KWL CHART--ELECTRONS

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2 KWL CHART--ELECTRONS WHAT DO I ALREADY KNOW ABOUT ELECTRONS? WHAT DO I WANT TO KNOW CONCERNING ELECTRONS? WHAT HAVE I LEARNED TODAY ABOUT ELECTRONS?

3 GPS STANDARD SC3. Students will use the modern atomic theory to explain the characteristics of atoms. b. Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atom s chemical properties. f. Relate light emission and the movement of electrons to element identification

4 ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM In order of increasing energy: Radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light, uv, xrays, gamma, cosmic

5 Facts About Electrons 1.They can only move certain distances from the nucleus. 2.They can only move at certain speeds. 3. They give off (release) energy when moving to a lower level and gain energy (absorb) when moving to a higher level. 4.They cannot jump down to a level with a full octet of electrons.

6 The Bohr Model He said that electrons occupy definite energy levels around the nucleus. However, exact locations of electrons are not known because they are constantly moving due to the loss/gain of energy. Therefore, these locations are only highly likely places to find electrons at a certain time.

7 Photons They are bundles or packets of energy When an atom gains photons, it becomes excited and the electrons move to a higher energy level. When it loses photons, it gives off energy, and electrons move to lower level (ground state). Atoms become excited ( and gain photons) by heating them or passing electricity through them. When they lose these photons, the electrons give off color, depending on amount of energy given off (related to frequency and wavelength).

8 Wave Characteristics WAVELENGTH distance from crest to crest or trough to trough FREQUENCY # of waves passing a certain point per second ; is measured in Hertz (Hz) AMPLITUDE the height or depth of a wave SPEED is determined by wavelength & freq. All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light (300,000,000 m/sec)

9 Valence electrons Involved in chemical bonding & chemical reactions For an A group element, this is equal to the A group #

10 Lewis Dot Diagrams Show the outermost(valence) electrons for an atom Ex: Li N Be O B F C Ne (has an OCTET)

11 You try As He Kr Al Sr Br Ra Cs Pb

12 TICKET OUT Draw the electron dot symbols for: 1. Na 2. P 3. Ar 4. S 5. Mg 6. He

13 Activity Periodic Pyramid Color each row of your periodic pyramid the color listed below. Make sure to color starting at the Beginning of that row THROUGHOUT the End of that row. Row 1 = red (H all the way to the end) Row 2 = orange (Li through Ne) Row 3 = yellow (Na through Ar) Row 4 = green (K through Kr) Row 5 = blue (Rb through Xe) Row 6 = dark purple (Cs through Rn) Row 7 = light purple (Fr through #118) ***choose 4 DISTINCTLY different colors to color the s f, d, and p labels at the top of the pyramid

14 ***cut off all the black portion. Do not detach the base of the pyramid. Tape the sections together that say glue/tape. Create your pyramid!!

15 Electron Energy Levels & Sublevels Electrons are located within the atom outside the nucleus on energy levels. Within these energy levels are sublevels. Possible sublevels in order of increasing energy: s,p,d,f Elements are located within the s, p, d, and f blocks on the periodic table (this represents which sublevel these elements valence electrons are on) These sublevels are used to write an atom s electron configuration

16 Electron Configurations Rows 1-3 Show the electron arrangement within the electron cloud on certain energy levels and sublevels Ex: Hydrogen--1s 1 Helium--1s 2 Lithium 1s 2 2s 1 Beryllium 1s 2 2s 2 Boron 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Oxygen --1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Neon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 You try. (configurations & dots) Nitrogen Fluorine

17 Sodium Phosphorus You try.. (configurations & dots) Argon Sulfur Aluminum magnesium

18 In Educreations APP. Write the electron configuration AND draw the electron dot for: Cl Ca N Si

19 Electron Configurations (Rows 4-5) On these 2 rows, you encounter the d sublevel The d sublevel is always minus 1 from the row it s on For example, row 4 contains 3d and row 5 contains 4d The Lewis dot symbol will only contain the valence s and p electrons Ex: Calcium (Ca) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 Iron (Fe) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 Copper (Cu) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 9 Bromine (Br) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5

20 You try (configurations & dots) Rubidium (Rb) Silver (Ag) Tin (Sn) Antimony (Sb)

21 Electron Configurations (Rows 6 & 7) On these rows you first encounter the f sublevel. The f sublevel is always minus 2 from the row it s on. For example: row 6 contains 4f, and row 7 contains 5f The Lewis dot symbol will only contain the valence s and p electrons Ex: Europium (Eu) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 7 Tungsten (W) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 4

22 Radon (Rn) 1s 2 2s 2 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 Californium (Cf) 1s 2 2s 2 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 7s2 5f 10 You try.. (configurations & dots) Mercury (Hg) Curium (Cm) Rutherfordium (Rf)

23 Abbreviated Configurations Uses the previous noble gas written in brackets and the configuration that is only part of the row it is on This eliminates you from having to start all the way back at 1s Ex: Ca (Ar) 4s2 Ag ( Kr) 5s2 4d10

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