1 Introduction into Biochemistry Dr. Mamoun Ahram Lecture 1
2 Course information Recommended textbooks Biochemistry; Mary K. Campbell and Shawn O. Farrell, Brooks Cole; 7 th edition Instructors Dr. Mamoun Ahram Dr. Nafez Abu Tarboush Dr. Diala Abu Hassan
3 Recommended websites NCBI Bookshelf: ( ooks) The Medical Biochemistry Page: ( Biochemistry, Garret and Grishan, Second Ed.:
4 Outline (Ahram + Abu Hassan) Introduction Acid, base, and ph Macromolecules and carbohydrates Lipids Amino acids Polypeptides and proteins structure
5 Outline (Ahram + Abu Tarboush) Protein structure-function relationship (part I: fibrous proteins) Protein structure-function relationship (part II: globular proteins) Enzymes (introduction) Enzymes (kinetics) Enzymes (mechanism of regulation) Enzymes (cofactors) Protein analysis
6 Office hours for Dr. Ahram Location: School of Medicine, Building 1, first floor Time: Daily 2-3 Note: If I am not in my office, then try the lab in the first floor. Simply ask for me.
7 Dr. Mamoun Ahram Lecture 1 References This lecture Campbell and Farrell, Page 35-43
8 Understanding life Know the chemical structures of biological molecules Understand the biological function of these molecules Understand interaction and organization of different molecules within individual cells and whole biological systems Understand bioenergetics (the study of energy flow in cells) Biochemistry in medicine: diagnose and monitor diseases design drugs (new antibiotics, chemotherapy agents) understand the molecular bases of diseases
9 Chemical elements in living creatures Living organisms on Earth are composed mainly of 31 elements
10 Abundant elements Four primary elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen 96.5% of an organism's weight The second groups includes sulfur and phosphorus Most biological compounds are made of only SIX elements: C, H, O, N, P, S Others are minor, but essential, elements Mostly metals
11 Important terms Electronegativity Covalent bonds Polar vs. non-polar covalent bonds Single vs. multiple Non-covalent interactions electrostatic interactions hydrogen bonds (donor and acceptor) van der Waals interactions Hydrophobic interactions Hydrophobic versus hydrophilic molecules Backbone of a molecule Nucleophile versus electrophile
12 Important properties of bonds Bond strength (amount of energy that must be supplied to break a bond) Bond length: the distance between two nuclei Bond orientation: bond angles determining the overall geometry of atoms The three-dimensional structures of molecules are specified by the bond angles and bond lengths for each covalent linkage
13 Polarity of covalent bonds Covalent bonds in which the electrons are shared unequally in this way are known as polar covalent bonds. The bonds are known as dipoles. Oxygen and nitrogen atoms are electronegative Oxygen and hydrogen Nitrogen and hydrogen Not carbon and hydrogen Water is an excellent example of polar molecules, but not CO 2.
14 What are non-covalent interactions? They are reversible and relatively weak. Electrostatic interactions (charge-charge interactions): They are formed between two charged particles. These forces are quite strong in the absence of water. Hydrogen bonds A hydrogen atom is partly shared between two relatively electronegative atoms (a donor and an acceptor). van der Waals interactions Unequal distribution of electronic charge around an atom changes with time. The strength of the attraction is affected by distance.
15 Hydrophobic interactions Not true bonds Self-association of nonpolar compounds in an aqueous environment. Minimize unfavorable interactions between nonpolar groups and water
16 Properties of Noncovalent Interactions Reversible Relatively weak kj/mole vs. 350 kj/mole in C C bond Molecules interact and bind specifically. - Noncovalent forces significantly contribute to the structure, stability, and functional competence of macromolecules in living cells. Can be either attractive or repulsive Involve interactions both within the biomolecule and between it and the water of the surrounding environment. 16
17 Why can carbon form complex molecules?
18 Properties of carbon (1) It can form four bonds, which can be single, double, or triple bonds Each bond is very stable strength of bonds: triple > double > Single) They link C atoms together in chains and rings These serve as a backbones
19 Properties of carbon (2) Carbon bonds have angles giving molecules threedimensional structure In a carbon backbone, some carbon atoms rotate around a single covalent bond producing molecules of different shapes
20 Properties of carbon (3) The electronegativity of carbon is between other atoms. It can form polar and non-polar molecules Pure carbon is not water soluble, but when carbon forms covalent bonds with other elements like O or N, the molecule that makes carbon compounds to be soluble Nonpolar
21 Functional groups (Groups of atoms attached to a carbon skeleton)
24 Properties of water (1) Water is a polar molecule as a whole because of the different electronegativitiy between Hydrogen and oxygen It is angular Water is highly cohesive Water molecules produce a network
25 Properties of water (2) Water is an excellent solvent because It is small and it weakens electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding between polar molecules.
27 Properties of water (3) It is reactive because it is a nucleophile A nucleophile is an electron-rich molecule that is attracted to positively-charged or electron-deficient species (electrophiles)
28 Properties of water (4) Water molecules are ionized to become a positivelycharged hydronium ion (or proton), and a hydroxide ion:
29 Acids versus bases Acid: a substance that produces H + when dissolved in water H + Reacts with water producing hydronium ion (H3O+) Base: a substance that produces OH - when dissolved in water
30 Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases The Brønsted-Lowry acid: any substance (proton donor) able to give a hydrogen ion (H + -a proton) to another molecule Monoprotic acid: HCl, HNO 3, CH 3 COOH Diprotic acid: H 2 SO 4 Triprotic acid: H 3 PO 3 Brønsted-Lowry base: any substance that accepts a proton (H + ) from an acid NaOH, NH 3, KOH
31 Water is an amphoteric substances Substances that can act as an acid in one reaction and as a base in another are called amphoteric substances Example: water With ammonia (NH 3 ), water acts as an acid because it donates a proton (hydrogen ion) to ammonia NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4+ + OH With hydrochloric acid, water acts as a base water is acting as a bas HCl+ H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl -
32 Acid/base strength Acids differ in their ability to release protons Strong acids dissociate 100% Bases differ in their ability to accept protons Strong bases have strong affinity for protons For multi-protic acids (H 2 SO 3, H 3 PO 4 ), each proton is donated at different strengths
33 Rule The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. Reactions favor formation of weak acid. Strong acids and bases are one-way reactions HCl H + + Cl - NaOH Na + + OH - Weak acids and bases do not ionize completely HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O - 2 NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4+ + OH -
34 Equilibrium constant Acid/base solutions are at constant equilibrium We can write equilibrium constant (K eq ) for such reactions HA <--> H + + A - The value of the K eq indicates direction of reaction When K eq is greater than 1 the product side is favored When K eq is less than 1 the reactants are favored Equilibrium constant for acids is K a and for bases K b Note: H 3 O + = H +
35 What is pka?
37 Base dissociation constant Reverse the reaction: B + H 2 O BH + + OH - BH + B + H + K b [BH ][OH [B] ] K a [B][H [BH ] ]
38 Expression Solutions can be expressed in terms of its concentration or molarity Acids and bases can also be expressed in terms of their normality (N) or equivalence (Eq)
39 Molarity of solutions We know that moles of a solution are the amount in grams in relation to its molecular weight (MW or a.m.u.). moles = grams / MW A molar solution is one in which 1 liter of solution contains the number of grams equal to its molecular weight. M = moles / volume Since (mol = grams / MW), you can calculate the grams of a chemical you need to dissolve in a known volume of water to obtain a certain concentration (M) using the following formula: grams = M x vol x MW
40 Exercise How many grams do you need to make 5M NaCl solution in 100 ml (MW 58.4)? grams = 58.4 x 5 M x 0.1 liter = g
41 Equivalents (acids/bases and ions) When it comes to acids, bases and ions, it is useful to think of them as equivalents 1 equivalent of a strong acid contains 1 mol of H + ions, and 1 g-eq of an acid is the mass in grams that contains 1 mol of H + ions. Similarly, 1 equivalent of a strong base contains 1 mol of OH - ions, and 1 g-eq of a base is the mass in grams that contains 1 mol of OH - ions. For ions, a 1 g-eq of any ion is defined as the molar mass of the ion divided by the ionic charge.
42 Examples 1 mol HCl = 1 mol [H + ] = 1 equivalent 1 mol H 2 SO 4 = 2 mol [H + ] = 2 equivalents One equivalent of Na + = 23.1 g One equivalent of Cl - = 35.5 g One equivalent of Mg +2 = (24.3)/2 = g Remember: One equivalent of any acid neutralizes one equivalent of any base.
43 Exercise Calculate milligrams of Ca +2 in blood if total concentration of Ca +2 is 5 meq/l. 1 Eq of Ca +2 = 40.1 g/2 =20.1 g Grams of Ca +2 in blood = = (5 meq/l) x (1 Eq/1000 meq) x (20.1 g/ 1 Eq) = 0.1 mg/l =100 mg/l
44 Normal solutions Normality (N) considers both the molarity of the solution and the equivalent content of the acid or base N= n x M (where n is an integer) For an acid solution, n is the number of H + provided by a formula unit of acid. Similarly, for a base solution is the number of OH - a base can donate
45 Example 3 M H 2 SO 4 solution is the same as a 6 N H 2 SO 4 solution 1 M Ca(OH) 2 solution is the same as a 2N Ca(OH) 2 solution Remember! The normality of a solution is NEVER less than the molarity
46 Exercise What is the normality of H 2 SO 4 solution made by dissolving 6.5 g into 200 ml? (MW = 98)? M = mol / MW or M = grams / (MW x vol) = 6.5 g / (98 x 0.2 L) = 6.5 / 19.6 = 0.33 N = M x n = 0.33 x 2 = 0.66 N
47 Normality and equivalents Based on the equation above, since n eq of an acid is neutralized by the same n eq of a base, then (N x liters) of an acid is neutralized by (N x liters) of a base.
48 Problems Hint: If number of H + (OH - ) is different, convert M to N, find the answer in N, then convert N to M.
49 M1 x Vol1 = M2 x Vol x 22.4 = M2 x 12 M2 = (0.12 x 22.4) / 12 M2 = M
50 Convert M to N first N of HNO 3 = 1 x = N N of Ba(OH) 2 = 2 x 0.12 = 0.24 N1 x Vol1 = N2 x Vol x 15 = x Vol2 Vol2 = (0.24 x 15) / Vol2 = ml Apply same method for third question
51 Ionization of water Water dissociates into hydronium (H 3 O + ) and hydroxyl (OH - ) ions For simplicity, we refer to the hydronium ion as a hydrogen ion (H + ) and write the reaction equilibrium as
52 Equilibrium constant The equilibrium constant Keq of the dissociation of water is The equilibrium constant for water ionization under standard conditions is 1.8 x M
53 Kw Since there are 55.6 moles of water in 1 liter, the product of the hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentrations results in a value of 1 x for: This constant, Kw, is called the ion product for water
54 [H + ] and [OH - ] For pure water, there are equal concentrations of [H + ] and [OH - ], each with a value of 1 x 10-7 M Since Kw is a fixed value, the concentrations of [H + ] and [OH - ] are inversely changing If the concentration of H + is high, then the concentration of OH - must be low, and vice versa. For example, if [H + ] = 10-2 M, then [OH - ] = M
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