A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table?

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1 ü // A little history Johahann Dobereiner (80-89) o Triads John Newlands (8-898) o Law of Octaves Who put together the first useable ic Table? Mendeleev you remember him right? When and How? You know it Meyer! 89 Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic weight AND similar properties. Dang. Mendeleev is a genius! Smarty pants dance His arrangement did produce some anomalies. o Te & I had to be switched to keep the properties consistent. o I has properties similar to Br and Te has properties similar to Se. Left open spots for Ga, Ge, Hf, Sc. o Predicted their discovery and properties. Property Mendeleev s Predicted Properties of Germanium ( eka Silicon ) and Its Actual Properties atomic mass appearance density molar volume specific heat capacity oxide formula oxide density sulfide formula and solubility chloride formula (boiling point) chloride density element preparation Predicted Properties of eka Silicon (E) amu gray metal. g/cm cm /mol 0.J/g*K EO. g/cm ES ; insoluble in H O; soluble in aqueous (NH ) S ECl ; (<00 0 C).9 g/cm reduction of K EF with sodium Actual Properties of Germanium (Ge).amu gray metal. g/cm. cm /mol 0. J/g*K GeO. g/cm GeS ; insoluble in H O; soluble in aqueous (NH ) S GeCl ; (8 0 C).8g/cm reduction of K GeF with sodium Sir William Ramsey ª In 890 s discovered most of the noble gases ü

2 ü // Bombarded metals with X-rays were given off Frequency of X- ray differed by a unit of for each metal Henry Moseley (9-9) Hypothesis: difference in frequencies was due to amount of positive charge in the nucleus Correlated the frequency to a whole number; this became the atomic number! A () (8) H.008 A () A () A () A () A () A () He.00 Li Be B B C N O F Ne B B B B B (8) (9) (0) B B Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar () () () () () () () K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc (98) Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number. This could now explain the position of Te & I. Predicted Tc, Pr, Rh Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po (09) Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt () () () () () () () () () (9) () () Lathanides Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu () Actinides Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr.0 () 8.0 () () () () () () () () (8) (9) (0) 8 At (0) 8 Rn () Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol - K - atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr ic Law ª The chemical & physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic." number" ª Elements with similar properties occur at regular. intervals" " ü

3 ü // Groups/Families ª A: Alkali Metals ª A: Alkaline Earth Metals ª A: Halogens ª : Nobel Gases ª Transition Metals A () A () A () A () A () A () He.00 Li.9 Be 9.0 Na.99 Mg. B 0.8 C.0 N.0 8 O.00 9 F Ne 0.8 B () Al.98 Si 8.09 P 0.9 S.0 Cl. B () B () B () B () B () (8) (9) (0) B () 9 K Ca 0.08 Sc.9 Ti.88 V 0.9 Cr.00 Mn.9 Fe.8 Co Ni Cu. 8 Ar Zn.9 Ga 9. Ge. As.9 Se 8.9 Br 9.90 Kr 8.80 Rb 8. 8 Sr 8. 9 Y Zr 9. Nb 9.9 Mo 9.9 Tc (98) Ru 0. Rh 0.9 Pd 0. Cs.9 Ba. La 8.9 Hf 8. Ta 80.9 W 8.9 Re 8. Os 90. Ir 9. 8 Pt 9. Ag Cd. 9 In.8 0 Sn 8. Sb.8 Te. I.9 Xe. 9 Au Hg Tl 0. 8 Pb 0. 8 Bi Po (09) 8 At (0) 8 Fr () 88 Ra () 89 Ac () 0 Rf () 0 Db () 0 Sg () 0 Bh () 08 Hs () 09 Mt () 8 Rn () 0 (9) () () 8B Noble Gases Halogens A () Alkaline Earth metals Alkali metals (8) H.008 Other group/families known by common element ª A: Carbon Group ª A: Nitrogen Group ª A: Oxygen Group Lathanides 8 Ce 0. 9 Pr Nd. Pm () Sm 0. Eu.0 Gd. Tb 8.9 Dy. Ho.9 8 Er. 9 Tm Yb.0 Lu.0 Actinides 90 Th.0 9 Pa () 9 U Np () 9 Pu () 9 Am () 9 Cm () 9 Bk () 98 Cf () 99 Es () 00 Fm () 0 Md (8) 0 No (9) 0 Lr (0) Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol-k- atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr Na.99 Mg. B () B () B () B () B () (8) (9) (0) B () B () Al.98 9 K Ca 0.08 Sc.9 Ti.88 V 0.9 Cr.00 Mn.9 Fe.8 Co Ni Cu. 0 Zn.9 Ga 9. Rb 8. 8 Sr 8. 9 Y Zr 9. Nb 9.9 Mo 9.9 Tc (98) Ru 0. Rh 0.9 Pd 0. Ag Cd. 9 In.8 Cs.9 Ba. La 8.9 Hf 8. Ta 80.9 W 8.9 Re 8. Os 90. Ir 9. 8 Pt 9. 9 Au Hg Tl 0. 8 Fr () 88 Ra () 89 Ac () 0 Rf () 0 Db () 0 Sg () 0 Bh () 08 Hs () 09 Mt () 0 (9) () () A () A () A () A () A () B 0.8 C.0 N.0 8 O.00 9 F Ne 0.8 P 0.9 S.0 Cl. 8 Ar 9.9 As.9 Se 8.9 Br 9.90 Kr 8.80 Sb.8 Te. I.9 Xe. 8 Bi Po (09) 8 At (0) 8 Rn () Lathanides 8 Ce 0. 9 Pr Nd. Pm () Sm 0. Eu.0 Gd. Tb 8.9 Dy. Ho.9 8 Er. 9 Tm Yb.0 Lu.0 Actinides 90 Th.0 9 Pa () 9 U Np () 9 Pu () 9 Am () 9 Cm () 9 Bk () 98 Cf () 99 Es () 00 Fm () 0 Md (8) 0 No (9) 0 Lr (0) 8B Si 8.09 Ge. 0 Sn 8. 8 Pb 0. Noble Gases Halogens Be 9.0 Oxygen group Nitrogen Group A () Li.9 He.00 Carbon Group (8) H.008 Alkaline Earth metals Alkali metals A () F a m i L y G R O U P PERIOD Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol-k- atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr ü

4 ü // What does family/group mean? ª Elements with similar chemical properties have similar arrangements of their outershell What are these called? Valence ª Octet Rule: Atoms will tend to gain, share and loose valence electrons in order to achieve a full outer shell. ic Table Trend can be understood in terms of basic rules.electrons are attracted to the protons in the nucleus of an atom. ü The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the more strongly it is attracted. ü The more protons in a nucleus, the more strongly an electron is attracted.. Because electrons repel one another, if layers of electrons exit between valence electrons and the nucleus, the valence electrons will be less attracted to the nucleus. That is called shielding. ü The more energy levels of electrons between the nucleus and the outershell electrons, the less tightly the valence electrons will be held by the nucleus.. Completed shells (and to a lesser extent, completed subshells) are stable. Atomic Radii (size) ª One half the distance between adjacent nuclei (/ D) Distance (D) What is the trend? ª Generally within a group, the atomic radius increases with increasing atomic number ª Why? ª Each time go down in a group an energy level is added. Down a group Increase radius + e Atomic Radii within a Group Hydrogen; n = Lithium; n = How about left to right? ª As atomic number increases in period, the atomic radius decreases. ª Why? ª More protons, more pull e - e - Across period Sodium; n = e - 8e - e - Atomic radius decreases ü

5 ü // A () H A.008 () Li.9 Na.99 Increases 9 K 9.0 Rb 8. Cs.9 8 Fr () ATOMIC RADIUS Be 9.0 8B A A A () () () Decreases B B B B B (8) (9) (0) B B Mg () () () () () () () Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd (98) Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt () () () () () () () () (9) () () (8) A A He () () B C N O F Ne Al Si P S Cl Ar Ga Ge As Se Br Kr In Sn Sb Te I Xe Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn (09) (0) () Lathanides Ce Pr Nd Pm () Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Actinides 90 Th.0 9 Pa () 9 U Np () 9 Pu () 9 Am () 9 Cm () 9 Bk () 98 Cf () 99 Es () 00 Fm () 0 Md (8) 0 No (9) 0 Lr (0) Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol - K - atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr Electron Affinity ª Energy change that occurs when the atom gains an extra ª Reported for a mole of atom ª affinity of Ne is 9 kj ª affinity of F is -8 kj ª Atoms that have a greater attraction for another have a more negative affinity ª Which group has the highest affinity (most strongly attracts a )? ª Why? Ionization Energy Energy (E) needed to remove an from an atom o Forms an ion o Ion-atom or group of atoms with a charge Positive Charge Nonmetals Metals Ionization Noble Gas Energies Metalloids ª Metals low ionization energies ª Non-metals high ionization energies ª Nobel Gases very high ionization energies N P N P Li + 9 kj à Li + + ü

6 ü // IONIZATION ENERGY A () (8) Decreases H A A A A A A He.008 () () () () () ().00 Increases Li Be B C N O F Ne B B B B B B (8) (9) (0) B B Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar () () () () () () () K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe (98) Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn (09) (0) () Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt () () () () () () () () () (9) () () Lathanides Actinides Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu () Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr.0 () 8.0 () () () () () () () () (8) (9) (0) Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol - K - atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr How about groups and periods? Within a group, ionization energy decreases from top to bottom o Atoms get larger decreasing the pull of the nucleus on the valence Within a period, ionization energy increases from left to right o Atoms get smaller increasing the pull of the nucleus on the valence Successive Ionization Energies ª The st ionization energy of an element is the E needed to remove the FIRST ª The nd ionization E is the E needed to remove the SECOND N P As more are removed, what happens to ionization E? ª As more are removed, ionization E increases. ª Why? ª to repulsion is reduced as more removed N P Successive Ionization Energies of Elements (kj/mole) Element st nd rd th th th th Na 9, Mg 8,, Al 8,8,, Si 8,,,,09 P,0,90,9,9,, S,000,,,,00 8,9,0 Cl,,98,8,9, 9,,08 Ar,,,9,,8 8,8,99 ü

7 ü // What is the reason for the large jump? ª Once the valence s removed, the noble gas inner core remains. ª Noble gas inner core is strongly held by the nucleus. ª Requires A LOT of energy to remove those N P ª An unknown element has the following successive ionization energies: ª st ionization energy: 89 kj/mol ª nd ionization energy:, kj/mol ª rd ionization energy:,90 kj/mol ª th ionization energy:, kj/mol ª What is this elements family? Alkaline Earth Metal ª How many valence does it have? valence ª An unknown element has the following successive ionization energies: ª st ionization energy: 8 kj/mol ª nd ionization energy:,8 kj/mol ª rd ionization energy:, kj/mol ª th ionization energy:, kj/mol ª What is this elements family? or A ª How many valence does it have? valence Electronegativity ª Measures the attracting power of an atom when it bonds with another atom ª Electronegativities are estimated based on ionization energies and electron affinities, and follow basically the same trends. ª High ionization energy means high electronegativity (nonmetals) Ionization E increases ª Low ionization energy means low electronegativity (metals) Ionization decreases Electronegativity increases Electronegativity decreases ü

8 ü // ª What about He, Ne, Ar of the noble gases? ª Not given a value because do not form compounds Hey s want to hang out? ª Fluorine has the highest electronegativity (.0) We re busy. Yes, please! He Hey s want to hang out? F ª Atoms with low electronegativity have weak attraction for in the bond. ª Atoms with high electronegativity have strong attraction for in the bond. Recap ic Trends ª. Atomic Radii: As go down a group it increases. As go left to right it. decreases ª. Ionization Energy: As gown down a group it. decreases As go left to right it. increases ª. Electronegativity: As go down a group it. decreases As go left to right it. increases Transition Metals ª Found in the middle of the ic Table ª What sublevels are being filled? d! A () (8) H A A A A A A He.008 () () () () () () Li Be B C N O F Ne B B B B B B (8) (9) (0) B B Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar () () () () () () () K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Cs Ba La Hf Fr Ra Ac Rf () () () () 8 9 Lathanides Ce Pr Actinides Th Pa.0 () Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol - K - atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr Nb 9.9 Mo 9.9 Tc (98) Ru 0. Rh 0.9 Pd 0. Transition metals 8 Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Db Sg Bh Hs Mt () () () () () (9) 0 Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb. () U Np Pu Am Cm Bk 8.0 () () () () () Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn (09) (0) () () () Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Cf Es Fm Md No Lr () () () (8) (9) (0) Transition Metals also contain: Lanthanide series o #8- o What elements are these? Ce through Lu o What sublevel is being filled? f Actinide series o #90-0 o What elements are these? Th through Lr o What sublevel is being filled? f ü 8

9 ü // A () H.008 Li.9 Alkali metals Na.99 9 K 9.0 Rb 8. Cs.9 8 Fr () (8) A A A A A A He () () () () () ().00 Alkaline Earth metals Be 9.0 8B Mg. 0 Ca Sr 8. Ba. 88 Ra () B () Sc.9 9 Y 88.9 La Ac () B () Ti.88 0 Zr 9. Hf 8. 0 Rf () B B B (8) (9) (0) B B () () () () () V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Nb 9.9 Mo 9.9 Tc (98) Ru 0. Rh 0.9 Pd 0. Transition metals 8 Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Db Sg Bh Hs Mt () () () () () (9) 8 Ag Cd Au Hg () () 8 B C N O Al Si P S Ga Ge As Se In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po (09) 9 F 9.00 Cl. Halogens Br 9.90 I.9 8 At (0) 0 Ne 0.8 Noble Gases 8 Ar 9.9 Kr 8.80 Xe. 8 Rn () Most Active Metal Metals get more active as they move: Left and down Most active metal? Francium (Fr) Lathanides Ce Pr Nd Actinides Th Pa U.0 () 8.0 Ideal Gas Constant: R=0.08 L atm mol - K - atm = 0 mm Hg = 0 torr Pm () 9 Np () Sm 0. 9 Pu () Eu.0 9 Am () Gd. 9 Cm () Tb Bk () Dy. Lanthanide series 98 Cf () Actinide series Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Es Fm Md No Lr () () (8) (9) (0) Most Active Nonmetal Nonmetals get more active as they move Right and up Exclude noble gases Most active nonmetal? Fluorine (F) Characteristics of Metals ª. Good conductors of heat and electricity ª. Shiny luster ª. Malleable can be hammered into shape ª. Ductile can be drawn into wire ª. Solid at room temp. (except Hg) ª. Color is usually silver (grey) except for gold (Au) and Copper (Cu) Characteristics of Nonmetals ª. Poor conductors of heat and electricity ª. Not malleable (brittle) ª. Dull luster ª. Many are in the gaseous state at room temp. (F, He). Others in the solid state (C). Bromine (Br) is the only liquid nonmetal. ª. Come in various colors. Characteristics of Metalloids ª. Found along staircase: B, Si, As, Te, At, Po, Sb, Ge ª. Properties are between metallic and nonmetallic ª. Some are semiconductors (Si, Ge) ü 9

10 ü // ª STOP! ü 0

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