A) first electron shell D) are located in orbitals outside the nucleus A) 2-3 D) 18 A) K and Na C) a mixture C) Sb2O5

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1 1. In a calcium atom in the ground state, the electrons that possess the least amount of energy are located in the A) first electron shell B) second electron shell C) third electron shell D) fourth electron shell 2. What is the maximum number of electrons in the third shell of an atom? A) 6 B) 9 C) 3 D) The ratio of chromium to iron to carbon varies among the different types of stainless steel. Therefore, stainless steel is classified as A) a compound B) an element C) a mixture D) a substance 4. Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: H + (aq) + OH (aq) H2O( ) kj In this reaction there is conservation of A) mass, only B) mass and charge, only C) mass and energy, only D) mass, charge, and energy 5. The average kinetic energy of the molecules of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the A) number of moles present B) volume occupied by individual gas molecules C) temperature measured on the Kelvin scale D) pressure at standard temperature 6. Which is the correct electron-dot symbol for a boron atom in the ground state? A) B) C) D) 7. The mass of a calcium atom is due primarily to the mass of its A) protons, only B) neutrons, only C) protons and neutrons D) protons and electrons 8. What is the mass number of 19 9F? A) 9 B) 10 C) 19 D) According to the wave-mechanical model of the atom, electrons in an atom A) travel in defined circles B) are most likely found in an excited state C) have a positive charge D) are located in orbitals outside the nucleus 10. Which represents the electron configuration of a metalloid in the ground state? A) 2-3 B) 2-5 C) D) Which elements have the most similar chemical properties? A) K and Na B) K and Cl C) K and Ca D) K and S 12. Which formula correctly represents antimony (V) oxide? A) SbO5 B) Sb5O C) Sb2O5 D) Sb5O2 13. The atoms of the most active nonmetals have A) small atomic radii and high ionization energies B) small atomic radii and low ionization energies C) large atomic radii and low ionization energies D) large atomic radii and high ionization energies 14. Which property is generally characteristic of metallic elements? A) low electrical conductivity B) high heat conductivity C) existence as brittle solids D) existence as molecular solids 15. What is a property of most metals? A) They tend to gain electrons easily when bonding. B) They tend to lose electrons easily when bonding. C) They are poor conductors of heat. D) They are poor conductors of electricity.

2 16. At STP, the element oxygen can exist as either O2 or O3 gas molecules. These two forms of the element have A) the same chemical and physical properties B) the same chemical properties and different physical properties C) different chemical properties and the same physical properties D) different chemical and physical properties 17. What is the correct Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound magnesium fluoride? A) B) C) D) 18. Which Lewis electron-dot diagram is correct for CO 2? A) B) C) D) 19. An oxide ion (O 2 ) formed from an oxygen-18 atom contains exactly A) 8 protons, 8 neutrons, 10 electrons B) 8 protons, 10 neutrons, 8 electrons C) 8 protons, 10 neutrons, 10 electrons D) 10 protons, 8 neutrons, 8 electrons 20. An atom of argon rarely bonds to an atom of another element because an argon atom has A) 8 valence electrons B) 2 electrons in the first shell C) 3 electron shells D) 22 neutrons 21. What occurs as the atomic number of the elements in Period 2 increases? A) The nuclear charge of each successive atom decreases, and the atomic radius decreases. B) The nuclear charge of each successive atom decreases, and the atomic radius increases. C) The nuclear charge of each successive atom increases, and the atomic radius decreases. D) The nuclear charge of each successive atom increases, and the atomic radius increases. 22. Which sequence correctly places the elements in order of increasing ionization energy? A) H Li Na K B) I Br Cl F C) O S Se Te D) H Be Al Ga 23. The balanced equation below represents a molecule of bromine separating into two bromine atoms. What occurs during this change? A) Energy is absorbed and a bond is formed. B) Energy is absorbed and a bond is broken. C) Energy is released and a bond is formed. D) Energy is released and a bond is broken. 24. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom's ability to A) attract the electrons in the bond between the atom and another atom B) repel the electrons in the bond between the atom and another atom C) attract the protons of another atom D) repel the protons of another atom 25. Two atoms with an electronegativity difference of 0.4 form a bond that is A) ionic, because electrons are shared B) ionic, because electrons are transferred C) covalent, because electrons are shared D) covalent, because electrons are transferred

3 26. The table below contains data for compounds A, B, C, and D. Which list identifies the type of bonding characteristic of each compound's solid phase? A) A -ionic B -network C -metallic D-molecular B) A -network B -ionic C -molecular D-metallic C) A -metallic B -molecular C-network D-ionic D) A -ionic B -network C -molecular D-metallic 27. The transfer of electrons from sodium atoms to chlorine atoms results in the formation of A) coordinate covalent bonds B) polar covalent bonds C) nonpolar bonds D) ionic bonds 28. Which type of bonding involves positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) ionic B) nonpolar covalent C) polar covalent D) metallic 29. Which molecule is the most polar? A) H2O B) H2S C) H2Se D) H2Te 30. Which electron-dot structure represents a non-polar molecule? A) B) C) D)

4 31. The graph below represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat is added to a sample of H2O Which statement correctly describes the energy of the particles of the sample during interval BC? A) Potential energy decreases and average kinetic energy increases. B) Potential energy increases and average kinetic energy increases. C) Potential energy increases and average kinetic energy remains the same. D) Potential energy remains the same and average kinetic energy increases. 32. Solid A at 80ºC is immersed in liquid B at 60ºC. Which statement correctly describes the energy changes between A and B? A) A releases heat and B absorbs heat. B) A absorbs heat and B releases heat. C) Both A and B absorb heat. D) Both A and B release heat. 33. Which intermolecular force of attraction accounts for the relatively high boiling point of water? A) hydrogen bonding B) covalent bonding C) metallic bonding D) ionic bonding 34. When a salt dissolves in water, the water molecules are attracted by dissolved salt particles. This attraction is called A) atom-atom B) molecule-molecule C) ion-ion D) molecule-ion 35. A chemical bond between two atoms results from a simultaneous A) attraction by the protons for the neutrons B) attraction by the two nuclei for the electrons C) repulsion by the valence electrons of the atoms D) repulsion by the protons in the two nuclei 36. Which of the following liquids has the weakest van der Waal's forces of attraction between its molecules? A) Xe( ) B) Kr( ) C) Ne( ) D) He( ) 37. In the alkane series, each molecule contains A) only one double bond B) two double bonds C) one triple bond D) all single bonds 38. Which compound is an alkyne? A) C2H2 B) C2H4 C) C4H8 D) C4H10

5 39. Which structural formula represents a member of the alkene series? A) B) C) D) 40. Which equation represents a double replacement reaction? A) 2 Na + 2 H2O 2 NaOH + H2 B) CaCO3 CaO + CO2 C) LiOH + HCl LiCl + H2O D) CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O 41. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) «2 NH3(g) What type of reaction is shown above? A) synthesis B) decomposition C) single replacement D) double replacement 42. Which electron transition would result in the emission of energy? A) 3s to 4s B) 3p to 4p C) 3s to 3p D) 4p to 4s 43. What causes the emission of radiant energy that produces characteristic spectral lines? A) neutron absorption by the nucleus B) gamma ray emission from the nucleus C) movement of electrons to higher energy levels D) return of electrons to lower energy levels 44. A chloride ion differs from a chlorine atom in that the chloride ion has A) more protons B) fewer protons C) a larger radius D) a smaller radius 45. Which electron configuration represents an atom in an excited state? A) B) C) D) Which measurement contains three significant figures? A) 0.05 g B) g C) g D) g 47. What is the structure of a krypton-85 atom? A) 49 electrons, 49 protons, and 85 neutrons B) 49 electrons, 49 protons, and 49 neutrons C) 36 electrons, 36 protons, and 85 neutrons D) 36 electrons, 36 protons, and 49 neutrons 48. An experiment in which alpha particles were used to bombard thin sheets of gold foil led to the conclusion that an atom is composed mostly of A) empty space and has a small, negatively charged nucleus B) empty space and has a small, positively charged nucleus C) a large, dense, positively charged nucleus D) a large, dense, negatively charged nucleus 49. A student found the boiling point of a liquid to be. If the liquid's actual boiling point is, the experimental percent error is equal to A) B) C) D) 50. What type of bond exists in a molecule of hydrogen iodide? A) a polar covalent bond with an electronegativity difference of zero B) polar covalent bond with an electronegativity difference between zero and 1.7 C) a nonpolar covalent bond with an electronegativity difference of zero D) a nonpolar covalent bond with an electronegativity difference between zero and 1.7

6 51. Which compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds? A) HCl(g) B) NaCl(s) C) NH4Cl(s) D) CCl4( ) 52. In which liquid is hydrogen bonding strongest? A) HF( ) B) H2( ) C) CH4( ) D) NH3( ) 53. At 1 atmosphere of pressure, 25.0 grams of a compound at its normal boiling point is converted to a gas by the addition of 34,400 Joules. What is the heat of vaporization for this compound, in Joules per gram? A) 25.0 J/g B) 1376 J/g C) 2,260 J/g D) 34,400 J/g 54. Given the reaction: Fe + S FeS + energy Which statement about this reaction is true? A) It is endothermic. B) It is exothermic. C) The potential energy of the reactants is lower than the potential energy of the product. D) The potential energy of the reactants is the same as the potential energy of the product. 55. Which radioactive emanations have a charge of 2 +? A) alpha particles B) beta particles C) gamma rays D) neutrons 56. Given the reaction: This reaction is best described as A) alpha decay B) beta decay C) fission D) fusion 57. Which equation represents artificial transmutation? A) H2O H + + OH B) UF6 + 6 Na 6 NaF + U C) U Th + 4 2He D) 27 13Al + 4 2He 30 15P + 1 0n 58. The reaction: Is an example of A) single replacement B) analysis C) transmutation D) synthesis 59. All atoms of a given element must have the same A) atomic mass B) atomic weight C) mass number D) atomic number 60. All the isotopes of a given atom have A) the same mass number and the same atomic number B) the same mass number but different atomic numbers C) different mass numbers but the same atomic number D) different mass numbers and different atomic numbers 61. What is the total number of neutrons in an atom of an element that has a mass number of 19 and an atomic number of 9? A) 9 B) 10 C) 19 D) All elements in Period 3 have A) an atomic number of 3 B) 3 valence electrons C) 3 occupied principal energy levels (shells) D) an oxidation number of Which represents an unsaturated hydrocarbon? A) C2H4 B) C2H6 C) C3H8 D) C4H Which subatomic particles are found in the nucleus of an atom of beryllium? A) electrons and protons B) electrons and positrons C) neutrons and protons D) neutrons and electrons

7 65. The stability of isotopes is related to the ratio of which particles in the atoms? A) electrons and protons B) electrons and positrons C) neutrons and protons D) neutrons and positrons 66. Chlorine-37 can be represented as A) 17 35Cl B) 20 37Cl C) 35 20Cl D) 37 17Cl 67. The atomic mass of titanium is atomic mass units. This atomic mass represents the A) total mass of all the protons and neutrons in an atom of Ti B) total mass of all the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of Ti C) weighted average mass of the most abundant isotope of Ti D) weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of Ti 68. An orbital is defined as a region of the most probable location of A) an electron B) a neutron C) a nucleus D) a proton 69. The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic number B) atomic radius C) mass number D) neutron number 70. Most nonmetals have the properties of A) high ionization energy and poor electrical conductivity B) high ionization energy and good electrical conductivity C) low ionization energy and poor electrical conductivity D) low ionization energy and good electrical conductivity 71. Which substance at STP exists in the form of a monatomic gas? A) neon B) oxygen C) chlorine D) nitrogen 72. Which elements are both classified as metalloids? A) Ge and As B) Bi and Po C) B and C D) Si and P 73. Element X reacts with copper to form the compounds and. In which group on the Periodic Table is element X found? A) Group 1 B) Group 2 C) Group 13 D) Group Which physical characteristic of a solution may indicate the presence of a transition element? A) its density B) its color C) its effect on litmus D) the effect on phenolphthalein 75. What is the net charge of an ion that has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 10 electrons? A) 1+ B) 2+ C) 1- D) Which list of elements from Group 2 on the Periodic Table is arranged in order of increasing atomic radius? A) Be, Mg, Ca B) Ca, Mg, Be C) Ba, Ra, Sr D) Sr, Ra, Ba 77. An atom with the electron configuration would most likely A) decrease in size as it forms a positive ion B) increase in size as it forms a positive ion C) decrease in size as it forms a negative ion D) increase in size as it forms a negative ion 78. Which atom has the weakest attraction for the electrons in a bond with an H atom? A) Cl atom B) F atom C) O atom D) S atom 79. The amount of energy required to remove the outermost electron from a gaseous atom in the ground state is known as A) first ionization energy B) activation energy C) conductivity D) electronegativity

8 80. A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements that are A) physically mixed in a fixed proportion B) physically mixed in a variable proportion C) chemically combined in a fixed proportion D) chemically combined in a variable proportion 81. In the formula XSO4, the symbol X could represent the element A) Al B) Ar C) Mg D) Na 82. What is the chemical name for Na2SO3? A) sodium sulfite B) sodium sulfate C) sodium sulfide D) sodium thiosulfate 83. Which element has the lowest electronegativity value? A) F B) Fr C) Cl D) Cr 84. A sample of a substance has these characteristics: 86. What kind of bond is formed in the reaction shown below? A) metallic B) hydrogen bond C) network bond D) coordinate covalent bond 87. Which formula represents a nonpolar molecule containing polar covalent bonds? A) B) C) D) melting point of 984 K hard, brittle solid at room temperature poor conductor of heat and electricity as a solid good conductor of electricity as a liquid on in an aqueous solution This sample is classified as A) a metallic element B) a radioactive element C) a molecular compound D) an ionic compound 85. What is formed when two atoms of bromine bond together? A) a monatomic molecule B) a diatomic molecule C) a heterogeneous mixture D) a homogeneous mixture

9 Base your answers to questions 88 and 89 on the information below. A student investigated heat transfer using a bottle of water. The student placed the bottle in a room at 20.5 C. The student measured the temperature of the water in the bottle at 7 a.m. and again at 3 p.m. The data from the investigation are shown in the table below. 88. State the direction of heat transfer between the surroundings and the water in the bottle from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. 89. Show a numerical setup for calculating the change in the thermal energy of the water in the bottle from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. 90. Base your answer to the following question on the following information. Carbon and oxygen are examples of elements that exist in more than one form in the same phase. Graphite and diamond are two crystalline arrangements for carbon. The crystal structure of graphite is organized in layers. The bonds between carbon atoms within each layer of graphite are strong. The bonds between carbon atoms that connect different layers of graphite are weak because the shared electrons in these bonds are loosely held by carbon atoms. The crystal structure of diamond is a strong network of atoms in which the shared electrons are strongly held by the carbon atoms. Graphite is an electrical conductor, but diamond is not. At 25 C, graphite has a density of 2.2 g/cm 3 and diamond a density of 3.51 g/cm 3. The element oxygen can exist as diatomic molecules, O2, and as ozone, O3. At standard pressure the boiling point of ozone is 161 K. Calculate the volume, in cm 3, of a diamond at 25 C that has a mass of gram. Your response must include both a correct numerical setup and the calculated result.

10 Answer Key BM3 Practice 1. A 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. C 9. D 10. A 11. A 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. B 16. D 17. C 18. C 19. C 20. A 21. C 22. B 23. B 24. A 25. C 26. D 27. D 28. D 29. A 30. B 31. C 32. A 33. A 34. D 35. B 36. D 37. D 38. A 39. D 40. C 41. A 42. D 43. D 44. C 45. A 46. D 47. D 48. B 49. A 50. B 51. C 52. A 53. B 54. B 55. A 56. B 57. D 58. C 59. D 60. C 61. B 62. C 63. A 64. C 65. C 66. D 67. D 68. A 69. A 70. A 71. A 72. A 73. D 74. B 75. D 76. A 77. A 78. D 79. A 80. C 81. C 82. A 83. B 84. D 85. B 86. D 87. B 88. Heat was transferred from the surroundings to the water in the bottle. The water absorbed energy from the surroundings. 89. q = (800. g)(4.18 J/g ºC)(20.5ºC 12.5ºC) (800)(4.18)(8) 90.

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