Chemistry Study Guide

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1 Chemistry Study Guide Marking Period 3 Exam Week of 3/21/17 Study Guide due - When studying for this test, use your do nows, notes, homework, class handouts, and your textbook. Vocabulary Chapter 7 Anion oxyanion Cation polyatomic ion Chemical bond alloy Crystal lattice delocalized electron Electrolyte electron sea model Ionic bond metallic bond Ionic compound Formula unit Monatomic ion Oxidation number Vocabulary Chapter 6 Actinide series Electronegativity Alkali metal Ion Alkaline earth metal Ionization Energy Group Octet Rule Halogen Atomic Radius Inner transition metal Ionic Radius Lanthanide series Shielding Effect Metal Metalloid Noble Gas Nonmetal Period Periodic Law Representative Element Transition Element Transition Metal Ion Formation - Chapter 7 Section 7.1 Pgs What is a chemical bond? Force that holds two atoms together; may form by the attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion or by sharing electrons. 2. Give the number of valence electrons in an atom of each element. a. cesium 1 b. rubidium 1 c. chlorine 7 d. neon 8 1

2 3. Use the chemical formula to identify whether the compound is ionic or covalent. a. CCl 4 Covalent (carbon = nonmetal; chlorine = nonmetal) b. BaCl 2 Ionic (barium = metal; chlorine = nonmetal) c. NaF Ionic (sodium = metal; fluorine = nonmetal) d. N 2 O 5 Covalent (nitrogen = nonmetal; oxygen = nonmetal) Complete questions #4-6 by choosing a term from the following list. Terms may be used more than once or may not be used at all ion octet anion cation 4. An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative electric charge because it has lost or gained electrons is a(n) ion.. 5. The sodium ion has 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 10 electrons. 6. In most chemical reactions, atoms tend to match the outer electron configuration of the noble gases. This is called the octet rule. Use the diagram to answer question #7. 7. Is this atom more likely to gain electrons or to lose electrons? Explain how you can tell. It is more likely to gain 2 electrons because it requires less energy to do so than losing 6 electrons to achieve the stable octet. 2

3 8. The electron configuration of zinc is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d. a. How many electrons are there in the outermost level? 2 b. Which electrons are lost when zinc forms a bond? 2 valence electrons c. What is the charge on zinc when it loses electrons in forming a bond?+2 9. Explain why noble gases are not likely to form chemical bonds. They have 8 valence electrons, therefore they already have a stable octet. 10. Ions of calcium, fluorine, magnesium, and iodine have electron configurations that are similar to which noble gases? Ion calcium fluorine Magnesium Iodine Noble Gas argon neon neon xenon Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds - Chapter 7 Section 7.2 Pgs Explain how an ionic compound made up of charged particles can be electrically neutral. The total positive charge of the cations in the compound equals the total negative charge of the anions in the compound. 12. Which of the following occurs in an ionic bond? a. Oppositely charged ions attract. b. Two atoms share two electrons. c. Two atoms share more than two electrons. d. Like-charged ions attract. 13. Which of the following is true about an ionic compound? a. It is a salt. b. It is held together by ionic bonds. c. It is composed of anions and cations. d. All of the above. 3

4 14. Ionic compounds are normally in which physical state at room temperature? a. Solid b. Liquid c. Gas d. plasma 15. Which of the following is true about the melting temperature of potassium chloride? a. The melting temperature is relatively high. b. The melting temperature is variable and unpredictable. c. The melting temperature is relatively low. d. Potassium chloride does not melt. 16. Why are ionic solids generally poor conductors of electricity? When are salts excellent conductors of electricity? In an ionic solid the ions are not free to move, therefore, they do not conduct electricity. However, if the ionic solid is melted or dissolved in water, the ions dissociate and are then able to move freely. Therefore, when ionic solids are melted or dissolved they are good conductors of electricity. 17. The specific way in which atoms are arranged in an ionic compound is called the a. Salt b. Lattice energy (should be Crystal Lattice. Sorry!) c. Cation d. Anion Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds - Chapter 7 Section 7.3 Pgs Write formulas for ionic compounds composed of the following ions: a. Sodium and fluorine NaF b. Magnesium and nitrogen Mg 3 N 2 c. Barium and phosphate Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 d. Aluminum and sulfate Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 4

5 19. Using oxidation numbers (charges), explain why the formula NaF 2 is incorrect. Sodium has a charge of +1, and fluorine has a charge of -1. Therefore, only one sodium ion and one chlorine ion combine to form a neutral compound. Therefore, the formula NaF 2 is incorrect. The correct formula should be NaF. 20. Name each of the following ionic compounds: a. K 2 0 potassium oxide b. CaCl 2 calcium chloride c. FeO iron (II) oxide d. NaClO sodium hypochlorite e. KNO 3 potassium nitrate f. CuCl 2 copper (II) chloride 21. Give the formula for each ionic compound: a. Calcium iodide CaI 2 b. Silver (I) bromide AgBr c. Copper (I) chloride CuCl d. Potassium periodate KIO 4 e. Silver (I) acetate AgC 2 H 3 O Lithium is a reactive metal that reacts with oxygen to form an oxide. a. How many valence electrons does lithium have? 1 b. How many electrons does lithium lose or gain to achieve a stable octet configuration? Loses 1 c. What is the formula of lithium oxide? Li 2 O 5

6 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals - Chapter 7 Section 7.4 Pgs How is a metallic bond different from an ionic bond? An ionic bond consists of positive ions attracted to negative ions; whereas, a metallic bond consists of fixed cations surrounded by a sea of electrons. 24. Which is true of the model of bonding shown in this figure? a. Metallic atoms are present in a sea of negatively charged atoms. b. Valence electrons are able to move easily among the metallic cations. c. It results in the substance being very brittle and not easily deformed. d. Heat and electricity are easily carried by the cations from one region to another. 25. List and explain the properties of metals. High melting & boiling points malleable and ductile Good conductors of heat & electricity Hard, dense, durable Shiny 26. What is an alloy? Mixture of elements that has metallic properties. 6

7 27. Briefly explain why steel, an alloy of iron, is used to build the supporting structure of many buildings. Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a small percentage of carbon, and other metals. Steel forms a strong metallic bond, giving solid iron hardness and strength. 28. Copper and zinc are used to form brass, an alloy. Briefly explain why these two metals form a substitutional alloy and not an interstitial alloy. Copper and zinc are about the same size and can replace each other, forming a substitutional alloy. 29. State the periodic law. The chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number. 30. List the properties of alkali metals. Have a shiny, metallic appearance Soft, can be cut with a knife Very reactive, usually found as compounds with other elements. 31. What are some properties of transition metals? good conductors of electricity and heat. ductile and malleable. high melting points and low vapor pressure. high density and resistance 32. What are metalloids and where can they be found on the periodic table? The metalloids can be found bordering the stair steps or the zigzag line 7

8 33. What is a valence electron and how many valence electrons does the group 2 element magnesium have? Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest principal energy level of an atom. Group 2 Mg has 2 valence electrons. 34. Lithium forms a 1+ ion. Write the electron configuration for a lithium ion. Why doesn t lithium form a 2+ ion? Lithium doesn t form a 2+ ion because Li+ has a noble gas electron configuration. It is very stable, it doesn t want to lose any more electrons. 35. Which of the following pairs of elements have similar properties? a. Lithium and helium b. Sodium and chlorine c. Oxygen and fluorine d. Sodium and potassium 36. Draw the orbital diagram, write the electron configuration, write the noble gas electron configuration, and draw the electron dot structure for chlorine. (Remember to follow the rules for drawing orbital diagrams and writing electron configuration) 37. Identify the block, period, and group number for the element with the following electron configuration: [Ne]3s 2 3p 3? p-block, period 3, group What are the trends for the following as you move left to right across the periodic table: Atomic radii, electronegativity, ionization energy? atomic radii decreases electronegativity increases ionization energy increases 39. What makes the noble gases chemically stable? The noble gases have an outer electron shell that is full and therefore they are very stable. They satisfy the octet rule (except for He). 8

9 40. Calculate the average atomic mass for silicon if 92.21% of its atoms have a mass of amu, 4.70% have a mass of amu, and 3.09% have a mass of amu. (Show all work, round to atomic mass to two decimal places, label final answer with the correct units!) 41. Calculate the average atomic mass for silicon if 92.21% of its atoms have a mass of amu, 4.70% have a mass of amu, and 3.09% have a mass of amu. (Show all work, round to atomic mass to two decimal places, label final answer with the correct units!) 42. Which is the most abundant isotope of potassium? Explain how you can tell. a. Potassium-39 b. Potassium-40 c. Potassium-41 The most abundant isotope of K is K-39. The average atomic mass of K is amu, which is mostly contributed by K List the symbols for sodium, sulfur, and cesium in order of increasing atomic radii. S < Na < Cs 44. In which of the following pairs is the second particle listed larger than the firs a. Pb, C b. Li, Li+ c. Br, Brd. K, Ga 45. Trends in the periodic table indicate that an element in which of the following periods and groups will have the smallest anion radius? a. Period 2, group1 b. Period 7, group 2 c. Period 4, group 16 d. Period 2, group 17 F 9

10 Use the diagram below to answer questions Figure Which of the elements shown in Figure 5-2 are in the same period? Be, C, N, F 47. Which element in Figure 5-2 is a transition metal? Which is a noble gas? Transition element: V Noble gas: He 48. Which elements in Figure 5-2 have the same number of valence electrons? How do you know? F & I have the same number of valence electrons because they are in the same group. 49. What is an anion? a cation? An anion is an atom that gains electrons and has a negative charge. A cation is an atom that loses electrons and has a positive charge. 50. Why do atoms gain or lose electrons? Atoms gain or lose electrons to fill its outer shell and become stable pseudo- noble gas 10

11 51. List the properties of ionic compounds (see pgs )? Ionic compounds are composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal. - exist as crystalline solids - conduct electricity when melted or dissolved - high melting & boiling points - hard, rigid, & brittle 52. In a crystal of an ionic compound, what is each cation surrounded by? An anion. 53. Copper and zinc are used to form brass, an alloy. Briefly explain why these two metals form a substitutional alloy and not an interstitial alloy. Copper and zinc are about the same size and can replace each other, forming a substitutional alloy. Formulas of Hydrates - Chapter 10 Section 10.5 Pgs Name the compound that has the formula SrCl 2 6H 2 O. strontium chloride hexahydrate 11

12 55. A hydrate contains 48.8% MgSO 4 and 51.2% H 2 O. What is the formula and name of this hydrate? (Show all work for credit!)

13 57. An g sample of a common hydrate of cobalt (II) chloride is heated. After heating, mol of anhydrous cobalt chloride remains. What is the formula and the name of this hydrate? (Show all work for credit!) 58. Generally, what happens to ionization energy as you move left to right on the periodic table? Generally increases as you move left to right across the periodic table. Generally decreases as you move down a group in the periodic table. 59. What happens to electrons when an ionic bond is formed? Electrons are transferred when an ionic bond is formed. For example, the formation of sodium chloride occurs when a sodium atom transfers its valence electron to a chlorine atom and becomes a positive ion. The chlorine atom accepts the electron into its outer energy level and becomes a negative ion. The oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming the compound sodium chloride. 13

14 60. In the compound CaCl 2, what does the subscript 2 mean? The subscripts indicates the number of atoms are present in the compound. 61. Calculate the percent composition of nitrogen in these common fertilizers: NH 3, NH 4 NO 3 (Show all work, round to the correct number of sig figs, label final answer with the correct units!) 14

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