Lesson 2 - What Makes Up Matter?

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1 Lesson 2 - What Makes Up Matter? Who This lesson is designed for fifth graders ranging in age from nine to eleven. What This lesson is part of the Physical Science Unit of Instruction and based on California State Standards. How Long This lesson will take place during two 75 minutes sessions. Description In this lesson the learners will: Know electrons surround the central nucleus of an atom; know each is composed of only one kind of atom; and know s are organized in a periodic table by their atomic number. California State Content Standards Covered in this Lesson 5PS1.0 Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the world. As a basis for understanding this concept: 5PS1.b Students know all matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules. 5PS1.c Students know metals have properties in common, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity. Some metals, such as aluminum (Al), (iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au), are pure s; others, such as steel and brass, are composed of a combination of al metals. 5PS1.d Students know that each is made of one kind of atom and that the s are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties. 5PS1.e Students know scientists have developed instruments that can create discrete images of atoms and molecules that show that the atoms and molecules often occur in well- ordered arrays. National Educational Technology Standards for Learners 1. Basic Operations and Concepts Students a. demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology systems. 3. Technology Productivity Tools Students a. use technology to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity. b. use productivity tools to

2 collaborate in constructing technology- enhanced models, preparing publications, and producing other creative works. Instructional Objectives Students define matter in terms of the kind of atoms it contains. Students identify metals by their properties. Students describe the structure of an atom as having a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, and electrons. Students explain the organization of the periodic table. Instructional Procedures Lesson Set This unit will be introduced by breaking the students into small groups and giving each group of students a sealed box containing one or more objects. The groups will use indirect observations to infer the characteristics of the objects. The students will relate the inability to see the objects with inability to see individual atoms. The students will receive a handout with the list of goals written in the form of questions for this unit. The students will be asked the following scaffolding questions: 1. What is the smallest particle of an that has the properties of that? 2. The atoms of an have 10 protons, 8 neutrons, and 10 electrons. What is the atomic number of this? 3. What is the difference between an atom and a molecule? Techniques and Activities Students will buddy read with their shoulder partner pages 12 through 19 in the Science textbook. They will discuss the pictures of the aluminum atom and the carbon atom on page 12 and compare them to the graphic of the atom on the website. They will look and discuss the picture of the molecule on page 13 and compare it to the molecule on the website. The class will review whole group the periodic table. Discuss the organization and

3 symbols of the periodic table. Guide students learning by asking students how the organization of the periodic table makes it useful to scientists and others using it. Then ask students to discuss the advantages of a table format over a random list. The students will explore the periodic table through the link located on the Atom page of the website. Students will match the vocabulary cards with their definitions (from Scott Foresman and reproduced at the end of this lesson) after they read through Lesson Two. Lesson Closure Students will write a concluding paragraph that summarizes the main ideas in Lesson 2. Remind students to list specific facts and to include supporting details when writing their concluding paragraph. Adaptations for Special Learners Have students preview the title and headings on the pages. Display how to make a skeleton outline for the section. Write the lesson titles as major divisions and subheadings at the next level. Model how to fill in the main idea and details under each heading. After students have completed each lesson, review it as a class to make sure they have included all vocabulary definitions and key concepts. Supplemental Activities Students will create two slides using Pixie software. The first will be of an atom and the second of a molecule. Each slide will contain a summary paragraph and illustration. At the end of this unit the slides will be turned into a movie. Assessment Formal Evaluation Lesson Two Quiz - (from Scott Foresman and reproduced at the end of this lesson) Written Concluding Paragraph Pixie slides Informal Evaluation Artifacts created on the Extra tab Observation of how well students read with shoulder buddy Learner Products Pixie Slides Extra Artifacts

4 Vocabulary Cards Use with Chapter 1. physical property Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Chapter 1, Lesson 1 chemical property atom Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Chapter 1, Lesson 2 atomic number molecule Chapter 1, Lesson 2 Chapter 1, Lesson 2 compound solution Chapter 1, Lesson 3 Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Directions: Cut out the boxes to use as vocabulary cards. Science Study Notebook Vocabulary Cards 3

5 Vocabulary Cards Use with Chapter 1. any property of a material that can be seen or measured without changing the material one of more than 100 basic kinds of matter that cannot be broken into smaller pieces through physical or chemical processes the smallest particle of an with the same properties of the any property of a material that describes how it changes into other materials the smallest part of a substance made from more than one atom that still has the properties of that substance the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the single most important property of an a mixture in which substances are spread out evenly and will not settle a kind of matter made of a chemical combination of two or more s Directions: Cut out the boxes to use as vocabulary cards. 4 Vocabulary Cards Science Study Notebook

6 Lesson 2 Quiz Reviewing Terms: Matching Match each term with the correct definition. Write the letter on the line next to the term. b d c a e 1. molecule 2. electron 3. atom 4. atomic number 5. protons Reviewing Concepts: Sentence Completion Complete each sentence with the correct word or phrase. periodic atoms a. the number of protons in an atom s nucleus b. the smallest part of a substance made from more than one atom that still has all the properties of the substance c. the smallest particle of an that has the properties of the d. negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom e. particles in an atom s nucleus that are positively charged 6. Elements in the table are organized according to their chemical properties. (, periodic) 7. Two atoms that have the same number of protons must be the same. (, molecule) 8. Computer images of show they often appear in well-ordered arrays. (electrons, atoms) Applying Concepts 9. How do the properties of s in the same column of the periodic table compare? How do the properties of s in the same row of the periodic table compare? (2 points) Elements in the same column of the periodic table have similar properties. Elements in the same row of the periodic table can have vastly different properties. Use with pages Lesson 2 Quiz Assessment Book

7 Lesson 2 Quiz Reviewing Terms: Matching Match each term with the correct definition. Write the letter on the line next to the term. b d c a e 1. molecule 2. electron 3. atom 4. atomic number 5. protons Reviewing Concepts: Sentence Completion Complete each sentence with the correct word or phrase. periodic atoms a. the number of protons in an atom s nucleus b. the smallest part of a substance made from more than one atom that still has all the properties of the substance c. the smallest particle of an that has the properties of the d. negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom e. particles in an atom s nucleus that are positively charged 6. Elements in the table are organized according to their chemical properties. (, periodic) 7. Two atoms that have the same number of protons must be the same. (, molecule) 8. Computer images of show they often appear in well-ordered arrays. (electrons, atoms) Applying Concepts 9. How do the properties of s in the same column of the periodic table compare? How do the properties of s in the same row of the periodic table compare? (2 points) Elements in the same column of the periodic table have similar properties. Elements in the same row of the periodic table can have vastly different properties. Use with pages Lesson 2 Quiz Assessment Book

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