8. Relax and do well.

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1 CHEM Exam II KEY ohn II. Gelder October 23, 1997 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 9 different pages. The last four pages include a periodic table, a solubility table, a table of enthalpy's of formation, an activity series and some useful equations. All work should be done in this booklet. 2. PRINT your name, TA's name and your lab section number now in the space at the top of this sheet. DO NOT SEPARATE THESE PAGES. 3. Answer all questions that you can and whenever called for show your work clearly. Your method of solving problems should pattern the approach used in lecture. You do not have to show your work for the multiple choice or short answer questions. 4. No credit will be awarded if your work is not shown in problems Point values are shown next to the problem number. 6. Budget your time for each of the questions. Some problems may have a low point value yet be very challenging. If you do not recognize the solution to a question quickly, skip it, and return to the question after completing the easier problems. 7. Look through the exam before beginning; plan your work; then begin. 8. Relax and do well. Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 TOTAL SCORES (34) (25) (21) (20) (100)

2 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 2 (12) 1. Write the chemical formula(s) of the product(s) and balance the following reactions. Identify all products phases as either (g)as, (l)iquid, (s)olid or (aq)ueous. If no reaction occurs write NR. a) 2Al(s) + Fe 2 O 3 (s) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2Fe(l) b) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NH 4 Cl(aq) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2NaCl(aq) c) Mg(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) d) 3Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) 6NaNO 3 (aq) + Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (s) (12) 2. Write the ionic and net ionic chemical equations for 1b) and 1d). 1b) Ionic equation: 2NH 4 + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + 2Na + (aq)) + 2Cl (aq) 2NH 4 + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + 2Na + (aq)) + 2Cl (aq) Net Ionic equation: 2NH 4 + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + 2Cl (aq) 2NH 4 + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + All ions cancel..no net ionic equation...no 2Cl (aq) reaction. 1d) Ionic equation: 6Na + (aq) + 3CO 3 2 (aq) + 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 6NO 3 (aq) 6Na + (aq) + Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (s) + 6NO 3 (aq) Net Ionic equation: 6Na + (aq) + 3CO 3 2 (aq) + 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 6NO 3 (aq) 6Na + (aq) + Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (s) + 6NO 3 (aq) 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 3CO 3 2 (aq) Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (s) (10) 3. An explosive, trinitrotoluene, is prepared by reacting toluene with nitric acid according to the equation C 7 H 8 (l) + 3HNO 3 (aq) C 7 H 5 (NO 2 ) 3 (l) + 3H 2 O(l) What mass of toluene and nitric acid are required to produce 50.0 g of trinitrotoluene? 50.0 g TNT 1 mol = Mol TNT 227 g Mol TNT 1 mol C 7 H 8 1 mol TNT 92.0 g 1 mol C 7 H = 20.3 g C 7 H Mol TNT 3molHNO 3 1molTNT 63.0 g 1 mol HNO = 41.6 g HNO 3 3

3 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 3 (15) 4. Boric acid is formed in the reaction between boron trifluoride and water. The reaction is, 4BF 3 + 3H 2 O H 3 BO 3 + 3HBF 4 What is the maximum number of grams of boric acid which can be obtained when 150. g of boron trifluoride is reacted with 35.0 g of water? 150. g BF 3 1 mol BF g = 2.21 mol B 35.0 g H 2 O 1 mol H 2 O = g mol H 2 O 2.21 mol BF 3 3 mol H 2 O = 1.66 mol H 4 mol BF 2 O required mol H 2 O required and 1.94 mol H 2 O are available. So the water is in excess and BF 3 is limiting mol BF 3 1 mol H 3 BO g 4 mol BF 3 1 mol H 3 BO = 34.1 g H 3 BO 3 3 Calculate the final mass of both reactants after the reaction has gone to completion. 0 g of BF 3 left 1.66 mol H 2 O 18.0 g H 2 O 1 mol H 2 O = 29.9 g H O reacted g 29.9 g = 5.1 g H 2 O remain unreacted. (10) 5. Calculate the mass of oxalic acid that reacts with mls of 2.44 x 10-3 M KMnO 4 in excess sulfuric acid. The equation which describes the reaction between oxalic acid, potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid is, 2KMnO 4 (aq) + 5H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + 3H 2 SO 4 (aq) K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2MnSO 4 (aq) + 10CO 2 (g) + 8H 2 O(l) mls 1 L 1000 mls 2.44 x 10 3 mol KMnO 4 1 L 5 mol H 2 C 2 O 4 2 mol KMnO g 1 mol H 2 C 2 O g of H 2 C 2 O 4

4 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 4 (9) 6. The industrial preparation of nitric acid, the Ostwald Process, converts ammonia to nitric acid. Using the following standard enthalpy of reaction data and Hess' Law determine the enthalpy for production of nitric acid from ammonia. (Note: While ammonia and nitric acid are the only two substances mentioned it should be realized other substances may be needed to obtain a balanced chemical equation which describes the conversion of ammonia to nitric acid.) Reaction 4NH 3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 4NO(g) + 6H 2 O(g) 2NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) 3NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) 2HNO 3 (aq) + NO(g) H 907 k 114 k 182 k Clearly demonstrate how the given equations are to be manipulated to obtain the final equation. 4NH 3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 4NO(g) + 6H 2 O (g) 907 k 3 (2NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g)) 114 k 3 2 (3NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) 2HNO 3 (aq ) + NO(g)) 182 k 2 4NH 3 (g) + 8O 2 (g) 4HNO 3 (aq ) + 4H 2 O (g) 1613 k (12)7a. When a sulfide is combusted sulfur dioxide is a product. Calculate H rxn for the combustion of zinc sulfide. 2ZnS(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2ZnO(s) + 2SO 2 (g) H rxn = Σ H f (products) - Σ H f (reactants) H rxn = 2 mol -348 k mol + 2 mol -297 k mol - 2 mol -206 k + 3 mol mol 0 k = -878 k (2 mol ZnS) mol 1

5 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 5 (20)8a g of water at 33.0 C are added to 24.0 g of water, in a calorimeter, at 21.0 C. The final temperature of the mixture is 27.8 C. Calculate the heat capacity of the calorimeter. q hot = (q cold + q calorimeter ) g (27.8 C 33.0 C) = (4.184 g C g C 24.0 g (27.8 C 21.0 C) + HC calorimeter (27.8 C 21.0 C)) 979 = (682 + HC calorimeter 6.8 C) HC calorimeter = C = 43.7 C b g of KOH are added to the same calorimeter used in the experiment in part a) above which now holds 50.0 mls of water. The initial temperature of the water in the calorimeter 22.6 C. If the final temperature of the solution in the calorimeter after adding the KOH is 31.2 C, calculate the molar heat of solution for KOH. (Assume the specific heat of the solution is equal to the specific heat of pure water.) q reaction = (q solution + q calorimeter ) q reaction = (4.184 g C g (31.2 C 22.6 C) C C)) 2246 = 1.98 g KOH 56.0 g 1 mol KOH = 63.5 k mol 1 (31.2 C 22.6

6 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE IA 1 H Li IIA 4 Be Na Mg K Ca Rb Sr Cs Ba Fr (223) Ra IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA B C N O F 9 10 Ne IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIII IB IIB Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe (98) La Periodic Table of the Elements Hf Al Si P S Cl VIIIA 2 Ta W Re 75 Os Ir Pt Au Hg 80 Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn (209) (210) Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (261) (262) (263) (262) (265) (266) He Ar (222) Lanthanides Actinides Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu (145) Th Pa U Np Pu AmCm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (260) Useful Information Specific heat of H 2 O(s) = 2.09 g C Specific heat of H 2 O(l) = g C Specific heat of H 2 O(g) = 1.84 g C Heat of fusion of H 2 O(s) = 6.01 k mol Heat of vaporization of H 2 O(l) = k mol R = L. atm mol. K or R = mol. K q(heat flow) = mass specific heat T q reaction = (q calorimeter + q solution ) q reaction = (q calorimeter + q water ) H rxn = Σ n H f (products) - Σ m H f (reactants) H = E + nrt

7 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 7 Solubility Table Ion Solubility Exceptions NO 3 soluble none ClO 4 soluble none Cl soluble except Ag +, Hg 2+ 2, *Pb 2+ I soluble except Ag +, Hg 2+ 2, Pb 2+ SO 2 4 soluble except Ca 2+, Ba 2+, Sr 2+, Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Ag + CO 3 2 insoluble except Group IA and NH 4 + PO 3 4 insoluble + except Group IA and NH 4 - OH insoluble except Group IA, *Ca 2+, Ba 2+, Sr 2+ S 2 insoluble except Group IA, IIA and NH + 4 Na + soluble none NH + 4 soluble none K + soluble none *slightly soluble

8 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 8 Table of Standard Heats of Formation Substance H f Substance H f and State (k/mol) and St ate (k/mol) C(s) (graphite) 0 HCl(g) C(s) (diamond) 2 HBr(g) CO(g) HI(g) 26.5 CO 2 (g) I 2 (g) CH 4 (g) 75 O 2 (g) 0 CH 3 OH(g) -201 O(g) 249 CH 3 OH(l) -239 O 3 (g) 143 H 2 CO(g) -116 CCl 4 (l) N 2 (g) 0 HCOOH(g) -363 NH 3 (g) -46 HCN(g) NH 3 (aq) -80 CS 2 (g) NH 4 + (aq) -132 CS 2 (l) 89.7 N 2 H 3 CH 3 (l) 54 C 2 H 2(g) 227 N 2 H 4 (l) 50.6 C 2 H 4 (g) 52 NO(g) CH 3 CHO(g) -166 NO 2 (g) C 2 H 5 OH(l) -278 N 2 O(g) 82.0 C 2 H 5 O 2 N(g) -533 N 2 O 4 (g) 9.16 C 2 H 6 (g) N 2 O 4 (l) 20 C 3 H 6 (g) 20.9 HNO 3 (aq) C 3 H 8 (g) -104 HNO 3 (l) C 4 H 10 (g) -126 NH 4 ClO 4 (s) -295 CH 2 = CHCN(l) 152 CH 3 COOH(l) -484 S 2 Cl 2 (g) -18 C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) SO 2 (g) TiO 2 (s) -945 H 2 S(g) Cl 2 (g) 0 SOCl 2 (g) -213 Cl 2 (aq) -23 Cl - (aq) -167 SiCl 4 (g) -657 SiO 2 (s) SiF 4 (g) H 2 (g) 0 H(g) 217 TiO 2 (s) H + (aq) 0 TiCl 4 (g) -763 OH - (aq) -230 H 2 O(l) -286 ZnO(s) -348 H 2 O(g) -242 ZnS(s) -206

9 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 9 Metal Half-Reaction Reaction Lithium Li Li + + e Potassium K K + + e Barium Ba Ba e Calcium Ca Ca e Sodium Na Na + + e Magnesium Mg Mg e Aluminum Al Al e Manganese Mn Mn e Zinc Zn Zn e Chromium Cr Cr e Iron Fe Fe e Cobalt Co Co e Nickel Ni Ni e Tin Sn Sn e Lead Pb Pb e Hydrogen H 2 2H + + 2e Copper Cu Cu e Silver Ag Ag + + e Mercury Hg Hg e Platinum Pt Pt e Gold Au Au e

10 CHEM 1314 EXAM II PAGE 10

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