Lesson Plan. 24. Describe the influence of intermolecular forces on the physical and chemical properties of covalent compounds (PS-H-C5).

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1 Lesson Plan GLE Physical Science 22. Predict the kind of bond that will form between two elements based on electronic structure and electronegativity of the elements (e.g., ionic, polar, nonpolar) (PS-H-C5). 24. Describe the influence of intermolecular forces on the physical and chemical properties of covalent compounds (PS-H-C5).

2 Essential Questions 1. How is the bonding in molecular compounds different from the bonding in ionic compounds? 2. What factors affect molecular properties?

3 Objectives 1. What information does a molecular formula provide? 2. What representative units define molecular compounds and ionic compounds?

4 Vocabulary u covalent bond u molecule u diatomic molecule u molecular compound u molecular formula

5 Do Now 1. How many valence electrons are transferred from the nitrogen atom to potassium in the formation of the compound potassium nitride? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d Alloys are important because a. their properties are superior to their component elements. b. they never corrode. c. they are less expensive to produce than their component elements. d. their properties are a blend of their component elements. 3. Which of the following particles are free to drift in metals? a. protons b. electrons c. neutrons d. cations 4. What is the basis of a metallic bond? a. the attraction of metal ions to mobile electrons b. the attraction between neutral metal atoms c. the neutralization of protons by electrons d. the attraction of oppositely charged ions

6 8.1: MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

7 Molecular Compounds 1 Unlike ionic compounds, molecular compounds do not transfer electrons. CO 2 H 2 0 F 2 N 2 O 2 Cl 2 N 2 O

8 Covalent Bond 2 A covalent bond hold atoms together and is formed by sharing of electrons between the atoms. [Na + ][Cl - ] Ionic Bonding e - e - [Na + ] e - e - Metallic Bonding O=O Covalent Bonding

9 Molecule 3 A molecule is a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds.

10 Diatomic Molecule 4 Diatomic molecule that contains two atoms of the same element. Example: O 2, H 2, N 2, Cl 2, etc.

11 Molecular Compound 5 A molecule that contains atoms of different elements is called a molecular compound. Example: H 2 O, CO 2, NO 2, etc.

12 Molecular Formula 5 A molecular formula shows how many atoms of each element a substance contains. Example: H 2 O contains 2 Hydrogen atoms and 1Oxygen atom atoms of different elements H 2 O

13 Molecular Representations C 6 H 12 O 6 Molecular Formula Glucose Molecule Space-filling molecular model Ball-and-stick molecular model Structural Formula Perspective drawings

14 Notes u A covalent bond hold atoms together and is formed by sharing of electrons between the atoms. u A molecule is a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds. u Diatomic molecule that contains two atoms of the same element. Example: O 2, H 2, N 2, Cl 2, etc. u A molecule that contains atoms of different elements is called a molecular compound. Ex: H 2 O, CO 2, NO 2, etc. u A molecular formula shows how many atoms of each element a substance contains. Ex: H 2 O contains 2H and 1O atoms

15 Molecular v Ionic Compounds Graphic Organizer Leave at least 4 lines for each feature Features Molecular Compounds Ionic Compounds 1. Composition 2. Representation 3. Physical State 4. Melting & Boiling Points

16 Molecular v Ionic Compounds 6 Molecular compounds are mostly composed of nonmetals. Ionic compounds are composed of a metal and a nonmetal.

17 Molecular v Ionic Compounds 7 Molecular compounds are represented by a molecular formula. Ionic compounds are represented by a formula unit. H 2 O CO 2 NaCl

18 Molecular v Ionic Compounds 8 Molecular compounds tend to be gases or liquids at room temperature. Ionic compounds tend to be solids. Molecular Compounds Carbon dioxide gas Nitrogen gas Chlorine gas Ionic Compounds Sodium chloride Copper sulfate Iron Oxide

19 Molecular v Ionic Compounds 9 Molecular compounds have lower MPs and BPs. Ionic compounds have higher MPs and BPs. MP = Melting point BP = Boiling point Sodium chloride Solid White

20 Quick Practice 1 1. Covalent compounds are formed between a. two metals. b. two metalloids. c. a metal and a nonmetal. d. two nonmetals. 2. Covalent compounds generally tend to have a. high boiling points but low melting points. b. low boiling points but high meting points. c. low boiling and melting points. d. high boiling and melting points.

21 Quick Practice 2 3. The substance CO 2 is a a. molecular compound. b. ionic compound. c. diatomic molecule. d. atomic compound. 4. The substance C 2 H 5 OH contains a. 1 atom of Carbon, 2 atoms of Hydrogen, and 5 atoms of Oxygen. b. 1 atom of Carbon, 5 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atoms of Oxygen. c. 2 atoms of Carbon, 6 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atom of Oxygen. d. 2 atoms of Carbon, 5 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atom of Oxygen.

22 Quick Practice 2 5. Which of these represents a particle diagram for molecular oxygen? a. b. c. d.

23 Exit Ticket 1. Covalent compounds are formed between a. two metals. b. two metalloids. c. a metal and a nonmetal. d. two nonmetals. 2. Covalent compounds generally tend to have a. high boiling points but low melting points. b. high boiling & melting points. c. low boiling points but high meting points. d. low boiling & melting points. 3. The substance CO 2 is a a. molecular compound. b. ionic compound. c. diatomic molecule. d. atomic compound. 4. The substance C 2 H 5 OH contains a. 1 atom of Carbon, 2 atoms of Hydrogen, and 5 atoms of Oxygen. b. 1 atom of Carbon, 5 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atoms of Oxygen. c. 2 atoms of Carbon, 6 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atom of Oxygen. d. 2 atoms of Carbon, 5 atoms of Hydrogen, and 1 atom of Oxygen. 5. Draw a particle diagram of molecular oxygen.

24 Particle Diagrams atoms of one element atoms of different elements molecules of an element molecules of different elements molecules of different compounds molecules of a compound

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