# Buffer Solutions. Remember that p means - log of. When doing these problems you are looking to see

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1 Buffer Solutions 1. What is a buffer solution? A buffer solution is one that is able to resist (or minimize) changes in ph. In order to identify if you have a buffer solution you are looking for a solution that contains a weak acid/base conjugate pair in solution. For example: If a solution contained both HOCl and NaOCl it would be a buffer as it meets both criteria a weak acid (HOCl) and it s conjugate base ( OCl). Keep in mind that the base will be added in the form of a conjugate salt, in this cae NaOCl. The Na + is just a spectator ion and its presence does not make or break the formation of the buffer. 2. When solving problems for a buffer solution you can bypass the ICE chart and use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation instead. What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation? 3. Identify the buffer? Remember that p means - log of When doing these problems you are looking to see 1. Are all substances in solution weak? 2. Is there a conjugate pair?

2 a. HCl and NaClO 4 Answer the questions 1. No. HCl is a strong acid. This automatically disqualifies this solution as being a buffer. b. HClO and LiClO 2 1. Yes. Both HClO and ClO 2 are weak. 2. No. The conjugate base of HClO is ClO not ClO 2. This disqualifies this solution as being a buffer. c. HF and KF 1. Yes. Both HF and F are weak. 2. Yes. The conjugate base of HF is F Because both criteria are met, this solution is a buffer. d. CH 3 NH 2 and CH 3 NH 3 Cl 1. Yes. Both CH 3 NH 2 and CH 3 NH 3 + are weak. 2 Yes. The conjugate acid of CH 3 NH 2 is CH 3 NH 3 + Because both criteria are met, this solution is a buffer. 4. Determine the ph of the following solutions a L solution of 1.00M HNO 2 and 1.50M NaNO 2. (K a = 4 x 10-4 ) This is a buffer solution. HNO 2 is a weak acid and the salt contains its conjugate base NO 2. This means that we can is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to solve for the ph.

3 b. 25.0g of NH 3 and 40.0g NH 4 NO 3 in ml of water. (K a = 5.6 x ) This is a buffer solution. NH 3 is a weak base and the salt contains its conjugate acid NH 4 +. This means that we can use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to solve for the ph. We will just need to convert to the correct units first. Because the NO 3 is just a spectator ion, we are only really interested in the amount of conjugate base this salt provides, we convert from moles of NH 4 NO 3 to moles of NH 4 +. As you can see the volumes cancel out, since the volumes will ultimately cancel out, it is valid to simply plug in moles rather than molarity when using this formula.

4 5. What is buffer capacity? The amount of acid or base a buffer can absorb without having a significant change in ph. 6. Consider: 0.1 M NaF and 0.1M HF 1.0M NaF and 1.0M HF 0.01M NaF and 0.01M HF a. Which has the highest ph? They all have the same ph because they all have the same K a value and ratio of [base]: [acid]. So in a buffer the ph doesn t depend on how concentrated the acid and base are; it depends on their ratios to one another. b. Which has the highest buffer capacity? 1.0 M NaF and 1.0 M HF has the highest buffer capacity as it has the greatest concentration of acid/base. 7. Consider a solution that contains both NH 3 and NH 4 NO 3. If a solution has a ph = 8.5, calculate the ratio of K a = 5.6 x Looking at the solution you will notice that it contains a weak base and the salt contains its conjugate acid. That means that this solution is a buffer and we can use the Henderson - Hasselbalch equation.

5 All we have to do is plug the information provided into the equation and solve for the. 8. What volumes of 0.22M CH 3 COOH and 0.46M NaCH 3 COO must be mixed to prepare a 1.00L solution buffered at ph = 5.00? (K a = 1.76 x 10-5 ) Once again we start by determining whether or not this solution is a buffer. As it contains CH 3 COOH ( a weak acid) and a salt that contains its conjugate base (CH 3 COO ), this solution would be a buffer. This means that we can use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation plugging in all the relevant data.

6 Remember: sarahchem.com Since the volume of the solution is equal to 1.00L we know that the sum of the volume of base added plus the volume of acid added is equal to 1.00 L. Thus we can set up the following equation

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ELECTROLYTES BUT FIRST LET S REVIEW IONS AND BONDING What is the Lewis dot diagram for Magnesium? Mg 2 2- S What is the Lewis dot diagram for Sulfur? How would these 2 elements complete the octet rule?

### CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA

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### Acids and Bases. There are a number of definitions of acids and bases we will use two of the most useful definitions for nursing applications.

Acids and Bases We all know that acids taste sour and bases taste bitter but is this definition useful when you as a nurse will need to determine if a patient is in acidosis? There are a number of definitions

### NH 3 (aq) + HF (aq) F (aq) + NH 4. NaOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) NaOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) KOH (aq) + H 2 CO 3 (aq) KHCO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

Quiz 2.1 Acid-Base Definitions 1. The conjugate base of H 3O + is: A. H 3O B. H 2O C. H 3O D. H 3O + E. HO 2. What is the conjugate acid of C 6H 5NH 2? A. C 6H 5NH 3 + B. C 6H 5NH C. C 6H 5NH 4 + D. C

### Really useful information = H + = K w. K b. 1. Calculate the ph of a solution made by pouring 5.0 ml of 0.20 M HCl into 100. ml of water.

Acid Base Equilibrium Putting it all together HA H + + A H + A incomingsa HA +incomingsa Strong Acids HCl HNO3 HBr H2SO4 HI HClO4 HClO3 Really useful information K w H + OH K w M V M V B + H2O OH + HB

### 19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases > Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts Strengths of Acids and Bases

Chapter 19 Acids, Bases, and Salts 19.1 Acid-Base Theories 19.2 Hydrogen Ions and Acidity 19.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases 19.4 Neutralization Reactions 19.5 Salts in Solution 1 Copyright Pearson Education,

### #89 Notes Unit 11: Acids & Bases and Radiochemistry Ch. Acids, Bases, and Radioactivity

#89 Notes Unit 11: Acids & Bases and Radiochemistry Ch. Acids, Bases, and Radioactivity Common Strong Acids Common Strong Bases HCl hydrochloric acid Group #1 + OH HNO 3 nitric acid NaOH, KOH etc. H 2

### 2/4/2016. Chapter 15. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria The Common Ion Effect

Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 17 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 15 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento,

### Chapter 6 Acids and Bases

Chapter 6 Acids and Bases Introduction Brønsted acid-base reactions are proton transfer reactions. Acids donate protons to bases. In the process, the acid is converted into its conjugate base and the base