Inelastic soft x-ray scattering, fluorescence and elastic radiation

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Inelastic soft x-ray scattering, fluorescence and elastic radiation"

Transcription

1 Inelastic soft x-ray scattering, fluorescence and elastic radiation What happens to the emission (or fluorescence) when the energy of the exciting photons changes? The emission spectra (can) change. One can usually distinguish easily the following contributions to the spectra: Elastic contribution (same energy as incoming photons). Inelastic features (energy changes and tracks excitation energy). Fluorescence features (at fixed energy). Note: When approaching the Fluorescence threshold, the inelastic scattering features evolve into fluorescence. The spectra in the graph are offset in y-direction for clarity Counts 3000 RIXS ev XAS TEY PFY calc ev Emission Energy [ev]

2 Emission Energy axis versus Energy loss axis d 10 4f 0 3d 9 4f 1 excitations for LaAlO 3 (single crystal): ev ev 16.3 ev Counts ev ev 866 ev 871 ev 866 ev 861 ev 856 ev 851 ev ev 846 ev 841 ev 836 ev 831 ev 826 ev Emission energy [ev] Note that on the new energy loss scale: Energy losses appear at fixed energy. Elastic features appear at 0 ev. Fluorescence features track energy. Electron loss scale: hν loss =hν exc -hν emission ev Counts ev ev ev ev ev ev ev ev ev Energy loss [ev]

3 From emission (XES) to Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) Conduction band Valence band hω Photon in E F E Photon out hω = hω - E Advantages of RIXS: charge-neutral probing low-energy excitations site selectivity bulk and buried structures band dispersion no core state lifetime broadening ultra-fast dynamics Core level Formalism of scattering as a one-step process is described by Kramers-Heisenberg formula: F(ω,ω ) = Σ Σ f m <f D m><m D g> E g + hω -E m -iγ m 2 δ(ε g + hω Ε f hω ) Any possible transition that can be excited directly can also occur as an energy loss E. The transitions are only governed by (1) Selection rules. (2) Energy and momentum conservation.

4 XES Resonant Inelastic Scattering of Dy 2 O 3 TEY Moewes et al., PRB 60, (2000) 1x10 4 2x10 4 hν exc = ev 6 K 17/2 hν exc = ev PFY calc. Counts 5x ev ev Counts 1x ev 6 I 15/2 ; 4 M 17/ ev 4 I 15/2 ; 4 M 17/2 ; 4 L 17/ ev ev ev Emission Energy [ev] 165 Electron configuration Dy: Energy loss [ev] Strong and resonant loss features. Intensity depends on selected intermediate state (Kramers-Heisenberg formula). 4d 10 5p 6 4f 9 ( 6 H 15/2 ) 4d 9 5p 6 4f 10 4d 10 5p 6 (4f 9 ) * Net transition 4f 9 (4f 9 ) * 6 H 13/2 Dy core levels Dy bands d 4s 4 p 4d 5s 5p 4 f 5d 6s

5 Bandmapping in Graphite with XES absorption Experiment XAS C Kα XES Absorption (Excitation) Counts (arb. units) Energy (ev) Calculation Graphite E exc Emission Energy (ev) Emission (Relaxation) Excitation Energy (ev) Γ M K Γ A L Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy can map the band structure (for light elements).

6 One example of hard X-ray fluorescence Fluorescence spectroscopy (10 kev) of impurities on a Si wafer. From energy and intensity of the spectrum the type (element) and concentration of impurities can be determined (Ni: 10 fg). Due to I fluo ~Z 4 this is less feasible for lighter elements. In the graph Si Kα (1740 ev) is not in the detector window. For energetically not too deep core holes the exact energy of the core hole depends on the exact chemical environment. In this case even more details about the chemical structure can be obtained (like the chemical valence of the elements).

7 Photo Electron Spectroscopy (PES)

8 The principle of PES Tunable photons are used for excitation and the emitted electrons are monitored and their kinetic energy is determined. Other ways of excitation are photons from an X-ray source (XPS), ultra-violet photons (UPS) [or even electrons (EELS or electron energy loss spectroscopy)]. Due to the short attenuation length of electrons (~10Å), PES is a strongly surface sensitive technique.

9 Reminder: Electron processes are dominating (for lighter elements) Radiative transitions are competing with non-radiative transitions (Auger and Autoionization). In soft x-ray range radiationless transitions (Auger) are dominant.

10 PhotoElectron Spectr. (PES) or X-ray Photoelectr. Spectr. (XPS) T. Greber, 4 th PSI Summer School, 2005

11 The principle of PES T. Greber, 4 th PSI Summer School, 2005

12

13 Auger versus photoelectrons How can one distinguish Auger electrons and Photoelectrons?

14 Band structure and density of states of three semiconductors

Photon Interaction. Spectroscopy

Photon Interaction. Spectroscopy Photon Interaction Incident photon interacts with electrons Core and Valence Cross Sections Photon is Adsorbed Elastic Scattered Inelastic Scattered Electron is Emitted Excitated Dexcitated Stöhr, NEXAPS

More information

Probing Matter: Diffraction, Spectroscopy and Photoemission

Probing Matter: Diffraction, Spectroscopy and Photoemission Probing Matter: Diffraction, Spectroscopy and Photoemission Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Why X-rays? VUV? What can we hope to learn? 1 Photon Interaction Incident photon interacts

More information

Energy Spectroscopy. Ex.: Fe/MgO

Energy Spectroscopy. Ex.: Fe/MgO Energy Spectroscopy Spectroscopy gives access to the electronic properties (and thus chemistry, magnetism,..) of the investigated system with thickness dependence Ex.: Fe/MgO Fe O Mg Control of the oxidation

More information

Energy Spectroscopy. Excitation by means of a probe

Energy Spectroscopy. Excitation by means of a probe Energy Spectroscopy Excitation by means of a probe Energy spectral analysis of the in coming particles -> XAS or Energy spectral analysis of the out coming particles Different probes are possible: Auger

More information

X-ray Energy Spectroscopy (XES).

X-ray Energy Spectroscopy (XES). X-ray Energy Spectroscopy (XES). X-ray fluorescence as an analytical tool for element analysis is based on 3 fundamental parameters: A. Specificity: In determining an x-ray emission energy E certainty

More information

Electron Spectroscopy

Electron Spectroscopy Electron Spectroscopy Photoelectron spectroscopy is based upon a single photon in/electron out process. The energy of a photon is given by the Einstein relation : E = h ν where h - Planck constant ( 6.62

More information

X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy Axel Knop-Gericke knop@fhi-berlin.mpg.de Core Level Spectroscopy Anders Nilsson. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 126 (2002) 3-42 Creation of core holes

More information

An introduction to X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy

An introduction to X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy An introduction to X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy belongs to a broad class of spectroscopic techniques, collectively called, electron spectroscopy. In general terms,

More information

Interaction X-rays - Matter

Interaction X-rays - Matter Interaction X-rays - Matter Pair production hν > M ev Photoelectric absorption hν MATTER hν Transmission X-rays hν' < hν Scattering hν Decay processes hν f Compton Thomson Fluorescence Auger electrons

More information

Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies.

Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies. PY482 Lecture. February 28 th, 2013 Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies. Kevin E. Smith Department of Physics Department of Chemistry Division

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Louis Scudiero http://www.wsu.edu/~scudiero; 5-2669 Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) The basic principle of the photoelectric effect was enunciated

More information

DR KAZI SAZZAD MANIR

DR KAZI SAZZAD MANIR DR KAZI SAZZAD MANIR PHOTON BEAM MATTER ENERGY TRANSFER IONISATION EXCITATION ATTENUATION removal of photons from the beam by the matter. ABSORPTION SCATTERING TRANSMISSION Taking up the energy from the

More information

An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering. School of Chemistry The University of Sydney

An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering. School of Chemistry The University of Sydney An Introduction to Diffraction and Scattering Brendan J. Kennedy School of Chemistry The University of Sydney 1) Strong forces 2) Weak forces Types of Forces 3) Electromagnetic forces 4) Gravity Types

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS 2016 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 2: UPS Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture)

More information

IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition

IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition IV. Surface analysis for chemical state, chemical composition Probe beam Detect XPS Photon (X-ray) Photoelectron(core level electron) UPS Photon (UV) Photoelectron(valence level electron) AES electron

More information

Chemical Analysis in TEM: XEDS, EELS and EFTEM. HRTEM PhD course Lecture 5

Chemical Analysis in TEM: XEDS, EELS and EFTEM. HRTEM PhD course Lecture 5 Chemical Analysis in TEM: XEDS, EELS and EFTEM HRTEM PhD course Lecture 5 1 Part IV Subject Chapter Prio x-ray spectrometry 32 1 Spectra and mapping 33 2 Qualitative XEDS 34 1 Quantitative XEDS 35.1-35.4

More information

Core Level Spectroscopies

Core Level Spectroscopies Core Level Spectroscopies Spectroscopies involving core levels are element-sensitive, and that makes them very useful for understanding chemical bonding, as well as for the study of complex materials.

More information

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) As part of the course Characterization of Catalysts and Surfaces Prof. Dr. Markus Ammann Paul Scherrer Institut markus.ammann@psi.ch Resource for further reading:

More information

Birck Nanotechnology Center XPS: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ESCA: Electron Spectrometer for Chemical Analysis

Birck Nanotechnology Center XPS: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ESCA: Electron Spectrometer for Chemical Analysis Birck Nanotechnology Center XPS: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ESCA: Electron Spectrometer for Chemical Analysis Dmitry Zemlyanov Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University Outline Introduction

More information

Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Xiaozhe Zhang 10/03/2014

Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Xiaozhe Zhang 10/03/2014 Photoelectron Spectroscopy Xiaozhe Zhang 10/03/2014 A conception last time remain Secondary electrons are electrons generated as ionization products. They are called 'secondary' because they are generated

More information

Methods of surface analysis

Methods of surface analysis Methods of surface analysis Nanomaterials characterisation I RNDr. Věra Vodičková, PhD. Surface of solid matter: last monoatomic layer + absorbed monolayer physical properties are effected (crystal lattice

More information

INTERACTIONS OF RADIATION WITH MATTER

INTERACTIONS OF RADIATION WITH MATTER INTERACTIONS OF RADIATION WITH MATTER Renée Dickinson, MS, DABR Medical Physicist University of Washington Medical Center Department of Radiology Diagnostic Physics Section Outline Describe the various

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most used techniques to chemically characterize the surface. Also known

More information

Advanced Lab Course. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 BASICS 1 3 EXPERIMENT Qualitative analysis Chemical Shifts 7

Advanced Lab Course. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 BASICS 1 3 EXPERIMENT Qualitative analysis Chemical Shifts 7 Advanced Lab Course X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy M210 As of: 2015-04-01 Aim: Chemical analysis of surfaces. Content 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 BASICS 1 3 EXPERIMENT 3 3.1 Qualitative analysis 6 3.2 Chemical

More information

Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis

Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis Fundamentals of Nanoscale Film Analysis Terry L. Alford Arizona State University Tempe, AZ, USA Leonard C. Feldman Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA James W. Mayer Arizona State University Tempe,

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Louis Scudiero http://www.wsu.edu/~scudiero; 5-2669 Fulmer 261A Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) The basic principle of the photoelectric effect

More information

Electron spectroscopy Lecture Kai M. Siegbahn ( ) Nobel Price 1981 High resolution Electron Spectroscopy

Electron spectroscopy Lecture Kai M. Siegbahn ( ) Nobel Price 1981 High resolution Electron Spectroscopy Electron spectroscopy Lecture 1-21 Kai M. Siegbahn (1918 - ) Nobel Price 1981 High resolution Electron Spectroscopy 653: Electron Spectroscopy urse structure cture 1. Introduction to electron spectroscopies

More information

Spettroscopia risonante di stati elettronici: un approccio impossibile senza i sincrotroni

Spettroscopia risonante di stati elettronici: un approccio impossibile senza i sincrotroni Spettroscopia risonante di stati elettronici: un approccio impossibile senza i sincrotroni XAS, XMCD, XES, RIXS, ResXPS: introduzione alle spettroscopie risonanti * Dipartimento di Fisica - Politecnico

More information

Lecture 5. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

Lecture 5. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) Lecture 5 X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) 5. Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) 5. Principles 5.2 Interpretation 5.3 Instrumentation 5.4 XPS vs UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) 5.5 Auger Electron

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2 Louis Scudiero http://www.wsu.edu/~pchemlab ; 5-2669 Fulmer 261A Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) The 3 step model: 1.Optical excitation 2.Transport

More information

Ultrashort Lifetime Expansion for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering. Luuk Ament

Ultrashort Lifetime Expansion for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering. Luuk Ament Ultrashort Lifetime Expansion for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Luuk Ament In collaboration with Jeroen van den Brink and Fiona Forte What is RIXS? Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Synchrotron

More information

Interaction of particles with matter - 2. Silvia Masciocchi, GSI and University of Heidelberg SS2017, Heidelberg May 3, 2017

Interaction of particles with matter - 2. Silvia Masciocchi, GSI and University of Heidelberg SS2017, Heidelberg May 3, 2017 Interaction of particles with matter - 2 Silvia Masciocchi, GSI and University of Heidelberg SS2017, Heidelberg May 3, 2017 Energy loss by ionization (by heavy particles) Interaction of electrons with

More information

Electron Spettroscopies

Electron Spettroscopies Electron Spettroscopies Spettroscopy allows to characterize a material from the point of view of: chemical composition, electronic states and magnetism, electronic, roto-vibrational and magnetic excitations.

More information

EDS User School. Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis

EDS User School. Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis EDS User School Principles of Electron Beam Microanalysis Outline 1.) Beam-specimen interactions 2.) EDS spectra: Origin of Bremsstrahlung and characteristic peaks 3.) Moseley s law 4.) Characteristic

More information

Explain how Planck resolved the ultraviolet catastrophe in blackbody radiation. Calculate energy of quanta using Planck s equation.

Explain how Planck resolved the ultraviolet catastrophe in blackbody radiation. Calculate energy of quanta using Planck s equation. Objectives Explain how Planck resolved the ultraviolet catastrophe in blackbody radiation. Calculate energy of quanta using Planck s equation. Solve problems involving maximum kinetic energy, work function,

More information

X-ray Spectroscopy. Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis

X-ray Spectroscopy. Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis X-ray Spectroscopy Interaction of X-rays with matter XANES and EXAFS XANES analysis Pre-edge analysis EXAFS analysis Element specific Sensitive to low concentrations (0.01-0.1 %) Why XAS? Applicable under

More information

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter Type of radiation charged particles photonen neutronen Uncharged particles Charged particles electrons (β - ) He 2+ (α), H + (p) D + (d) Recoil nuclides Fission fragments Interaction of ionizing radiation

More information

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)-2 Louis Scudiero http://www.wsu.edu/~scudiero; 5-2669 Fulmer 261A Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) The 3 step model: 1.Optical excitation 2.Transport

More information

Electron and electromagnetic radiation

Electron and electromagnetic radiation Electron and electromagnetic radiation Generation and interactions with matter Stimuli Interaction with sample Response Stimuli Waves and energy The energy is propotional to 1/λ and 1/λ 2 λ λ 1 Electromagnetic

More information

Photoelectron Peak Intensities in Solids

Photoelectron Peak Intensities in Solids Photoelectron Peak Intensities in Solids Electronic structure of solids Photoelectron emission through solid Inelastic scattering Other excitations Intrinsic and extrinsic Shake-up, shake-down and shake-off

More information

Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering on elementary excitations

Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering on elementary excitations Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering on elementary excitations Jeroen van den Brink Ament, van Veenendaal, Devereaux, Hill & JvdB Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 705 (2011) Autumn School in Correlated Electrons Jülich

More information

Name: (a) What core levels are responsible for the three photoelectron peaks in Fig. 1?

Name: (a) What core levels are responsible for the three photoelectron peaks in Fig. 1? Physics 243A--Surface Physics of Materials: Spectroscopy Final Examination December 16, 2014 (3 problems, 100 points total, open book, open notes and handouts) Name: [1] (50 points), including Figures

More information

XPS o ESCA UPS. Photoemission Spectroscopies. Threshold Spectroscopies (NEXAFS, APS etc ) The physics of photoemission.

XPS o ESCA UPS. Photoemission Spectroscopies. Threshold Spectroscopies (NEXAFS, APS etc ) The physics of photoemission. XPS o ESCA Photoemission Spectroscopies UPS Threshold Spectroscopies (NEXAFS, APS etc ) The physics of photoemission. How are photoemission spectra recorded: sources and analyzers Semi-quantitative analysis.

More information

III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation

III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation 1 III. Energy Deposition in the Detector and Spectrum Formation a) charged particles Bethe-Bloch formula de 4πq 4 z2 e 2m v = NZ ( ) dx m v ln ln 1 0 2 β β I 0 2 2 2 z, v: atomic number and velocity of

More information

Angle-Resolved Two-Photon Photoemission of Mott Insulator

Angle-Resolved Two-Photon Photoemission of Mott Insulator Angle-Resolved Two-Photon Photoemission of Mott Insulator Takami Tohyama Institute for Materials Research (IMR) Tohoku University, Sendai Collaborators IMR: H. Onodera, K. Tsutsui, S. Maekawa H. Onodera

More information

MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE

MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURFACE SCIENCE Second edition D. P. WOODRUFF & T. A. DELCHAR Department ofphysics, University of Warwick CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents Preface to first edition Preface to second

More information

Resonant soft x-ray Raman scattering of NiO

Resonant soft x-ray Raman scattering of NiO Resonant soft x-ray Raman scattering of NiO Martin Magnuson, Sergei Butorin, Akane Agui and Joseph Nordgren Post Print N.B.: When citing this work, cite the original article. Original Publication: Martin

More information

Soft X-ray Physics DELNOR-WIGGINS PASS STATE PARK

Soft X-ray Physics DELNOR-WIGGINS PASS STATE PARK Soft X-ray Physics Overview of research in Prof. Tonner s group Introduction to synchrotron radiation physics Photoemission spectroscopy: band-mapping and photoelectron diffraction Magnetic spectroscopy

More information

Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear reaction and MEDIUM (i.e., atomic effects)

Emphasis on what happens to emitted particle (if no nuclear reaction and MEDIUM (i.e., atomic effects) LECTURE 5: INTERACTION OF RADIATION WITH MATTER All radiation is detected through its interaction with matter! INTRODUCTION: What happens when radiation passes through matter? Emphasis on what happens

More information

Auger & X-ray Fluorescence

Auger & X-ray Fluorescence At low energies or low temperature gas (plasma) the primary processes are photoionzation or excitation by particles (electron, atom, proton). Recombination takes place with emission of photons. In hot

More information

The Use of Synchrotron Radiation in Modern Research

The Use of Synchrotron Radiation in Modern Research The Use of Synchrotron Radiation in Modern Research Physics Chemistry Structural Biology Materials Science Geochemical and Environmental Science Atoms, molecules, liquids, solids. Electronic and geometric

More information

Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS)

Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) Louis Scudiero http://www.wsu.edu/~scudiero www.wsu.edu/~scudiero; ; 5-26695 scudiero@wsu.edu Photoemission from Valence Bands Photoelectron spectroscopy is

More information

Outline. Surface, interface, and nanoscience short introduction. Some surface/interface concepts and techniques

Outline. Surface, interface, and nanoscience short introduction. Some surface/interface concepts and techniques Outline Surface, interface, and nanoscience short introduction Some surface/interface concepts and techniques Experimental aspects: intro. to laboratory-based and SR-based Electronic structure a brief

More information

Spectroscopy of Nanostructures. Angle-resolved Photoemission (ARPES, UPS)

Spectroscopy of Nanostructures. Angle-resolved Photoemission (ARPES, UPS) Spectroscopy of Nanostructures Angle-resolved Photoemission (ARPES, UPS) Measures all quantum numbers of an electron in a solid. E, k x,y, z, point group, spin E kin, ϑ,ϕ, hν, polarization, spin Electron

More information

Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques

Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques Lecture 23 X-Ray & UV Techniques Schroder: Chapter 11.3 1/50 Announcements Homework 6/6: Will be online on later today. Due Wednesday June 6th at 10:00am. I will return it at the final exam (14 th June).

More information

X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS - Ma4)

X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS - Ma4) Master Laboratory Report X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS - Ma4) Supervisor: Andrew Britton Students: Dachi Meurmishvili, Muhammad Khurram Riaz and Martin Borchert Date: November 17th 2016 1 Contents

More information

Outline. Chapter 6 The Basic Interactions between Photons and Charged Particles with Matter. Photon interactions. Photoelectric effect

Outline. Chapter 6 The Basic Interactions between Photons and Charged Particles with Matter. Photon interactions. Photoelectric effect Chapter 6 The Basic Interactions between Photons and Charged Particles with Matter Radiation Dosimetry I Text: H.E Johns and J.R. Cunningham, The physics of radiology, 4 th ed. http://www.utoledo.edu/med/depts/radther

More information

Luminescence Process

Luminescence Process Luminescence Process The absorption and the emission are related to each other and they are described by two terms which are complex conjugate of each other in the interaction Hamiltonian (H er ). In an

More information

Chapter V: Interactions of neutrons with matter

Chapter V: Interactions of neutrons with matter Chapter V: Interactions of neutrons with matter 1 Content of the chapter Introduction Interaction processes Interaction cross sections Moderation and neutrons path For more details see «Physique des Réacteurs

More information

Techniques EDX, EELS et HAADF en TEM: possibilités d analyse et applications

Techniques EDX, EELS et HAADF en TEM: possibilités d analyse et applications Techniques EDX, EELS et HAADF en TEM: possibilités d analyse et applications Thomas Neisius Université Paul Cézanne Plan Imaging modes HAADF Example: supported Pt nanoparticles Electron sample interaction

More information

Electronic structure investigation of CoO by means of soft X-ray scattering

Electronic structure investigation of CoO by means of soft X-ray scattering Electronic structure investigation of CoO by means of soft X-ray scattering M. Magnuson, S. M. Butorin, J.-H. Guo and J. Nordgren Department of Physics, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 530, S-751 21 Uppsala,

More information

4. How can fragmentation be useful in identifying compounds? Permits identification of branching not observed in soft ionization.

4. How can fragmentation be useful in identifying compounds? Permits identification of branching not observed in soft ionization. Homework 9: Chapters 20-21 Assigned 12 April; Due 17 April 2006; Quiz on 19 April 2006 Chap. 20 (Molecular Mass Spectroscopy) Chap. 21 (Surface Analysis) 1. What are the types of ion sources in molecular

More information

General introduction to XAS

General introduction to XAS General introduction to XAS Júlio Criginski Cezar LNLS - Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron CNPEM - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais julio.cezar@lnls.br 5 th School on X-ray Spectroscopy

More information

An Introduction to XAFS

An Introduction to XAFS An Introduction to XAFS Matthew Newville Center for Advanced Radiation Sources The University of Chicago 21-July-2018 Slides for this talk: https://tinyurl.com/larch2018 https://millenia.cars.aps.anl.gov/gsecars/data/larch/2018workshop

More information

Film Characterization Tutorial G.J. Mankey, 01/23/04. Center for Materials for Information Technology an NSF Materials Science and Engineering Center

Film Characterization Tutorial G.J. Mankey, 01/23/04. Center for Materials for Information Technology an NSF Materials Science and Engineering Center Film Characterization Tutorial G.J. Mankey, 01/23/04 Theory vs. Experiment A theory is something nobody believes, except the person who made it. An experiment is something everybody believes, except the

More information

External (differential) quantum efficiency Number of additional photons emitted / number of additional electrons injected

External (differential) quantum efficiency Number of additional photons emitted / number of additional electrons injected Semiconductor Lasers Comparison with LEDs The light emitted by a laser is generally more directional, more intense and has a narrower frequency distribution than light from an LED. The external efficiency

More information

For the next several lectures, we will be looking at specific photon interactions with matter. In today s lecture, we begin with the photoelectric

For the next several lectures, we will be looking at specific photon interactions with matter. In today s lecture, we begin with the photoelectric For the next several lectures, we will be looking at specific photon interactions with matter. In today s lecture, we begin with the photoelectric effect. 1 The objectives of today s lecture are to identify

More information

EECS130 Integrated Circuit Devices

EECS130 Integrated Circuit Devices EECS130 Integrated Circuit Devices Professor Ali Javey 8/30/2007 Semiconductor Fundamentals Lecture 2 Read: Chapters 1 and 2 Last Lecture: Energy Band Diagram Conduction band E c E g Band gap E v Valence

More information

EEE4106Z Radiation Interactions & Detection

EEE4106Z Radiation Interactions & Detection EEE4106Z Radiation Interactions & Detection 2. Radiation Detection Dr. Steve Peterson 5.14 RW James Department of Physics University of Cape Town steve.peterson@uct.ac.za May 06, 2015 EEE4106Z :: Radiation

More information

Mossbauer Effect and Spectroscopy. Kishan Sinha Xu Group Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mossbauer Effect and Spectroscopy. Kishan Sinha Xu Group Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln Mossbauer Effect and Spectroscopy Kishan Sinha Xu Group Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln Emission E R γ-photon E transition hν = E transition - E R Photon does not carry

More information

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 1. Introduction Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Silvia Natividad, Gabriel Gonzalez and Arena Holguin Auger Electron Spectroscopy (Auger spectroscopy or AES) was developed in the late 1960's, deriving

More information

Characterization of low energy ionization signals from Compton scattering in a CCD Dark Matter detector

Characterization of low energy ionization signals from Compton scattering in a CCD Dark Matter detector Characterization of low energy ionization signals from Compton scattering in a CCD Dark Matter detector Karthik Ramanathan University of Chicago arxiv:1706.06053 (Accepted PRD) TeVPA 2017/08/07 1 Motivation

More information

Radiation Detection for the Beta- Delayed Alpha and Gamma Decay of 20 Na. Ellen Simmons

Radiation Detection for the Beta- Delayed Alpha and Gamma Decay of 20 Na. Ellen Simmons Radiation Detection for the Beta- Delayed Alpha and Gamma Decay of 20 Na Ellen Simmons 1 Contents Introduction Review of the Types of Radiation Charged Particle Radiation Detection Review of Semiconductor

More information

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF

MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF 2016 Fall Semester MS482 Materials Characterization ( 재료분석 ) Lecture Note 4: XRF Byungha Shin Dept. of MSE, KAIST 1 Course Information Syllabus 1. Overview of various characterization techniques (1 lecture)

More information

The interaction of radiation with matter

The interaction of radiation with matter Basic Detection Techniques 2009-2010 http://www.astro.rug.nl/~peletier/detectiontechniques.html Detection of energetic particles and gamma rays The interaction of radiation with matter Peter Dendooven

More information

Total probability for reaction Yield

Total probability for reaction Yield Total probability for reaction Yield If target has thickness d, and target material has # nuclei/volume: n 0 [part./cm 3 ] Y=σ n 0 d The yield gives the intensity of the characteristic signal from the

More information

Multiplet effects in Resonant X-ray Emission

Multiplet effects in Resonant X-ray Emission Multiplet effects in Resonant X-ray Emission Frank M.F. de Groot Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Abstract. After

More information

hν' Φ e - Gamma spectroscopy - Prelab questions 1. What characteristics distinguish x-rays from gamma rays? Is either more intrinsically dangerous?

hν' Φ e - Gamma spectroscopy - Prelab questions 1. What characteristics distinguish x-rays from gamma rays? Is either more intrinsically dangerous? Gamma spectroscopy - Prelab questions 1. What characteristics distinguish x-rays from gamma rays? Is either more intrinsically dangerous? 2. Briefly discuss dead time in a detector. What factors are important

More information

One-Step Theory of Photoemission: Band Structure Approach

One-Step Theory of Photoemission: Band Structure Approach One-Step Theory of Photoemission: Band Structure Approach E. KRASOVSKII Christian-Albrechts University Kiel Dresden, 19 April 2007 CONTENTS One-Step Theory Theory of Band Mapping Valence band photoemission

More information

Review of Optical Properties of Materials

Review of Optical Properties of Materials Review of Optical Properties of Materials Review of optics Absorption in semiconductors: qualitative discussion Derivation of Optical Absorption Coefficient in Direct Semiconductors Photons When dealing

More information

Motivation. g-spectroscopy deals with g-ray detection and is one of the most relevant methods to investigate excited states in nuclei.

Motivation. g-spectroscopy deals with g-ray detection and is one of the most relevant methods to investigate excited states in nuclei. Motivation Spins and excited states of double-magic nucleus 16 O Decay spectra are caused by electro-magnetic transitions. g-spectroscopy deals with g-ray detection and is one of the most relevant methods

More information

Radiation interaction with matter and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF)

Radiation interaction with matter and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) Radiation interaction with matter and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) Giancarlo Pepponi Fondazione Bruno Kessler MNF Micro Nano Facility pepponi@fbk.eu MAUD school 2017 Caen, France

More information

Ma5: Auger- and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

Ma5: Auger- and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Ma5: Auger- and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 1 Introduction Electron spectroscopies, namely Auger electron- and electron energy loss spectroscopy are utilized to determine the KLL spectrum and the

More information

Generation of X-Rays in the SEM specimen

Generation of X-Rays in the SEM specimen Generation of X-Rays in the SEM specimen The electron beam generates X-ray photons in the beam-specimen interaction volume beneath the specimen surface. Some X-ray photons emerging from the specimen have

More information

MSE 321 Structural Characterization

MSE 321 Structural Characterization Auger Spectroscopy Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM) Incident Electron Ejected Electron Auger Electron Initial State Intermediate State Final State Physical Electronics

More information

PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY (PES)

PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY (PES) PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY (PES) NTRODUCTON Law of Photoelectric effect Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize 1921 Kaiser-Wilhelm-nstitut (now Max-Planck- nstitut) für Physik Berlin, Germany High-resolution electron

More information

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 19 Chapter 12. Chem 4631

Chemistry Instrumental Analysis Lecture 19 Chapter 12. Chem 4631 Chemistry 4631 Instrumental Analysis Lecture 19 Chapter 12 There are three major techniques used for elemental analysis: Optical spectrometry Mass spectrometry X-ray spectrometry X-ray Techniques include:

More information

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Kishan K. Sinha Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Kishan K. Sinha Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Kishan K. Sinha Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nebraska-Lincoln Interaction of X-rays with matter Incident X-ray beam Fluorescent X-rays (XRF) Scattered

More information

5.8 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

5.8 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 5.8 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 5.8.1 The Auger Process X-ray and high energy electron bombardment of atom can create core hole Core hole will eventually decay via either (i) photon emission (x-ray

More information

3.1 Introduction to Semiconductors. Y. Baghzouz ECE Department UNLV

3.1 Introduction to Semiconductors. Y. Baghzouz ECE Department UNLV 3.1 Introduction to Semiconductors Y. Baghzouz ECE Department UNLV Introduction In this lecture, we will cover the basic aspects of semiconductor materials, and the physical mechanisms which are at the

More information

Simo Huotari University of Helsinki, Finland TDDFT school, Benasque, Spain, January 2012

Simo Huotari University of Helsinki, Finland TDDFT school, Benasque, Spain, January 2012 Overview of spectroscopies III Simo Huotari University of Helsinki, Finland TDDFT school, Benasque, Spain, January 2012 Motivation: why we need theory Spectroscopy (electron dynamics) Theory of electronic

More information

X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption spectroscopy www.anorg.chem.uu.nl/people/staff/frankdegroot/ X-ray absorption spectroscopy www.anorg.chem.uu.nl/people/staff/frankdegroot/ Frank de Groot PhD: solid state chemistry U Nijmegen

More information

Appearance Potential Spectroscopy

Appearance Potential Spectroscopy Appearance Potential Spectroscopy Submitted by Sajanlal P. R CY06D009 Sreeprasad T. S CY06D008 Dept. of Chemistry IIT MADRAS February 2006 1 Contents Page number 1. Introduction 3 2. Theory of APS 3 3.

More information

ICTP School on Synchrotron Radiation and Applications 2008 Surface Science, Photoemission and Related Techniques Fadley, Goldoni

ICTP School on Synchrotron Radiation and Applications 2008 Surface Science, Photoemission and Related Techniques Fadley, Goldoni ICTP School on Synchrotron Radiation and Applications 2008 Surface Science, Photoemission and Related Techniques Fadley, Goldoni No. 1 Student background questions and study questions from the lectures.

More information

Part II. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)

Part II. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Part II XAFS: Principles XANES/NEXAFS Applications 1 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) X-ray Absorption spectroscopy is often referred to as - NEXAFS for low Z elements (C, N, O, F, etc. K-edge, Si,

More information

Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) XPS which makes use of the photoelectric effect, was developed in the mid-1960

Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) XPS which makes use of the photoelectric effect, was developed in the mid-1960 Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) is a widely used technique to investigate

More information

Surface and Electronic Structure Study of Substrate-dependent Pyrite Thin Films

Surface and Electronic Structure Study of Substrate-dependent Pyrite Thin Films Surface and Electronic Structure Study of Substrate-dependent Pyrite Thin Films Talk Outline Stoichiometry and sodium study of pyrite thin films: Quick Review Surface structure of pyrite thin films Electronic

More information

The photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect The photoelectric effect E K hν-e B E F hν E B A photoemission experiment Lifetime broadening ΔE.Δτ~ħ ΔE~ħ/Δτ + Experimental resolution Hüfner, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Springer) A photoemission experiment

More information