Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3

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1 Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3 MAIN IDEA: The particles in and have a range of motion and are not easily. Why is it more difficult to pour syrup that is stored in the refrigerator than in the cabinet? Why does warming syrup make it easier to pour?

2 Liquids & Solids: Liquids - theory also can apply to to explain their. Liquid particles to adjust to their to the of their container but cannot to fill it. Individual particles do not have positions in the liquid. of between particles their of.

3 Liquids: Density & Compression Liquids are much than at the same. Both have the average. density of liquids due to forces that hold together. Because liquid particles are packed, liquids are considered (unlike ).

4 Liquids: Fluidity Fluidity is anything that can or. AND are fluids. Liquids diffuse more than gases because attractions with flow. than gases ie~ gas leak vs water leak

5 Liquids: Viscosity Viscosity Measure of the of liquid to. in a liquid are enough for attractive forces to their movement as they flow past one another Factors that affect viscosity: in liquid. Particle and.

6 Liquid: Viscosity Viscosity Attractive forces intermolecular forces = viscosity.

7 Liquid: Viscosity Viscosity Particle size and shape molecules have viscosity. Move more and have a attraction between.

8 Liquid: Viscosity Viscosity Temperature Viscosity with temperature. in temperature = in. Added energy makes it easier to overcome forces that keep the molecules from.

9 Liquids: Surface Tension Surface tension Amount of required to the. Extra between molecules at the of a liquid. attractions between particles = surface tension. Compounds that the surface tension of are known as.

10 Liquids: Cohesion & Adhesion Cohesion between a and. particles Adhesion of a for the molecules in its. Between particles

11 Liquids: Cohesion & Adhesion In, is stronger than. shape forms ( ). When measuring water, always read the instrument from the of the meniscus In, cohesion is than adhesion. An U shape forms.

12 Liquids: Cohesion & Adhesion Capillary Action of cohesion and adhesion together. In a cylinder, is pulled the sides Example:

13 Liquids & Solids: Solids Why do solids have a definite shape and volume? Kinetic-molecular theory states that 1 mol of solid particles has as much as 1 mol of liquid or gas particles. forces between particles the of the the particles to locations. Particles still are in motion. Results in in a solid;.

14 Solids: Density of Solids Most solids are than most liquids. Due to how the particles are. Exception to rule = As water freezes, water molecules form bonds between each other, causing the particles to be - packed than in water.

15 Solids: Crystalline Solids Two main types of solids: crystalline and amorphous solids are solids whose particles are arranged in an, pattern. Particles create a known as a. unit in a crystal lattice is called the. ie~ whose shape determines the shape of the.

16 Solids: Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into categories based on the of particle they contain and how the particles are together.

17 Solids: Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into five categories: Molecular Solids in molecular solids are held together by forces, - forces, or bonds. Most are not at room temperature. conductors of and.

18 Solids: Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into five categories: Covalent Network Solids Composed of that can form bonds. ie~ Carbon is an Exists in different at the state. Can form types of covalent network solids:,, &.

19 Solids: Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into five categories: Ionic Solids Ions in an ionic solid are surrounded by ions of. and of ions determine the of the and of the. melting points and. but.

20 Solids: Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into five categories: Metallic Solids Consist of metal ions surrounded by a of. of bonds between cations and electrons among. Accounts for range of properties. conductors of and.

21 Solids: Amorphous Solids Crystalline solids can be classified into five categories: Amorphous Solids Amorphous =. Solid whose particles are arranged in an, pattern. Does not contain. Forms when material cools to allow enough for crystals to form. ie~

22 12.4: Phase Changes MAIN IDEA: changes when is or. Most substances exist in states depending on and. Referred to as How many phases can be observed in a glass of ice water?

23 Phase Changes That Require Energy One phase can change to another when is added or removed from a system.

24 Phase Changes Melting What happens to ice cubes in water? Ice because water is at. flows from to. Heat is the of from an object at temperature to an object of temperature. Energy absorbed by ice disrupts in ice crystal, allowing water molecules to and enter the phase.

25 Phase Changes Melting Amount of required to melt a solid depends on the of the keeping the particles together. of a solid is the temperature at which the holding its together are and it becomes a.

26 Phase Changes Vaporization Particles that from the phase enter the phase. Gas phase for substances that are normally at temperature is called. is the process by which a changes to a or. When vaporization occurs only at the of of a, the process is called.

27 Phase Changes Boiling is the temperature at which the of equals the pressure. At the boiling point, molecules have enough to.

28 Phase Changes Sublimation Process by which a changes directly to a without first becoming a. What are some examples of sublimation? A:

29 Phase Changes What do melting, vaporization, boiling, and sublimation have in common? These phase changes. reactions.

30 Phase Changes Freezing is removed as substances change from to form, causing the molecules to lose and decrease. When enough energy is lost, keep the molecules in positions. Freezing is the of melting. Freezing point is the at which a is converted to a.

31 Phase Changes Condensation When water vapor molecules lose, their decreases. Causes the formation of and the release of. The process by which a or becomes is called. Reverse of. Always involves the of.

32 Phase Changes Deposition Process by which a substance changes from a or to a without first becoming a. Reverse of. ie~

33 Phase Changes What do freezing, condensation, and deposition have in common? These phase changes. reactions.

34 Phase Diagrams Two control the of a substance. & Variables have effects on a substance. ie~

35 Phase Diagrams Phase Diagrams of vs that shows at which a substance exists under different of temperature and pressure.

36 Phase Diagrams Phase Diagrams phases coexist at points along each. Yellow = water & water ( ). Blue = & water. Red = &

37 Phase Diagrams Phase Diagrams is the point on a phase diagram that represents the and at which phases of a substance can. All phase changes can occur at the triple point.

38 Phase Diagrams Phase Diagrams Triple point is the point on a phase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure at which three phases of a substance can coexist. (POINT A ) All six phase changes can occur at the triple point.

39 Phase Diagrams Phase Diagrams indicates the critical and above which cannot exist as a.

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