What is the periodic table?

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1 The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each other and behave in similar ways. These similarities in form and function repeat themselves again and again among the elements. In other words, the structures and properties of the elements are periodic, or recurring. So the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table to provide a visual model of this repeating pattern. The periodic table is the most important tool in chemistry. If you can read the periodic table, you can tell how many protons, neutrons, and electrons an element s atoms contain. You can also tell how the electrons are arranged in the orbitals surrounding the nucleus. And you can predict which elements are likely to react and combine with each other. periodic PEER-ee-AHD-ik occurring repeatedly or at regular intervals H Periodic Table of the Elements 2 He 3 Li 7 Be 9 5 B 6 C 7 N 8 O 6 9 F 9 0 Ne 20 Na 23 Mg 2 3 Al 27 Si 28 5 P 3 6 S 32 7 Cl 35 8 Ar 9 K Ca 2 Sc 5 22 Ti 8 23 V 5 2 Cr Mn Fe Co 28 Ni 29 Cu 6 30 Zn 65 3 Ga Ge As 75 3 Se Br Kr 8 37 Rb Sr Y 89 Zr 9 Nb 93 2 Mo 96 3 Tc 98 Ru 0 5 Rh 03 6 Pd 06 7 Ag 08 8 Cd 9 In 5 50 Sn 9 5 Sb 2 52 Te 8 53 I 7 5 Xe 3 55 Cs Fr Ba Ra La Ac Hf 78 0 Rf Ta 8 05 Db W 8 06 Sg Re Bh Os Hs Ir Mt Pt 95 0 Ds Au 97 Rg Hg 20 Cn Tl 20 3 Uut Pb 207 Uuq Bi Uup Po Uuh At 20 7 Uus Rn Uuo Ce 90 Th 232 Pr 9 Pa Nd 92 U Pm 5 93 Np Sm 50 9 Pu 2 63 Eu Am 23 6 Gd Cm Tb 97 Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm 69 0 Md Yb No 2 7 Lu Lr 262 List three things the periodic table can tell you about an element Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 506 Week 2 35

2 2 Currently, the periodic table includes 7 elements. Of these, only the first 9 are naturally occurring. The remaining 23 elements are not found naturally on Earth, though they may exist elsewhere in the universe. However, scientists have been able to artificially create them. And some of these manmade elements have become very important in everyday life. For example, Americium (am-eh-rish-ee-um) is commonly used in smoke detectors. The elements of the periodic table can be divided from left to right into metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. The vast majority of the known elements nearly 80% are metals, which share certain properties. Most metals are shiny and can bend without breaking. And all of them are good conductors of heat and electricity. In contrast, nonmetals are not shiny. They are also brittle, which means they break easily. And they are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Metalloids lie between the metallic and nonmetallic elements in the periodic table and exhibit properties that are between the two. metalloid MET-uh-loyd an element with properties between a metal and a nonmetal A. List three properties of metals B. Use the periodic table on page 5 to answer the questions.. Which elements are metalloids? 2. Which two elements along the stair step line are not metalloids? 3. Which nonmetal is in the wrong place on the periodic table? 36 Week 2 EMC 506 Evan-Moor Corp.

3 3 Each square in the periodic table contains information about a specific element presented in numbers and letters. Along with the element s chemical name, a square contains the element s chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic weight. The chemical symbol is the abbreviation of an element s name. Some chemical symbols are obvious. For example, the symbol Al stands for aluminum. But others might seem strange, such as the symbol Au for gold. This is because the chemical symbol for gold is based on its Latin name, aurum. The number at the top of a square is an element s atomic number. This shows the number of protons in one atom of the element. Atomic numbers increase in order from left to right and from top to bottom across the periodic table. The number at the bottom of a square is the atomic weight, which is the sum of the protons and neutrons in one atom of the element. You can find the number of neutrons in an element by subtracting the atomic number from the atomic weight. atomic number (number of protons) chemical name 6 C CARBON chemical symbol atomic weight (number of protons + number of neutrons) Use the periodic table on page 5 to fill in the information for each element below. Remember that the number of electrons in an element equals the number of protons. atomic number uh-tah-mik NUM-ber the number of protons in an atom of an element atomic weight uh-tah-mik WAYT the number of protons and neutrons in an atom of an element chemical symbol KEM-ih-kul SIM-bul the abbreviation that stands for an element Symbol Protons Neutrons Electrons. chlorine 2. calcium 3. iron. lead Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 506 Week 2 37

4 Not only does the periodic table help you know the number of protons and electrons in an element, but it shows the location of the electrons in that element. Remember that electrons move within orbitals that surround the nucleus of an atom. These orbitals cluster together to form atomic shells. The atoms of all the elements in the same row, or period, of the periodic table contain the same number of atomic shells. The periods are numbered from to 7, indicating the number of shells that the elements in that period contain. The first shell lies closest to the nucleus, with each successive shell enclosing the previous one, like the layers of an onion. The electrons that occupy the outermost shell in an atom are very important, because they determine how the element will combine with other elements. The atoms of all elements in the same column, or group, of the periodic table contain the same number of outershell electrons. group groop a column in the periodic table period PEER-ee-ud a row in the periodic table A. Use the periodic table on page 5 and the information in the passage to answer the questions.. How many atomic shells does a sodium (Na) atom contain? 2. Which other elements contain the same number of atomic shells as sodium? Use the chemical symbols to write your answer. 3. Which other elements contain the same number of outer electrons as sodium? Use the chemical symbols to write your answer. B. Explain why the electrons in the outermost shell are important. 38 Week 2 EMC 506 Evan-Moor Corp.

5 5 A. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences. atomic number metalloid periodic groups atomic weight periods chemical symbol. The nature of the elements structures and properties is the reason chemists arrange the elements the way they do. 2. An element that has the properties of both a metal and a nonmetal is a. 3. To find the number of neutrons in an atom of an element, subtract the from the.. The rows of the periodic table are called, and the columns are called. 5. The is the abbreviation of an element s name. B. Check the box next to the phrase that completes the analogy. Group is to outer electrons as. period is to protons period is to atomic number period is to atomic weight period is to atomic shells C. At first glance, because hydrogen is a nonmetal, it may seem like it is in the wrong place in the periodic table. But there is a good reason for putting it in that position. Why do you think hydrogen is located where it is? Evan-Moor Corp. EMC 506 Week 2 39

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