Ms. Agostine s College Prep Chemistry Midterm Exam Review Packet for

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1 Ms. Agostine s College Prep Chemistry Midterm Exam Review Packet for MIDTERM EXAM SCHEDULE for : Review Day: FRIDAY, JANUARY 16, 2015 Tuesday, January 20, 2015: Midterm Exams Wednesday, January 21, 2015: Midterm Exams Thursday, January 22, 2015: Midterm Exams Friday, January 23, 2015: Midterm Exams Monday, January 26, 2015: Midterm Exams Tuesday, January 27, 2015: Go over midterm exams GRADING: FINAL COURSE GRADING SCALE: 40% MARKING PERIOD 1 GRADE 40% MARKING PERIOD 2 GRADE + 20% MIDTERM EXAM 100% OF YOUR SEMESTER GRADE HELPFUL HINTS: STUDYING HELPS!!! DON T WAIT UNTIL THE NIGHT BEFORE TO STUDY! Reread textbook chapters! Go over notes, outlines, pcas, and labs while highlighting key terms and equations. o Print out notes from my website! When printing, print handouts, 6 or 9 slides per page, black and white only to conserve ink! o Reread notes, outlines and review packets. Take home your portfolio folders to study Review old quizzes, homework s, and labs. o Come and study during lunch or study halls. o Make a separate outline of what you did not understand well. o Fill in the outline with info from text book, notes, etc. Redo sample and practice problems as well as section reviews from the book and end of chapters. Always remember to check your units. Use the E in the calculator to represent x 10 ^ Ask questions; come to class prepared to review! Ms. Agostine: with questions GOOD LUCK! 1

2 MIDTERM CHAPTERS AND TOPICS TO REVIEW Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry 1. Chemistry is a Physical Science a. Chemistry b. Organic chemistry c. Inorganic chemistry d. Physical chemistry e. Analytical chemistry f. Biochemistry 2. Thinking Like a Scientist a. Scientific Method i. Observation ii. Hypothesis iii. Experiment iv. Conclusion v. Theory vi. Scientific Law 3. Sample Questions: a. What are the five branches of chemistry? b. What is the scientific method? What are the steps of the scientific method? Chapter 2 Matter and Change 1. Matter a. Mass b. Substance c. Physical property d. States of matter i. Solid ii. Liquid iii. Gas/vapor e. Physical Change 2. Mixtures a. Classifying mixtures i. Mixture ii. Heterogeneous mixture 2

3 iii. Homogeneous mixture iv. Solutions v. Phase vi. Distillation 3. Elements and Compounds a. Elements b. Compounds c. Chemical symbol 4. Chemical reactions a. Chemical property b. Chemical change/reaction c. Reactants d. Products e. Yields f. Subscripts g. Coefficients h. Aqueous i. Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter 5. Sample Questions: a. What is matter? What is a substance? What are the three states of matter? b. What is the difference between a physical and chemical property? Physical and chemical change? c. How are mixtures classified? Distinguish between the different types of mixtures. How are mixtures separated? d. Distinguish between elements and compounds. e. What are the parts of a chemical equation? What is the Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter? Chapter 3 Scientific Measurement 1. Importance of Measurement a. Qualitative measurements b. Quantitative measurements c. Scientific notation 2. Uncertainty in Measurements a. Accuracy b. Precision 3

4 c. Percent error i. Equation =? ii. Accepted value iii. Experimental value d. Significant figures i. Rounding 3. International System of Units a. International System of Units, SI b. Base Units of Length, Mass, Time, Temperature c. Metric Prefixes: i. pico, nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, hecto, kilo, mega d. Derived Units i. Volume: 1. formula? 2. 1 ml = 1 g H 2 O e. Conversion Factor f. Mass vs Weight = What s the difference? 4. Density a. Equation & Units? i. Density of a reference solution of water = b. Hydrometer 5. Temperature a. Celsius vs. Fahrenheit scale b. Kelvin scale i. Convert to Celsius and back c. Absolute zero 6. Sample Questions: a. Distinguish between a qualitative and quantitative measurement. What are the rules for significant figures? b. What is scientific notation? Distinguish between accuracy and precision. What is the equation for percent error? c. What are the SI base units for length, mass, time and temperature? What is an example of a derived unit? d. What is the equation for density? What is the unit for density? What is specific gravity? Equation for specific gravity? 4

5 e. What is absolute zero? How do we convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit? Kelvin and Celsius? Chapter 4 Problem Solving in Chemistry 1. What do I do now? ACE Method: Analyze, Calculate, and Evaluate 2. Conversion Problems a. Conversion factors b. Dimensional analysis 3. Sample Questions: a. How many kilometers is 672 cm? b. How many millimeters is 45 kilometers? c. How many m/s is 100 km/hr? Chapter 5 Atomic Structure of the Periodic Table 1. Atoms a. Democritus b. John Dalton c. Dalton s Atomic Theory i. 5 postulates 2. Structure of the Atom a. Atom b. Subatomic particles c. Electrons i. Cathode ray tube ii. JJ Thomson iii. Plum Pudding Model d. Protons i. Ernest Rutherford ii. Gold-Foil Experiment iii. Discovery of Nucleus e. Neutrons i. James Chadwick ii. Relative weight iii. Atomic mass unit (amu) 5

6 3. Distinguishing Between Atoms a. Atomic number (Z) i. Calculate # of electrons b. Mass number i. Formula to calculate number of neutrons = c. Isotopes i. Hyphen notation ii. Nuclear symbol iii. Relative abundance iv. nuclides d. Average Atomic Mass i. Equation =? 4. The Periodic Table: Organizing the Elements a. Dmitri Mendeleev i. Organized how:? b. Henry Moseley i. Organized how & why? c. Periodic Law d. Metals e. Nonmetals f. Metalloids g. Line of Demarcation/Stairs/Steps h. Groups: i. Alkali Metals ii. Alkali Earth Metals iii. Transition Metals iv. Inner Transition Metals 1. Lanthanide Series 2. Actinide Series v. Halogens vi. Noble Gases 5. Sample Questions: a. What are the five postulates of Dalton s Atomic Theory? b. What did each of the following men do to advance understanding of the structure of an atom? Dalton, JJ Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr 6

7 c. What are the subatomic particles, their mass and charges? Define: atomic mass, mass number and atomic number. d. What is an isotope? How is average atomic mass calculated? e. Distinguish between the way Moseley and Mendeleev organized the periodic table. What is Periodic Law? f. What are the three types of elements in the periodic table and where are they located? What are groups? Periods? Chapter 13 Electrons in Atoms 1. Models of the Atoms a. Evolution of the Model: Democritis, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr b. Bohr i. Energy levels c. Schrodinger i. Quantum mechanical model ii. Atomic Orbitals 1. s, p, d, & f 2. Electron Arrangement in Atoms a. Electron Configurations i. Aufbau principle ii. Pauli-Exclusion Principle iii. Hund s Rule b. Writing electron configurations i. Rewriting orbitals ii. Noble gas configurations iii. Exceptions to the rules iv. Drawing Aufbau on your own v. Use the blocks of the periodic table to write notations 7

8 3. Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model a. Properties of Light i. Origin ii. Crest iii. Trough iv. Wavelength v. Amplitude vi. Frequency & SI Unit: b. Electromagnetic Radiation c. Electromagnetic spectrum i. relationship: equation: ii. c =? d. Photoelectric effect e. Quantum f. Max Planck i. equation =? ii. constant? g. Emission-Line Spectrum i. ground state ii. excited state h. continuous spectrum 4. Sample Questions: a. Describe the model of the atom proposed by each of the following men: Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Schrodinger b. What are energy levels? Sublevels? Orbitals? c. What are the rules used for writing electron configuration diagrams? d. What are the types of electromagnetic radiation? e. What is the equation for the relationship between wavelength and frequency? f. What is the equation for the relationship between energy and frequency? g. What is an Emission-Line Spectrum? What is the difference between the ground state and excited state? 8

9 Chapter 14 Chemical Periodicity 1. Classification of the Elements a. Review the 4 major blocks of the periodic table & how it relates to electron configurations 2. Periodic Trends a. Atomic Radius b. Ionization energy c. Electron affinity d. Ionic Radius i. Size of cations ii. Size of anions e. Electronegativity f. Know how to organize them in increasing/decreasing orders 3. Sample Questions: a. What are the 4 major blocks of the periodic table and how do they relate to electron configurations? b. What are the major trends within the periodic table and how do they vary within a period and group? Chapter 6 Chemical Names and Formulas 1. Introduction to Chemical Bonding a. Molecules b. Molecular compounds c. Ions i. Cations ii. Anions d. Ionic compounds 2. Representing Chemical Compounds a. Chemical formulas b. Molecular formulas c. Diatomic elements i. 7 d. Formula Units e. Laws of definite proportions f. Law of Multiple proportions 9

10 3. Ionic Charges a. Know the common ion sheet! b. Polyatomic ions 4. Ionic Compounds a. Criss-cross method b. Nomenclature rules i. Ionic compounds & Stock method 5. Molecular Compounds and Acids a. Nomenclature rules i. Covalent compounds & Greek prefixes ii. Acids hydroacids & oxyacids 6. Sample Questions: a. Distinguish between the following: molecules, molecular compounds, ions, ionic compounds. b. Distinguish between the following: chemical formulas, molecular formulas, formula units. c. What are the seven diatomic elements? d. What is the Law of Definite Proportions? The Law of Multiple Proportions? e. What is the crisscross method? What are the rules for naming ionic compounds? (Stock method?) f. What are the rules for naming molecular (covalent) compounds? What are the rules for naming acids? Chapter 15 Ionic Bonding & Ionic Compounds 1. Electron Configurations in Ionic Bonding g. Valence electrons h. Electron Dot Structures i. Octet Rule j. Lewis Structures 2. Bonding in Metals a. Metallic Bonds b. Malleable d. Ductile e. Alloy 10

11 4. Sample Questions: a. What is the definition of an ionic compound? What are some properties of ionic compounds? b. Define the following: valence electrons, electron dot structures, octet rule, Lewis structures. Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding 1. Nature of Covalent Bonding a. Structural Formulas b. Silngle covalent bond c. Double & Triple Covalent bonds 2. Bonding Theory a. VSEPR Theory i. Linear, Angular/Bent, Pyramidal, Tetrahedral 3. Sample Questions: a. What is the definition of a covalent bond? Distinguish between a single, double and triple covalent bond. b. What is VESPR Theory? What are the four molecular shapes as described using VESPR? 11

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