better understanding and ability to refine the process

11 11 NTNU MBE system (Varian Gen II) III: Ga, In, Al V: As, Sb Dopants: Si, Be, Te RHEED-gun High vacuum high purity Heterostructures with abrupt interfaces Growth rate can be accurately controlled In situ characterization 8 Effusion cells In situ RHEED (during growth!)

12 12 Electron beam physical vapor deposition A target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum The electron beam causes atoms from the target to transform into the gaseous phase Pressure: ~10-4 Torr Electron gun(s) Power from few tens to hundreds of kw The electron beam is accelerated to a high kinetic energy and focused towards the target Advantages A high deposition rate: μm / min Relatively low substrate temperatures High material utilization efficiency

13 13 Schematic of electron beam physical vapor deposition. Wikipedia

14 14 Sputtering Atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by high energy ions (> 30 ev) This is a surface erosion phenomenon which results from elastic collisions with energy and momentum transfer between the incident ions and the target atoms Wikipedia

15 15 Cathodic sputtering The simplest sputtering process A plasma is produced in a chamber by applying a potential difference of kv order between the substrate holder (anode) and the target (cathode) An inert gas is introduced (usually argon) at low pressure ( Pa) Schematic of a DC cathodic sputtering system. The dotted line indicates the potential between anode and cathode. R. Waser (ed.), Nanoelectronics and Information Technology

16 16 Magnetron sputtering Magnetron sputtering constitutes an important step forward in the development of PVD processes A special magnetic device is associated with the cathode to confine electrons close to the target surface and increase the plasma density, and hence the sputtering rate The high ion density means that the discharge can be maintained at lower pressure (up to 10 2 Pa) Another important parameter is the ion energy, and hence the energy of the atoms deposited on the substrate, which is higher in this process This plays a key role in the growth of the films, which are denser and adhere better

17 17 Plane magnetron target showing the magnetic field lines parallel to the target surface. E is the electric field which produces the discharge and the Ar+ plasma, while B is the magnetic field produced by the magnets of the magnetron. The grey square represents the sputtered atom.

18 18 Ion beam sputtering A target is sputtered using a beam of ions with controlled flux and energy Other sputtering techniques: the target is sputtered by plasma ions whose energy is not accurately determined Monokinetic ion sources are used (usually producing Ar + ), with which the energy can be varied over the range kev Current densities are high (~ 1mA/cm 2 ) and the beam can have a broad cross-sectional area (typical diameter ~ 10 cm) Deposits can be made in higher vacuum (~ Pa) than with plasma sputtering

19 19 Advantages Can produce very dense layers with 2D rather than columnar growth This happens due to the high energy of the sputtered atoms Disadvantages Low deposition rate, which is only of the order of μm/hr Large amount of maintenance required to keep the ion source operating Setup for ion beam sputtering with non-reactive assistance (Ar + ) or reactive assistance (N 2+ /O 2+ )

20 20 Cathodic arc evaporation An arc is produced at low pressure between the metal to be evaporated (cathode) and an anode The cathode material evaporates due to a very sharp increase in its temperature, accompanied by local melting The evaporated atoms are ionized by collisions with plasma electrons and accelerated out of the cathode towards the substrate Advantages Highly robust Widely used in industry due to the fact that very high deposition rates can be achieved Cathodic arc evaporation is used industrially to produce hard zirconium, molybdenum or titanium carbide or nitride coatings Disadvantage Presence of microparticles (1 100 μm) in the form of liquid droplets in the beam, which leads to films of lower quality

21 21 Cathodic arc evaporation, in which the cathode comprises the material to be evaporated.

22 22 Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) A high power pulsed laser beam is focused inside a vacuum chamber to strike a target of the material to be deposited This material is vaporized from the target (in a plasma plume) and deposits as a thin film on a substrate This process can occur in ultrahigh vacuum or in the presence of a background gas (i.e. oxygen)

23 23 PLD contd. To synthesize multilayers, the targets are placed successively in the beam and rotated to avoid local damage Controlling parameters: Substrate temperature Substrate target distance Residual pressure in the chamber Intrinsic characteristics of the laser beam Advantages: The material is transferred stoichiometrically from the target to the substrate This facilitates deposition of multi-element materials such as oxides (Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, YBCO, etc.). There is a wide choice of materials that can be deposited, limited only by absorption at the laser wavelength

24 24

25 25 Questionable!!! Other sources give values of max 3000 nm per hour R. Waser (ed.), Nanoelectronics and Information Technology

26 26 Summary and learning objectives thin films by physical/chemical methods Be able to describe the different methods below, what kind of materials/films can be made and some advantages/limitations: Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) molecules as vapor How does a plasma (PECVD) change/enhance the process? Physical vapor deposition (PVD) atoms as vapor Evaporation Electron beam PVD Sputter deposition (magnetron, ion beam) Cathodic arc deposition Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) Molecular beam evaporation (MBE) be able to compare this method in particular to both CVD and other PVD methods You should know which of these methods would be suitable for epitaxial growth (and why) and what types of structures you can grow in addition to thin films. And make sure to not mix method (i.e. CVD, MBE) and growth mechanism (i.e. VLS growth, Volmer-Weber growth)

Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research: Preparation of Model Systems by Physical Methods

Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research: Preparation of Model Systems by Physical Methods Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research: Preparation of Model Systems by Physical Methods Methods for catalyst preparation Methods discussed in this lecture Physical vapour deposition - PLD

More information

Introduction to Thin Film Processing

Introduction to Thin Film Processing Introduction to Thin Film Processing Deposition Methods Many diverse techniques available Typically based on three different methods for providing a flux of atomic or molecular material Evaporation Sputtering

More information

Repetition: Practical Aspects

Repetition: Practical Aspects Repetition: Practical Aspects Reduction of the Cathode Dark Space! E x 0 Geometric limit of the extension of a sputter plant. Lowest distance between target and substrate V Cathode (Target/Source) - +

More information

6.5 Optical-Coating-Deposition Technologies

6.5 Optical-Coating-Deposition Technologies 92 Chapter 6 6.5 Optical-Coating-Deposition Technologies The coating process takes place in an evaporation chamber with a fully controlled system for the specified requirements. Typical systems are depicted

More information

Plasma Deposition (Overview) Lecture 1

Plasma Deposition (Overview) Lecture 1 Plasma Deposition (Overview) Lecture 1 Material Processes Plasma Processing Plasma-assisted Deposition Implantation Surface Modification Development of Plasma-based processing Microelectronics needs (fabrication

More information

Etching Issues - Anisotropy. Dry Etching. Dry Etching Overview. Etching Issues - Selectivity

Etching Issues - Anisotropy. Dry Etching. Dry Etching Overview. Etching Issues - Selectivity Etching Issues - Anisotropy Dry Etching Dr. Bruce K. Gale Fundamentals of Micromachining BIOEN 6421 EL EN 5221 and 6221 ME EN 5960 and 6960 Isotropic etchants etch at the same rate in every direction mask

More information

DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD

DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD Chapter 4 DEPOSITION OF THIN TiO 2 FILMS BY DC MAGNETRON SPUTTERING METHOD 4.1 INTRODUCTION Sputter deposition process is another old technique being used in modern semiconductor industries. Sputtering

More information

Nanostructure. Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication. More see Waser, chapter 2

Nanostructure. Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication. More see Waser, chapter 2 Nanostructure Materials Growth Characterization Fabrication More see Waser, chapter 2 Materials growth - deposition deposition gas solid Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor

More information

EE143 Fall 2016 Microfabrication Technologies. Lecture 6: Thin Film Deposition Reading: Jaeger Chapter 6

EE143 Fall 2016 Microfabrication Technologies. Lecture 6: Thin Film Deposition Reading: Jaeger Chapter 6 EE143 Fall 2016 Microfabrication Technologies Lecture 6: Thin Film Deposition Reading: Jaeger Chapter 6 Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 Vacuum Basics Units 1 atmosphere

More information

Chemical Vapor Deposition *

Chemical Vapor Deposition * OpenStax-CNX module: m25495 1 Chemical Vapor Deposition * Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 note: This module was developed

More information

Technology for Micro- and Nanostructures Micro- and Nanotechnology

Technology for Micro- and Nanostructures Micro- and Nanotechnology Lecture 10: Deposition Technology for Micro- and Nanostructures Micro- and Nanotechnology Peter Unger mailto: peter.unger @ uni-ulm.de Institute of Optoelectronics University of Ulm http://www.uni-ulm.de/opto

More information

Metal Deposition. Filament Evaporation E-beam Evaporation Sputter Deposition

Metal Deposition. Filament Evaporation E-beam Evaporation Sputter Deposition Metal Deposition Filament Evaporation E-beam Evaporation Sputter Deposition 1 Filament evaporation metals are raised to their melting point by resistive heating under vacuum metal pellets are placed on

More information

Pulsed Laser Deposition; laser ablation. Final apresentation for TPPM Diogo Canavarro, MEFT

Pulsed Laser Deposition; laser ablation. Final apresentation for TPPM Diogo Canavarro, MEFT Pulsed Laser Deposition; laser ablation Final apresentation for TPPM Diogo Canavarro, 56112 MEFT Summary What is PLD? What is the purpose of PLD? How PLD works? Experimental Setup Processes in PLD The

More information

PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS

PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS JOHN E. MAHAN Colorado State University A Wiley-Interscience Publication JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto CONTENTS

More information

Deposition of thin films

Deposition of thin films 16 th March 2011 The act of applying a thin film to a surface is thin-film deposition - any technique for depositing a thin film of material onto a substrate or onto previously deposited layers. Thin is

More information

Section 5: Thin Film Deposition part 1 : sputtering and evaporation. Jaeger Chapter 6. EE143 Ali Javey

Section 5: Thin Film Deposition part 1 : sputtering and evaporation. Jaeger Chapter 6. EE143 Ali Javey Section 5: Thin Film Deposition part 1 : sputtering and evaporation Jaeger Chapter 6 Vacuum Basics 1. Units 1 atmosphere = 760 torr = 1.013x10 5 Pa 1 bar = 10 5 Pa = 750 torr 1 torr = 1 mm Hg 1 mtorr =

More information

Repetition: Ion Plating

Repetition: Ion Plating Repetition: Ion Plating Substrate HV (bis ca. 1kV) Optional ionization system Source Ionized filling gas Source material, ionized or neutral Repetition: Ion Plating Ion Species Separated ion source Ions

More information

MICROCHIP MANUFACTURING by S. Wolf

MICROCHIP MANUFACTURING by S. Wolf by S. Wolf Chapter 15 ALUMINUM THIN-FILMS and SPUTTER-DEPOSITION 2004 by LATTICE PRESS CHAPTER 15 - CONTENTS Aluminum Thin-Films Sputter-Deposition Process Steps Physics of Sputter-Deposition Magnetron-Sputtering

More information

CHAPTER 6: Etching. Chapter 6 1

CHAPTER 6: Etching. Chapter 6 1 Chapter 6 1 CHAPTER 6: Etching Different etching processes are selected depending upon the particular material to be removed. As shown in Figure 6.1, wet chemical processes result in isotropic etching

More information

Film Deposition Part 1

Film Deposition Part 1 1 Film Deposition Part 1 Chapter 11 : Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology by M. Quirk & J. Serda Spring Semester 2013 Saroj Kumar Patra Semidonductor Manufacturing Technology, Norwegian University of

More information

Thin Film Deposition. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 9.1~9.4

Thin Film Deposition. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 9.1~9.4 Thin Film Deposition Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 9.1~9.4 Thermally grown Deposition Thin Film Formation Thermally grown SiO 2 Deposition SiO 2 Oxygen is from gas phase Silicon from substrate Oxide

More information

CVD: General considerations.

CVD: General considerations. CVD: General considerations. PVD: Move material from bulk to thin film form. Limited primarily to metals or simple materials. Limited by thermal stability/vapor pressure considerations. Typically requires

More information

Semiconductor Technology

Semiconductor Technology Semiconductor Technology from A to Z Deposition www.halbleiter.org Contents Contents List of Figures II 1 Deposition 1 1.1 Plasma, the fourth aggregation state of a material............. 1 1.1.1 Plasma

More information

Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma

Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma THE HARRIS SCIENCE REVIEW OF DOSHISHA UNIVERSITY, VOL. 56, No. 1 April 2015 Effect of Spiral Microwave Antenna Configuration on the Production of Nano-crystalline Film by Chemical Sputtering in ECR Plasma

More information

EE C245 ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2007

EE C245 ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2007 EE C245 ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2007 Prof. Clark T.-C. Nguyen Dept. of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 Lecture 4: Film

More information

Wafer holders. Mo- or Ta- made holders Bonding: In (Ga), or In-free (clamped) Quick and easy transfer

Wafer holders. Mo- or Ta- made holders Bonding: In (Ga), or In-free (clamped) Quick and easy transfer Wafer holders Mo- or Ta- made holders Bonding: In (Ga), or In-free (clamped) Quick and easy transfer Image: In-free, 3-inch sample holder fitting a quarter of a 2- inch wafer Reflection High Energy Electron

More information

Vacuum Pumps. Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter. Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular

Vacuum Pumps. Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter. Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular Vacuum Technology Vacuum Pumps Two general classes exist: Gas transfer physical removal of matter Mechanical, diffusion, turbomolecular Adsorption entrapment of matter Cryo, sublimation, ion Mechanical

More information

Chapter 7 Plasma Basic

Chapter 7 Plasma Basic Chapter 7 Plasma Basic Hong Xiao, Ph. D. hxiao89@hotmail.com www2.austin.cc.tx.us/hongxiao/book.htm Hong Xiao, Ph. D. www2.austin.cc.tx.us/hongxiao/book.htm 1 Objectives List at least three IC processes

More information

Thin Film Bi-based Perovskites for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications

Thin Film Bi-based Perovskites for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications ..SKELETON.. Thin Film Bi-based Perovskites for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications Colin Shear Advisor: Dr. Brady Gibbons 2010 Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction... 1 1.1 Motivation and Objective...

More information

Table of Content. Mechanical Removing Techniques. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Sputtering and Focused Ion Beam Milling (FIB)

Table of Content. Mechanical Removing Techniques. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Sputtering and Focused Ion Beam Milling (FIB) Table of Content Mechanical Removing Techniques Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Sputtering and Focused Ion Beam Milling (FIB) Ultrasonic Machining In ultrasonic machining (USM), also called ultrasonic grinding,

More information

Nova 600 NanoLab Dual beam Focused Ion Beam IITKanpur

Nova 600 NanoLab Dual beam Focused Ion Beam IITKanpur Nova 600 NanoLab Dual beam Focused Ion Beam system @ IITKanpur Dual Beam Nova 600 Nano Lab From FEI company (Dual Beam = SEM + FIB) SEM: The Electron Beam for SEM Field Emission Electron Gun Energy : 500

More information

LECTURE 5 SUMMARY OF KEY IDEAS

LECTURE 5 SUMMARY OF KEY IDEAS LECTURE 5 SUMMARY OF KEY IDEAS Etching is a processing step following lithography: it transfers a circuit image from the photoresist to materials form which devices are made or to hard masking or sacrificial

More information

NANOSTRUCTURED CARBON THIN FILMS DEPOSITION USING THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC (TVA) TECHNOLOGY

NANOSTRUCTURED CARBON THIN FILMS DEPOSITION USING THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC (TVA) TECHNOLOGY Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2003, p. 667-673 NANOSTRUCTURED CARBON THIN FILMS DEPOSITION USING THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC (TVA) TECHNOLOGY G. Musa, I. Mustata,

More information

Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials

Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4. Often two methods are typical. Top Down Bottom up. Begins with atoms or molecules. Begins with bulk materials Fabrication Methods: Chapter 4 Often two methods are typical Top Down Bottom up Begins with bulk materials Begins with atoms or molecules Reduced in size to nano By thermal, physical Chemical, electrochemical

More information

Thin Film Deposition

Thin Film Deposition Thin Film Deposition Physical processes Evaporation: Thermal, E-beam, Laser, Ion-plating. Sputtering: DC, RF, Magnetron, Reactive. Spray: Flame, Plasma. Chemical processes Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD):

More information

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ELEC-L3211 Postgraduate Course in Micro and Nanosciences Department of Micro and Nanosciences Personal motivation and experience on SIMS Offers the possibility to

More information

Lecture 6 Plasmas. Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber. ECE611 / CHE611 Electronic Materials Processing Fall John Labram 1/68

Lecture 6 Plasmas. Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber. ECE611 / CHE611 Electronic Materials Processing Fall John Labram 1/68 Lecture 6 Plasmas Chapters 10 &16 Wolf and Tauber 1/68 Announcements Homework: Homework will be returned to you on Thursday (12 th October). Solutions will be also posted online on Thursday (12 th October)

More information

Vacuum Technology and film growth. Diffusion Resistor

Vacuum Technology and film growth. Diffusion Resistor Vacuum Technology and film growth Poly Gate pmos Polycrystaline Silicon Source Gate p-channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOSFET) Drain polysilicon n-si ion-implanted Diffusion Resistor Poly Si Resistor

More information

Chapter 7. Plasma Basics

Chapter 7. Plasma Basics Chapter 7 Plasma Basics 2006/4/12 1 Objectives List at least three IC processes using plasma Name three important collisions in plasma Describe mean free path Explain how plasma enhance etch and CVD processes

More information

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) source chemical reaction film substrate More conformal deposition vs. PVD t Shown here is 100% conformal deposition ( higher temp has higher surface diffusion) t step 1

More information

3.155J/6.152J Microelectronic Processing Technology Fall Term, 2004

3.155J/6.152J Microelectronic Processing Technology Fall Term, 2004 3.155J/6.152J Microelectronic Processing Technology Fall Term, 2004 Bob O'Handley Martin Schmidt Quiz Nov. 17, 2004 Ion implantation, diffusion [15] 1. a) Two identical p-type Si wafers (N a = 10 17 cm

More information

Laser matter interaction

Laser matter interaction Laser matter interaction PH413 Lasers & Photonics Lecture 26 Why study laser matter interaction? Fundamental physics Chemical analysis Material processing Biomedical applications Deposition of novel structures

More information

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD)

CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) A process of formation of a non-volatile solid film on a substrate from the reaction of vapor phase chemical reactants containing the right proportion of constituents. ELEMETRY

More information

Ionization Techniques Part IV

Ionization Techniques Part IV Ionization Techniques Part IV CU- Boulder CHEM 5181 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography Presented by Prof. Jose L. Jimenez High Vacuum MS Interpretation Lectures Sample Inlet Ion Source Mass Analyzer Detector

More information

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 17. Chem 4631

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 17. Chem 4631 Chemistry 4631 Instrumental Analysis Lecture 17 Introduction to Optical Atomic Spectrometry From molecular to elemental analysis there are three major techniques used for elemental analysis: Optical spectrometry

More information

Fabrication Technology, Part I

Fabrication Technology, Part I EEL5225: Principles of MEMS Transducers (Fall 2004) Fabrication Technology, Part I Agenda: Microfabrication Overview Basic semiconductor devices Materials Key processes Oxidation Thin-film Deposition Reading:

More information

Sputter Ion Pump (Ion Pump) By Biswajit

Sputter Ion Pump (Ion Pump) By Biswajit Sputter Ion Pump (Ion Pump) By Biswajit 08-07-17 Sputter Ion Pump (Ion Pump) An ion pump is a type of vacuum pump capable of reaching pressures as low as 10 11 mbar under ideal conditions. An ion pump

More information

Combinatorial RF Magnetron Sputtering for Rapid Materials Discovery: Methodology and Applications

Combinatorial RF Magnetron Sputtering for Rapid Materials Discovery: Methodology and Applications Combinatorial RF Magnetron Sputtering for Rapid Materials Discovery: Methodology and Applications Philip D. Rack,, Jason D. Fowlkes,, and Yuepeng Deng Department of Materials Science and Engineering University

More information

EE 527 MICROFABRICATION. Lecture 24 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington

EE 527 MICROFABRICATION. Lecture 24 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington EE 527 MICROFABRICATION Lecture 24 Tai-Chang Chen University of Washington EDP ETCHING OF SILICON - 1 Ethylene Diamine Pyrocatechol Anisotropy: (100):(111) ~ 35:1 EDP is very corrosive, very carcinogenic,

More information

Huashun Zhang. Ion Sources. With 187 Figures and 26 Tables Э SCIENCE PRESS. Springer

Huashun Zhang. Ion Sources. With 187 Figures and 26 Tables Э SCIENCE PRESS. Springer Huashun Zhang Ion Sources With 187 Figures and 26 Tables Э SCIENCE PRESS Springer XI Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Major Applications and Requirements 1 1.2 Performances and Research Subjects 1 1.3 Historical

More information

a. An emission line as close as possible to the analyte resonance line

a. An emission line as close as possible to the analyte resonance line Practice Problem Set 5 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy 10-1 What is an internal standard and why is it used? An internal standard is a substance added to samples, blank, and standards. The ratio of the signal

More information

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 34. Chem 4631

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 34. Chem 4631 Chemistry 4631 Instrumental Analysis Lecture 34 From molecular to elemental analysis there are three major techniques used for elemental analysis: Optical spectrometry Mass spectrometry X-ray spectrometry

More information

Chapter 3: Thin film deposition and characterization techniques

Chapter 3: Thin film deposition and characterization techniques Chapter 3: Thin film deposition and characterization techniques 3.1 Introduction: The Material Science and Engineering community s ability to visualize the novel materials with extraordinary combination

More information

Solutions for Assignment-6

Solutions for Assignment-6 Solutions for Assignment-6 Q1. What is the aim of thin film deposition? [1] (a) To maintain surface uniformity (b) To reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing materials (c) To decrease the weight

More information

In-vessel Tritium Inventory in ITER Evaluated by Deuterium Retention of Carbon Dust

In-vessel Tritium Inventory in ITER Evaluated by Deuterium Retention of Carbon Dust FT/P1-19 In-vessel Tritium Inventory in ITER Evaluated by Deuterium Retention of Carbon Dust T. Hino 1), H. Yoshida 1), M. Akiba 2), S. Suzuki 2), Y. Hirohata 1) and Y. Yamauchi 1) 1) Laboratory of Plasma

More information

Introduction to Plasma

Introduction to Plasma What is a plasma? The fourth state of matter A partially ionized gas How is a plasma created? Energy must be added to a gas in the form of: Heat: Temperatures must be in excess of 4000 O C Radiation Electric

More information

Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials Dr. Kaushik Pal Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials Dr. Kaushik Pal Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials Dr. Kaushik Pal Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Lecture 11 Deposition and Surface Modification Methods So,

More information

Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques

Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques Lecture 22 Ion Beam Techniques Schroder: Chapter 11.3 1/44 Announcements Homework 6/6: Will be online on later today. Due Wednesday June 6th at 10:00am. I will return it at the final exam (14 th June).

More information

Ion Implantation. alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages:

Ion Implantation. alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages: Ion Implantation alternative to diffusion for the introduction of dopants essentially a physical process, rather than chemical advantages: mass separation allows wide varies of dopants dose control: diffusion

More information

Repetition: Physical Deposition Processes

Repetition: Physical Deposition Processes Repetition: Physical Deposition Processes PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) Evaporation Sputtering Diode-system Triode-system Magnetron-system ("balanced/unbalanced") Ion beam-system Ionplating DC-glow-discharge

More information

ETCHING Chapter 10. Mask. Photoresist

ETCHING Chapter 10. Mask. Photoresist ETCHING Chapter 10 Mask Light Deposited Substrate Photoresist Etch mask deposition Photoresist application Exposure Development Etching Resist removal Etching of thin films and sometimes the silicon substrate

More information

THE PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM DIELECTRIC LAYERS PREPARED BY SPUTTERING

THE PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM DIELECTRIC LAYERS PREPARED BY SPUTTERING THE PROPERTIES OF THIN FILM DIELECTRIC LAYERS PREPARED BY SPUTTERING Ivana BESHAJOVÁ PELIKÁNOVÁ a, Libor VALENTA a a KATEDRA ELEKTROTECHNOLOGIE, ČVUT FEL, Technická 2, 166 27 Praha 6, Česká republika,

More information

Self-study problems and questions Processing and Device Technology, FFF110/FYSD13

Self-study problems and questions Processing and Device Technology, FFF110/FYSD13 Self-study problems and questions Processing and Device Technology, FFF110/FYSD13 Version 2016_01 In addition to the problems discussed at the seminars and at the lectures, you can use this set of problems

More information

UNIT 3. By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun

UNIT 3. By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun UNIT 3 By: Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering, Dehradun 1 Syllabus Lithography: photolithography and pattern transfer, Optical and non optical lithography, electron,

More information

2.1 Template Method Microemulsion Nanostructured Polymer (Copolymer, DNA) Nanostructured Ceramics (AAO, Porous Silica, Zeolite)

2.1 Template Method Microemulsion Nanostructured Polymer (Copolymer, DNA) Nanostructured Ceramics (AAO, Porous Silica, Zeolite) Chapter 1. Characteristics of Nanomaterials Chapter 2. Methodology of Nanomaterials 2.1 Template Method 2.1.1. Microemulsion 2.1.2. Nanostructured Polymer (Copolymer, DNA) 2.1.3. Nanostructured Ceramics

More information

Lecture 1: Vapour Growth Techniques

Lecture 1: Vapour Growth Techniques PH3EC2 Vapour Growth and Epitaxial Growth Lecturer: Dr. Shinoj V K Lecture 1: Vapour Growth Techniques 1.1 Vapour growth The growth of single crystal materials from the vapour phase. Deposition from the

More information

STRONG DOUBLE LAYER STRUCTURE IN THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC PLASMA *

STRONG DOUBLE LAYER STRUCTURE IN THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC PLASMA * STRONG DOUBLE LAYER STRUCTURE IN THERMIONIC VACUUM ARC PLASMA * V. TIRON 1, L. MIHAESCU 1, C.P. LUNGU 2 and G. POPA 1 1 Faculty of Physics, Al. I. Cuza University, 700506, Iasi, Romania 2 National Institute

More information

Preparation of Nanostructures(Příprava Nanostruktur)

Preparation of Nanostructures(Příprava Nanostruktur) Preparation of Nanostructures (Příprava Nanostruktur) jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz September 23, 2013 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Bulk crystal growth 3 Thin film preparation 4 Lateral structures 5 Surface plasma

More information

Gaetano L Episcopo. Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and. Pulsed Plasma Deposition

Gaetano L Episcopo. Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and. Pulsed Plasma Deposition Gaetano L Episcopo Scanning Electron Microscopy Focus Ion Beam and Pulsed Plasma Deposition Hystorical background Scientific discoveries 1897: J. Thomson discovers the electron. 1924: L. de Broglie propose

More information

Stepwise Solution Important Instructions to examiners:

Stepwise Solution Important Instructions to examiners: (ISO/IEC - 700-005 Certified) SUMMER 05 EXAMINATION Subject Code: 70 Model Answer (Applied Science- Physics) Page No: 0/6 Que. No. Sub. Que. Important Instructions to examiners: ) The answers should be

More information

Atomic layer deposition of titanium nitride

Atomic layer deposition of titanium nitride Atomic layer deposition of titanium nitride Jue Yue,version4, 04/26/2015 Introduction Titanium nitride is a hard and metallic material which has found many applications, e.g.as a wear resistant coating[1],

More information

Electrical Discharges Characterization of Planar Sputtering System

Electrical Discharges Characterization of Planar Sputtering System International Journal of Recent Research and Review, Vol. V, March 213 ISSN 2277 8322 Electrical Discharges Characterization of Planar Sputtering System Bahaa T. Chaid 1, Nathera Abass Ali Al-Tememee 2,

More information

HANDBOOK OF ION BEAM PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY

HANDBOOK OF ION BEAM PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY HANDBOOK OF ION BEAM PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Principles, Deposition, Film Modification and Synthesis Edited by Jerome J. Cuomo and Stephen M. Rossnagel IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center Yorktown Heights,

More information

Lecture 6. Rapid Thermal Processing. Reading: Chapter 6

Lecture 6. Rapid Thermal Processing. Reading: Chapter 6 Lecture 6 Rapid Thermal Processing Reading: Chapter 6 (Chapter 6) Categories: Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA) Rapid Thermal Oxidation (RTO) Rapid Thermal Nitridation (RTN) (and oxynitrides) Rapid Thermal Diffusion

More information

M M e M M H M M H. Ion Sources

M M e M M H M M H. Ion Sources Ion Sources Overview of Various Ion Sources After introducing samples into a mass spectrometer, the next important step is the conversion of neutral molecules or compounds to gas phase ions. The ions could

More information

3 - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

3 - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 3 - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Introduction Atomic-absorption (AA) spectroscopy uses the absorption of light to measure the concentration of gas-phase atoms. Since samples are usually liquids or solids,

More information

Chapter 5: Nanoparticle Production from Cathode Sputtering. in High-Pressure Microhollow Cathode and Arc Discharges

Chapter 5: Nanoparticle Production from Cathode Sputtering. in High-Pressure Microhollow Cathode and Arc Discharges 96 Chapter 5: Nanoparticle Production from Cathode Sputtering in High-Pressure Microhollow Cathode and Arc Discharges 5.1. Introduction Sputtering is a fundamental aspect of plasma operation and has been

More information

Deposition of polymeric thin films by PVD process. Hachet Dorian 09/03/2016

Deposition of polymeric thin films by PVD process. Hachet Dorian 09/03/2016 Deposition of polymeric thin films by PVD process Hachet Dorian 09/03/2016 Polymeric Thin Films nowadays The evaporation of polymers Ionization-Assisted Method Vacuum deposition 0,055eV/molecule at 1000

More information

20.2 Ion Sources. ions electrospray uses evaporation of a charged liquid stream to transfer high molecular mass compounds into the gas phase as MH n

20.2 Ion Sources. ions electrospray uses evaporation of a charged liquid stream to transfer high molecular mass compounds into the gas phase as MH n 20.2 Ion Sources electron ionization produces an M + ion and extensive fragmentation chemical ionization produces an M +, MH +, M +, or M - ion with minimal fragmentation MALDI uses laser ablation to transfer

More information

Déposition séléctive le rêve reviens

Déposition séléctive le rêve reviens Willkommen Welcome Bienvenue Déposition séléctive le rêve reviens Patrik Hoffmann Michael Reinke, Yury Kuzminykh Ivo Utke, Carlos Guerra-Nunez, Ali Dabirian, Xavier Multone, Tristan Bret, Estelle Halary-Wagner,

More information

Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Electronics & Communication Engineering Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering Dehradun UNIT II

Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Electronics & Communication Engineering Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering Dehradun UNIT II Ajay Kumar Gautam Asst. Prof. Electronics & Communication Engineering Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology & Engineering Dehradun UNIT II Syllabus EPITAXIAL PROCESS: Epitaxy and its concept, Growth kinetics

More information

Robert A. Meger Richard F. Fernster Martin Lampe W. M. Manheimer NOTICE

Robert A. Meger Richard F. Fernster Martin Lampe W. M. Manheimer NOTICE Serial Number Filing Date Inventor 917.963 27 August 1997 Robert A. Meger Richard F. Fernster Martin Lampe W. M. Manheimer NOTICE The above identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests

More information

PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING

PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING PRINCIPLES OF PLASMA DISCHARGES AND MATERIALS PROCESSING Second Edition MICHAEL A. LIEBERMAN ALLAN J, LICHTENBERG WILEY- INTERSCIENCE A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC PUBLICATION CONTENTS PREFACE xrrii PREFACE

More information

Plasma Route to Nanosciences and Nanotechnology Frontiers

Plasma Route to Nanosciences and Nanotechnology Frontiers J. Plasma Fusion Res. SERIES, Vol. 8 (2009) Plasma Route to Nanosciences and Nanotechnology Frontiers M.P.SRIVASTAVA Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi -110007, INDIA (Received:

More information

A novel sputtering technique: Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS)

A novel sputtering technique: Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS) IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering A novel sputtering technique: Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS) To cite this article: D A L Loch and A P Ehiasarian 2012 IOP Conf. Ser.:

More information

Nanocrystalline Si formation inside SiN x nanostructures usingionized N 2 gas bombardment

Nanocrystalline Si formation inside SiN x nanostructures usingionized N 2 gas bombardment 연구논문 한국진공학회지제 16 권 6 호, 2007 년 11 월, pp.474~478 Nanocrystalline Si formation inside SiN x nanostructures usingionized N 2 gas bombardment Min-Cherl Jung 1, Young Ju Park 2, Hyun-Joon Shin 1, Jun Seok Byun

More information

ION BOMBARDMENT CHARACTERISTICS DURING THE GROWTH OF OPTICAL FILMS USING A COLD CATHODE ION SOURCE

ION BOMBARDMENT CHARACTERISTICS DURING THE GROWTH OF OPTICAL FILMS USING A COLD CATHODE ION SOURCE ION BOMBARDMENT CHARACTERISTICS DURING THE GROWTH OF OPTICAL FILMS USING A COLD CATHODE ION SOURCE O. Zabeida, J.E. Klemberg-Sapieha, and L. Martinu, Ecole Polytechnique, Department of Engineering Physics

More information

Keywords. 1=magnetron sputtering, 2= rotatable cathodes, 3=substrate temperature, 4=anode. Abstract

Keywords. 1=magnetron sputtering, 2= rotatable cathodes, 3=substrate temperature, 4=anode. Abstract Managing Anode Effects and Substrate Heating from Rotatable Sputter Targets. F. Papa*, V. Bellido-Gonzalez**, Alex Azzopardi**, Dr. Dermot Monaghan**, *Gencoa Technical & Business Support in US, Davis,

More information

Clean-Room microfabrication techniques. Francesco Rizzi Italian Institute of Technology

Clean-Room microfabrication techniques. Francesco Rizzi Italian Institute of Technology Clean-Room microfabrication techniques Francesco Rizzi Italian Institute of Technology Miniaturization The first transistor Miniaturization The first transistor Miniaturization The first transistor Miniaturization

More information

Discovered by German scientist Johann Hittorf in 1869 and in 1876 named by Eugen Goldstein.

Discovered by German scientist Johann Hittorf in 1869 and in 1876 named by Eugen Goldstein. DO PHYSICS ONLINE CATHODE RAYS CATHODE RAYS (electron beams) Streams of electrons (negatively charged particles) observed in vacuum tubes - evacuated glass tubes that are equipped with at least two metal

More information

[2] (b) An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 300 V.

[2] (b) An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 300 V. 1 (a) In atomic physics electron energies are often stated in electronvolts (ev) Define the electronvolt. State its value in joule.. [2] (b) An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Prof. Paul K. Chu

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Prof. Paul K. Chu X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Prof. Paul K. Chu X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Introduction Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Charging compensation Small area analysis and XPS imaging

More information

Carbon nanotubes synthesis. Ing. Eva Košťáková KNT, FT, TUL

Carbon nanotubes synthesis. Ing. Eva Košťáková KNT, FT, TUL Carbon nanotubes synthesis Ing. Eva Košťáková KNT, FT, TUL Basic parameters: -Temperature (500, 1000 C ) -Pressure (normal, vacuum ) -Gas (ambient, inert atmosphere nitrogen, argon ) -Time (duration, time

More information

Ultra-High Vacuum Technology. Sputter Ion Pumps l/s

Ultra-High Vacuum Technology. Sputter Ion Pumps l/s Ultra-High Vacuum Technology 30-400 l/s 181.06.01 Excerpt from the Product Chapter C15 Edition November 2007 Contents General General..........................................................................

More information

ION Pumps for UHV Systems, Synchrotrons & Particle Accelerators. Mauro Audi, Academic, Government & Research Marketing Manager

ION Pumps for UHV Systems, Synchrotrons & Particle Accelerators. Mauro Audi, Academic, Government & Research Marketing Manager ION Pumps for UHV Systems, Synchrotrons & Particle Accelerators Mauro Audi, Academic, Government & Research Marketing Manager ION Pumps Agilent Technologies 1957-59 Varian Associates invents the first

More information

JARA FIT Ferienprakticum Nanoelektronik Experiment: Resonant tunneling in quantum structures

JARA FIT Ferienprakticum Nanoelektronik Experiment: Resonant tunneling in quantum structures JARA FIT Ferienprakticum Nanoelektronik 2013 Experiment: Resonant tunneling in quantum structures Dr. Mihail Ion Lepsa, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI 9), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH 1. Introduction The

More information

k T m 8 B P m k T M T

k T m 8 B P m k T M T I. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIENT The techniques for evaporation of chemicals in a vacuum are widely used for thin film deposition on rigid substrates, leading to multiple applications: production

More information

Lecture 15: Introduction to mass spectrometry-i

Lecture 15: Introduction to mass spectrometry-i Lecture 15: Introduction to mass spectrometry-i Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass/charge ratio of charged particles in vacuum. Mass spectrometry can determine masse/charge

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE MODULE 7 NATURE OF LIGHT ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SPECTRA PRODUCED BY DISCHARGE TUBES CATHODE RAYS (electron beams) Streams of electrons (negatively charged particles) observed in vacuum

More information