8/30/2010. The Components of Matter Chapter 2. Element, Atom, Compound, and Molecule. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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1 The Components of Matter Chapter 2 Element, Atom, Compound, and Molecule CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. An ATOM is the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical ca properties es of the element. e e CHEMICAL COMOUNDS are composed of two or more kinds of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms. A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Molecule: two or more atoms join together chemically. Example: H 2, H 2 O, CO 2, C 6 H 6, O 2, Cl 2, C 2 H 6 O Compound: Molecule that contains at least two different elements. Example: H 2 O, CO 2, C 6 H 6, C 2 H 6 O 1

2 Sample roblem ostulates of Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) All matter is made of atoms All atoms of a given element are identical Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms A chemical reaction is arrangement of atoms present in the reacting substances Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. Atoms cannot be created or converted to other atom types Three Laws 1. Mass Conservation: Total mass of substances does not change in a reaction 180 g of glucose g of oxygen gas 264 g of carbon dioxide g of water 2

3 Three Laws 2. Definite Composition: The components of a compound is the same irrespective of the source of the compound Calcium Carbonate: Made up of calcium, oxygen, and carbon in constant proportion of mass i.e. 40% calcium, 12% carbon and 48% oxygen Three Laws 3. Multiple roportion: If A and B reacts to form two compounds, the masses of B that combines with a fixed mass of A in the two compounds can be expressed as a ratio of small whole number Consider two compounds Carbon oxide I Carbon oxide II g of oxygen/100 g compound g of carbon/100 g compound g of oxygen/g of carbon Ratio of g of oxygen/g of carbon in compound II and compound I is 2 Electricity and Radioactivity Objects can bear an electric charge Two types of charges- positive and negative Subatomic particles? Marie Curie suggested that atoms of certain substances emit rays when they disintegrate. (1898)These are radioactive materials like uranium, polonium, radium. (alpha-ray) 234 U 230 Th + 4 He Contradicted Dolton s idea that atoms are indivisible 3

4 Evidence for Sub-atomic articles Thomson experiments with Cathode-Ray Tubes (1897) Discovery of The Electrons Cathode rays: beam of negatively charged particle known as electrons By balancing the effects of the electrical and magnetic fields, the charge/mass (e/m) ratio was determined for the electron Same charge/mass ratio in experiments using 20 different metals as cathodes and several different gasses Electrons are present in atoms of all elements!! Millikan s Oil Drop Experiment Determination of Charge of an Electron By balancing the electrostatic attractive and gravitation forces, electron charge (-1.60 x C) was determined. From e and e/m values, electron mass was calculated ( x g) 4

5 Evidence for Sub-atomic articles In 1886, Goldstein, using equipment similar to cathode ray tube, discovered particles with charge equal and opposite to that of electron, but much larger mass Rutherford later (1911) found these particles to be identical to hydrogen atoms minus one electron Named these particles protons Chadwick (1932) discovered particle with similar mass to proton but zero charge Neutron roperties of Subatomic articles Subatomic article Location in Atom Symbol Mass (grams) Relative Mass Relative Charge neutron nucleus n x proton nucleus p x electron Moving around outside the nucleus e x / Evidence for the nucleus Three subatomic particles: electron, proton and neutron How these particles are arranged in an atom? Thomson s model of atomic structure: plum pudding or chocolate chip cookie model Atoms consisted of negatively charged electrons embedded in a cloud of positive charge The negative and positive charges balance and result in the atom being neutral ositive charge Electron + 5

6 Evidence for The Nucleus In 1911, Geiger and Rutherford studied the interaction of positively charged particles (α-particles) with thin metal foils If the plum pudding hypothesis (model) were true, what would happen to α-particles fired at a metal foil? Electron ositive charge Scattering of α-particles Observation.. Scattering of α-particles It was about as credible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of paper and it came back and hit you. Ernest Rutherford 6

7 Scattering of α -particles Rutherford s hypothesis: ositive charge concentrated in one tiny region called the nucleus (now known to be about m in diameter) Electrons were thought to be distributed throughout the remainder of the atom (10-10 m in diameter) Inside the Atom Rutherford also noted that not all the mass of the atom was accounted for by the protons Chadwick s neutron Rutherford proposed a solar system-like model for the atom roperties of Subatomic articles 7

8 Inside the Atom Review: rotons and neutrons contribute nearly all the mass rotons and neutrons are tightly bound together in the nucleus Radius of nucleus is only 10-5 that of the atom Volume is only than of the entire atom Electrons surround the nucleus as a large cloud of negative charge density Most of the atom s volume is occupied by electrons But how are these electrons really arranged around the nucleus? Atomic and Mass Numbers Atomic number = The number of protons in the nucleus of an element Symbolized by the letter Z Mass number = The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Symbolized by the letter A X is element symbol A Atomic and Mass Numbers 8

9 Atomic and Mass Numbers A Sodium (Na) atom has 11 protons and 12 neutrons. What is the symbol for a sodium atom? 23 Na 11 Identify the atomic number, mass number, and number of neutrons of the following elements: 12 Z A Number of neutrons C Cu 207 b 82 Isotopes Individual atoms have a defined number of protons, electrons and neutrons What are isotopes? Atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Same number of protons but different number of neutrons Isotopes Each element has a characteristic number (and relative abundance) of isotopes hosphorus () has one naturally occurring isotope with 16 neutrons 31 Also known as 15 phosphorus-31 Carbon b (C) has two isotopes, one has 6 neutrons (98.93% 93% abundant), the other has 7 neutrons (1.07% abundant) 12 Also known as 6 C 13 carbon-12 6 C Also known as carbon-13 Chlorine (Cl) has two isotopes 18 neutrons (75.53%) 20 neutrons (24.47%) 9

10 Relative Masses The mass of an atom cannot be determined by simply adding up the mass of its constituent protons, neutrons and electrons Some mass is converted to energy, which is used to hold the nucleus together (binding energy) It is difficult to predict how much mass will be used to bind the nucleus together Fortunately, the atomic mass of each element can be determined experimentally using very sensitive instruments (mass spectrometer) Mass Spectrometer Relative Masses For example the mass of a 12 C atom is measured to be x g An exceedingly small number!!!!!!!!! Rather than work with awkwardly small numbers, atomic masses are converted into more easily handled units Conversion unit is called the atomic mass unit, μ By convention, the atomic mass unit is equal to 1/12 the mass of a 12 C atom (1/12)( x g) = 1 μ = x g The atomic mass of 12 C is exactly 12 μ 10

11 Some Basic Concepts Absolute Atomic Mass Converting to bigger numbers Relative Atomic Mass Taking contributions of many isotopes and averaging them Amount in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight Atomic Weight Mole Mass of a C-atom x g 12 μ g 1. For the number of neutrons a. 31 b. 15 c. 16 d. 46 Some Basic Concepts 3. 1 mole of hosphorous is a x g b x 10 2g c g 1μ = x g 2. The measured atomic mass of a 31 atom is x g The converted relative mass is a x b x 10 2 c mole =amount in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight Atomic Weight For elements with more than one isotope, the atomic weight reported in the periodic table represents a weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes In other words, it s the weight of an average atom For example: 35 Cl (75.53 % abundance) has atomic mass = 34.97μ 37 Cl (24.47 % abundance) has atomic mass = 36.97μ Atomic weight = (75.53)(34.97μ) + (24.47)(36.97μ) = μ

12 Some Basic Concepts Magnesium: 24 Mg (78.99%); μ 25 Mg (10.00%); μ 26 Mg (11.01%); μ 3. The atomic weight of magnesium a b c d e Concept of Mole How many atoms will be there? Will there be equal number of atoms in all of them? Concept of Avogadro s Number 1 mole of any substances will have same number of particles The magic number is mole of Ca 1 mole of water 1 mole of photons

13 Concept of Mole Different mass and volume but each contains x atoms Mass, Mole, and Atom Conversions Grams x 1 mol = moles grams Moles x grams = grams 1 mol Molar mass of Aluminum = 27.0 g/mol. Determine the mass of 0.35 mol of Al. Mass, Mole, and Atom Conversions Determine the number of moles of Tin in 36.5 g Tin. Molar mass of Tin = g/mol. Determine the number of atoms in 36.5 g Tin. 13

14 eriodic Table of the Elements IA VIIIA 1 2 H He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB [------VIIIB------] IB IIB K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Al Si S Cl Ar Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe (98) Cs Ba # La Fr Ra Ac Rf (223) (261) DLC 1o/ Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o (209) At Rn (210) (222) 105 Db (262) # 58 Ce Sg (263) 59 r Th a Bh (262) 60 Nd U Hs (265) 61 m (145) 109 Mt (268) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Np u Am Cm Bk (244) (243) (247) (247) 66 Dy Cf (251) 67 Ho Es (252) 68 Er Fm (257) 69 Tm Md (258) 70 Yb No (259) 71 Lu Lr (260) The eriodic Table Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties Groups: the columns in the periodic table 8A He Ne Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Xe eriods: the rows in the periodic table Rn 1A H 2A Alkali Metals 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np u Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 14

15 1A H 2A Alkaline Earth Metals 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np uamcmbk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 1A H 2A Halogens 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np uamcmbk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 1A H 2A Noble Gases 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np uamcmbk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 15

16 Metals, nonmetals and metalloids DLC 1o/ IA VIIIA 1 2 H He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si S Cl Ar IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB [------VIIIB------] IB IIB 19 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd (98) In Sn Sb Te I Xe # Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o (209) At Rn (210) (222) Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (223) (261) (262) (263) (262) (265) (268) Metals Nonmetals Metalloids # 58 Ce r Th a Nd U m (145) 62 Sm Eu Gd Tb Np u Am Cm Bk (244) (243) (247) (247) 66 Dy Cf (251) 67 Ho Es (252) 68 Er Fm (257) 69 Tm Md (258) 70 Yb No (259) 71 Lu Lr (260) Metals Left side of the periodic table except H roperties: lustrous (shiny) good thermal and electrical conductors malleable solids at RT except Hg = liquid Right side of table plus H Non-Metals roperties: Dull appearance Brittle when solids Do not conduct heat or electricity well rimarily solids or gases at RT Bromine = liquid 16

17 Metalloids Stair step between metals and non-metals roperties in between metals and non-metals Si: brittle but semi-conductor 1A H Li 2A Be Main Group or Representative Elements 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A B C N O F 8A He Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np uamcmbk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 1A H 2A Transition Metals 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np u Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 17

18 1A H 2A Lanthanide Series 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np u Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr 1A H 2A Actinide Series 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B Al Si S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh d Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir t Au Hg Tl b Bi o At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ce r Nd m Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th a U Np uamcmbk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Terminology of eriodic Table eriods: Horizontal rows Groups: Vertical columns Main group elements: 1A - 8A Group 1A: Alkali metal family Group 2A: Alkaline earth metal family Group 7A: Halogen Family Group 8A: Noble gas family Transition metals or elements: 1B - 8B Lanthanides: elements Actinides: elements Metals, nonmetals and metalloids The eriodic Table 18

19 We know where the protons and neutrons are located in an atom. But how are electrons really arranged around the nucleus? Laws of mass 1. Law of mass conservation: the total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction. Matter cannot be created or destroyed Laws of mass 2. Law of definitive composition: no matter what its source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass. 19

20 Calculating the mass of an element in a compound Laws of mass Law of multiple proportions: if elements A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as ratio of small whole number. Example: Formation of CO and CO 2 Inside the Atom Review: Three elementary particles: proton, electron and neutron rotons contribute all the positive charge Electrons contribute all the negative charge Neutral atoms have net charge of zero, thus an equal number of protons and electrons rotons and neutrons contribute nearly all the mass rotons and neutrons are tightly bound together in the nucleus Electrons surround the nucleus as a large cloud of negative charge density 20

21 The atomic notation of Silver is 109 Ag 47 Draw the diagram showing the arrangement of protons, neutrons and electrons in a silver atom. Draw the diagram showing the result of alpha-particle scattering experiment using silver foil. Mole Concept Mole One mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities (atoms, molecules, or other particles) as there are in exactly 12 g of carbon-12 isotope. 1 mole contains Avogadro's number of elementary entities. Avogadro s number: x particles Molar mass The mass in grams of one mole of any element (6.022 x atoms of that element). Units: grams per mole (g/mol). An element s molar mass is the amount in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight. Mass, Mole, and Atom Conversions Determine the number of gallium (Ga) atoms present in 52.0 g of gallium. 21

22 Atomic and Mass Numbers Symbol 65 Cu 86 Kr # of protons 78 # of neutrons # of electrons 36 Name of the Element Atomic and Mass Numbers Symbol 65 Cu 86 Kr 195 t 82 Kr # of protons # of neutrons # of electrons Name of the copper Krypton latinum Krypton Element The atomic notation of Silver is 109 Ag 47 Draw the diagram showing the arrangement of protons, neutrons and electrons in a silver atom. Draw the diagram showing the result of alpha-particle scattering experiment using silver foil. 22

23 Three Kinds of Radiation Alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ) Radiation Electric charge α +2 β -1 γ 0 23

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