# A student wanted to make 11.0 g of copper chloride

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1 Q1.A student investigated the reactions of copper carbonate and copper oxide with dilute hydrochloric acid. In both reactions one of the products is copper chloride. (a) Describe how a sample of copper chloride crystals could be made from copper carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. (4) (b) A student wanted to make 11.0 g of copper chloride. The equation for the reaction is: CuCO 3 + 2HCl CuCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Relative atomic masses, A r : H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; Cl = 35.5; Cu = 63.5 Calculate the mass of copper carbonate the student should react with dilute hydrochloric acid to make 11.0 g of copper chloride. Mass of copper carbonate =... g (4) (c) The percentage yield of copper chloride was 79.1 %. Page 2

2 Calculate the mass of copper chloride the student actually produced. Actual mass of copper chloride produced =... g (d) Look at the equations for the two reactions: Reaction 1 Reaction 2 CuCO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) CuCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq) CuCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Reactive formula masses: CuO = 79.5; HCl = 36.5; CuCl 2 = 134.5; H 2 O = 18 The percentage atom economy for a reaction is calculated using: Calculate the percentage atom economy for Reaction 2. Percentage atom economy =... % (3) Page 3

3 (e) The atom economy for Reaction 1 is %. Compare the atom economies of the two reactions for making copper chloride. Give a reason for the difference. (1) (Total 14 marks) Page 4

4 Q2.Sodium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid: Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 A student investigated the volume of carbon dioxide produced when different masses of sodium carbonate were reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid. This is the method used. 1. Place a known mass of sodium carbonate in a conical flask. 2. Measure 10 cm 3 of dilute hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder. 3. Pour the acid into the conical flask. 4. Place a bung in the flask and collect the gas until the reaction is complete. (a) The student set up the apparatus as shown in the figure below. Identify the error in the way the student set up the apparatus. Describe what would happen if the student used the apparatus shown. (b) The student corrected the error. The student s results are shown in the table below. Mass of sodium carbonate in g Volume of carbon dioxide gas in cm Page 5

5 The result for 0.29 g of sodium carbonate is anomalous. Suggest what may have happened to cause this anomalous result. (1) (c) Why does the volume of carbon dioxide collected stop increasing at 95.0 cm 3? (1) (d) What further work could the student do to be more certain about the minimum mass of sodium carbonate needed to produce 95.0 cm 3 of carbon dioxide? (1) (e) The carbon dioxide was collected at room temperature and pressure. The volume of one mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure is 24.0 dm 3. How many moles of carbon dioxide is 95.0 cm 3? Page 6

6 Give your answer in three significant figures.... mol (f) Suggest one improvement that could be made to the apparatus used that would give more accurate results. Give a reason for your answer. (g) One student said that the results of the experiment were wrong because the first few bubbles of gas collected were air. A second student said this would make no difference to the results. Explain why the second student was correct. (Total 11 marks) Page 7

7 Q3.This question is about chemical analysis. (a) A student has solutions of three compounds, X, Y and Z. The student uses tests to identify the ions in the three compounds. The student records the results of the tests in the table. Test Compound Flame test Add sodium hydroxide solution Add hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution Add nitric acid and silver nitrate solution X no colour green precipitate white precipitate no reaction Y yellow flame no reaction no reaction yellow precipitate Z no colour brown precipitate no reaction cream precipitate Identify the two ions present in each compound, X, Y and Z. X Y Z (3) (b) A chemist needs to find the concentration of a solution of barium hydroxide. Barium hydroxide solution is an alkali. The chemist could find the concentration of the barium hydroxide solution using two different methods. Method 1 An excess of sodium sulfate solution is added to 25 cm 3 of the barium hydroxide solution. A precipitate of barium sulfate is formed. The precipitate of barium sulfate is filtered, dried and weighed. The concentration of the barium hydroxide solution is calculated from the mass of barium sulfate produced. Page 8

8 Method 2 25 cm 3 of the barium hydroxide solution is titrated with hydrochloric acid of known concentration. The concentration of the barium hydroxide solution is calculated from the result of the titration. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. (5) (Total 8 marks) Page 9

9 Q4.Etching is a way of making printed circuit boards for computers. Dario Lo Presti/Shutterstock Printed circuit boards are made when copper sheets are etched using iron(iii) chloride solution. Where the copper has been etched, only plastic remains. (a) Copper is a good conductor of electricity. Explain why. (b) Iron(III) chloride can be produced by the reaction shown in the equation: 2 Fe + 3 Cl 2 2 FeCl 3 (i) Calculate the maximum mass of iron(iii) chloride (FeCl 3) that can be produced from g of iron. Relative atomic masses (A r): Cl = 35.5; Fe = 56. Page 10

10 Maximum mass of iron(iii) chloride =... g (3) (ii) The actual mass of iron(iii) chloride (FeCl 3) produced was 24.3 g. Calculate the percentage yield. (If you did not answer part (b)(i) assume that the maximum theoretical mass of iron(iii) chloride (FeCl 3) is 28.0 g. This is not the correct answer to part (b)(i).) Percentage yield =...% (1) (Total 6 marks) Page 11

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